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  • All across the immense reaches of time and space, energy is being exchanged, transferred,

    在巨大的時空範圍內,所有的能量都在交換、轉移。

  • released, in a great cosmic pinball game we call our universe.

    發佈,在一個偉大的宇宙彈球遊戲中,我們稱之為我們的宇宙。

  • How does energy stitch the cosmos together, and how do we fit within it? We now climb

    能量是如何將宇宙縫合起來的,我們又是如何融入其中的呢?我們現在爬

  • the power scales of the universe, from atoms, nearly frozen to stillness, to Earth’s largest

    宇宙的力量尺度,從幾乎凝固到靜止的原子,到地球上最大的原子,都有可能是宇宙的力量尺度。

  • explosions.

    爆炸。

  • From stars, colliding, exploding, to distant realms so strange and violent they challenge

    從恆星,碰撞,爆炸,到遙遠的領域,如此奇怪和暴力的挑戰。

  • our imaginations.

    我們的想象力。

  • Where will we find the most powerful objects in the universe?

    我們將在哪裡找到宇宙中最強大的物體?

  • Today, energy is very much on our minds as we search for ways to power our civilization

    今天,能源是我們非常關注的問題,因為我們正在尋找為我們的文明提供動力的方法。

  • and serve the needs of our citizens.

    併為我國公民的需求服務。

  • But what is energy? Where does it come from? And where do we stand within the great power

    但什麼是能量?它從哪裡來?我們在這股巨大的力量中又處於什麼位置?

  • streams that shape time and space?

    塑造時間和空間的流?

  • Energy comes from a Greek word for activity or working. In physics, it’s simply the

    能量來自希臘語,表示活動或工作。在物理學中,它是簡單的

  • property or the state of anything in our universe that allows it to do work.

    屬性或我們宇宙中任何東西的狀態,讓它可以做工作。

  • Whether it’s thermal, kinetic, electro-magnetic, chemical, or gravitational.

    不管是熱能、動能、電磁、化學、還是引力。

  • The 19th century German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz found that all forms of energy

    19世紀德國科學家赫爾曼-馮-赫爾姆霍茲發現,所有形式的能量

  • are equivalent, that one form can be transformed into any other.

    是等價的,一種形式可以轉化為任何其他形式。

  • The laws of physics say that in a closed system - such as our universe - energy is conserved.

    物理定律說,在一個封閉的系統中--比如我們的宇宙--能量是守恆的。

  • It may be converted, concentrated, or dissipated, but it’s never lost.

    它可能會被轉化、濃縮或消散,但它永遠不會消失。

  • James Prescott Joule built an apparatus that demonstrated this principle. It had a weight

    詹姆斯-普雷斯科特-焦耳製造了一個證明這一原理的儀器。它有一個重量

  • that descended into water and caused a paddle to rotate. He showed that the gravitational

    下降到水中並使槳葉旋轉的。他表明,引力

  • energy lost by the weight is equivalent to heat gained by the water from friction with

    重物損失的能量相當於水與水摩擦產生的熱量

  • the paddle.

    槳。

  • That led to one of several basic energy yardsticks, called a joule. It’s the amount needed to

    這就導致了幾種基本能量尺度之一,稱為焦耳。這是一個需要量,以

  • lift an apple weighing 100 grams one meter against the pull of Earth’s gravity.

    在地球引力的作用下,將一個100克重的蘋果舉起一米。

  • In case you were wondering, it takes about one hundred joules to send a tweet, so tweeted

    如果你想知道,發一條微博大約需要一百焦耳,所以發了微博。

  • a tech from Twitter.

    一位來自Twitter的技術。

  • The metabolism of an average sized person, going about their day, generates about 100

    一個普通體型的人,每天的新陳代謝會產生大約100個月的時間。

  • joules a second, or 100 watts, the equivalent of a 100-watt light bulb.

    焦耳一秒,或100瓦,相當於一個100瓦的燈泡。

  • In vigorous exercise, the power output of the body goes up by a factor of ten, one order

    在劇烈的運動中,身體的動力輸出會上升十倍,一個階梯

  • of magnitude, to around a thousand joules per second, or a thousand watts.

    的數量級,達到每秒一千焦耳左右,或一千瓦特。

  • In a series of leaps, by additional factors of ten, we can explore the full energy spectrum

    在一系列的飛躍中,通過額外的十倍因子,我們可以探索完整的能量譜。

  • of the universe.

    宇宙的。

  • So far, the coldest place observed in nature is the Boomerang Nebula. Here, a dying star

    到目前為止,自然界中觀測到的最冷的地方是迴旋星雲。在這裡,一顆垂死的恆星

  • ejected its outer layers into space at 600,000 kilometers per hour.

    以每小時60萬公里的速度將其外層噴射到太空。

  • As the expanding clouds of gas became more diffuse, they cooled so dramatically that

    當膨脹的氣體雲變得更加擴散時,它們急劇冷卻,以至於

  • their molecules fell to just one degree above Absolute Zero, one degree above the total

    他們的分子降到了絕對零度以上,比總濃度高了一度

  • absence of heat.

    沒有熱量。

  • That’s around a billion trillionths of a joule, give or take.

    大約是十億分之一焦耳,給不給力。

  • That makes the signal sent by the Galileo spacecraft, as it flew around Jupiter, seem

    這使得伽利略號航天器在繞木星飛行時發出的信號似乎是:

  • positively hot. By the time it reached Earth, its radio signal was down to 10 billion billionths

    炙熱無比當它到達地球時,它的無線電信號已經下降到100億分之一了

  • of a watt.

    的瓦特。

  • Now jump all the way to 150 billionths of a watt.

    現在全部跳到1500億分之一瓦。

  • That’s the amount of power entering the human eye from a pair of 50-watt car headlamps

    這就是一對50瓦的汽車大燈進入人眼的功率。

  • a kilometer away.

    一公里外。

  • Moving up a full seven powers of ten, moonlight striking a human face adds up to three hundred

    移動了整整七次的十次方,月光打在人的臉上,加起來有三百次了

  • thousandths of a watt. That’s roughly equivalent to a cricket’s chirp.

    千分之一的瓦特。這大約相當於一隻蟋蟀的鳴叫聲。

  • From there, it’s a mere five powers of ten to the low wattage world of everyday human

    從那裡,到日常人類的低瓦數世界,不過是十的五次方。

  • technologies.

    技術。

  • Put ten 100-watt bulbs together. At 1000 joules per second, 1000 watts, that roughly equals

    把十個100瓦的燈泡放在一起。以每秒1000焦耳,1000瓦計算,大約等於:

  • the energy of sunlight striking a square meter of Earth’s surface at noon on a clear day.

    晴天中午太陽光照射一平方米地球表面的能量。

  • Gather 200 bulbs, 20,000 watts is the energy output of an automobile.

    收集200個燈泡,20000瓦是汽車的能量輸出。

  • A diesel locomotive: 5 million watts.

    一臺柴油機車:500萬瓦。

  • An advanced jet fighter: 75 million watts.

    一架先進的噴氣式戰鬥機:7500萬瓦。

  • An aircraft carrier, almost two hundred million watts.

    一艘航母,近兩億瓦。

  • The most powerful human technologies today function in the range of a billion to 10 billion

    當今人類最強大的科技功能在10億到100億之間。

  • watts, including large hydro-electric or nuclear power plants.

    瓦,包括大型水電站或核電站。

  • At the upper end of human technologies, was the awesome first stage of a Saturn V rocket.

    在人類技術的上端,是土星五號火箭第一級的厲害。

  • In five separate engines, it consumed 15 tons of fuel per second to generate 190 billion

    在五個獨立的發動機中,它每秒消耗15噸燃料,產生1900億個

  • watts of power.

    功率的瓦數。

  • How much power can humanity marshal? And how much do we need?

    人類能調動多少力量?我們又需要多少?

  • Long before the launch of the space age, visionaries began to imagine what it would take to advance

    早在太空時代來臨之前,遠見卓識的人就開始想象如何才能推動太空時代的發展。

  • into the community of galactic civilizations.

    融入銀河文明的共同體。

  • In the 1960s, the Soviet scientist, Nicolai Kardashev, speculated that a Level 1 civilization

    20世紀60年代,蘇聯科學家尼古拉-卡達舍夫推測,1級文明中的

  • would acquire the technology needed to harness all the power available on a planet like Earth.

    將獲得所需的技術,以利用像地球這樣的星球上的所有可用力量。

  • According to one calculation, we are .16% of the way there. This is based on British

    根據一項計算,我們還差0.16%的路程。這是以英國的

  • Petroleum’s estimate of total world oil consumption, some 11 billion tons in 2007.

    石油公司對世界石油消費總量的估計,2007年約110億噸。

  • Humans today generate about two and a half trillion watts of electrical power. How does

    人類今天產生的電能大約有兩萬五千億瓦。如何

  • that stack up to the power generated by planet Earth?

    堪比地球產生的能量?

  • Deep inside our planet, the radioactive decay of elements such as uranium and thorium generates

    在我們星球的深處,鈾和釷等元素的放射性衰變產生了:

  • 44 trillion watts of power.

    44萬億瓦的功率。

  • As this heat rises to the surface, it drives the movement of Earth’s crustal plates and

    當這些熱量上升到地表時,它推動了地球地殼板塊的運動,並使之成為地球上的一個重要組成部分。

  • powers volcanoes.

    權力火山。

  • Remarkably, that’s just a fraction of the energy released by a large hurricane in the

    值得注意的是,這只是一個大型颶風所釋放的能量的一小部分。

  • form of rain. At the storm’s peak, it can rise to 600 trillion watts.

    雨的形式。在風暴的高峰期,它可以上升到600萬億瓦。

  • A hurricane draws upon solar heat collected in tropical oceans in the summer.

    颶風在夏季利用熱帶海洋中收集的太陽熱量。

  • You have to jump another power of ten to reach the estimated total heat flowing through Earth’s

    你必須再跳一個十倍的功率,以達到估計的總熱量流經地球的。

  • atmosphere and oceans from the equator to the poles

    從赤道到兩極的大氣和海洋... ...

  • And another two to get the power received by the Earth from the sun at 174 quadrillion

    而另外兩個則是為了讓地球從太陽接收到的能量達到174萬億次。

  • watts.

    瓦特。

  • Believe it or not, there’s one human technology that has exceeded this level.

    不管你信不信,有一項人類科技已經超過了這個水準。

  • The AN602 hydrogen bomb was detonated by the Soviet Union on October 30, 1961.

    1961年10月30日,蘇聯引爆了AN602氫彈。

  • It unleashed some 1400 times the combined power of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombs.

    它釋放的威力是長崎和廣島原子彈威力總和的1400倍。

  • With a blast yield of up to 57,000,000 tons of TNT, it generated 5.3 trillion trillion

    爆炸產量高達57,000,000噸TNT,產生5.

  • watts, if only for a tiny fraction of a second.

    瓦,哪怕只是一秒鐘的一小部分。

  • That’s 5.3 Yotta-watts, a term that will come in handy as we now begin to ascend the

    這是5.3 Yotta-watts,一個術語,將在我們現在開始上升的時候派上用場。

  • power scales of the universe.

    宇宙的力量尺度。

  • To Nikolai Kardashev, a Level 2 civilization would achieve a constant energy output 80

    在尼古拉-卡達舍夫看來,2級文明將實現恆定的能量輸出80

  • times higher than the Russian superbomb.

    比俄羅斯超級炸彈高一倍。

  • That’s equivalent to the total luminosity of our sun, a medium-sized star that emits

    這相當於我們太陽的總光度,一顆中等大小的恆星,它發出的是

  • 375 yotta-watts.

    375約塔瓦特。

  • However, in the grand scheme of things, our sun is but a cold spark in a hot universe.

    然而,從大的方面來說,我們的太陽只是炎熱宇宙中的一個冷火花。

  • Look up into Southern skies and youll see the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy

    抬頭看看南方的天空,你會看到大麥哲倫雲,一個衛星星系。

  • of our Milky Way. Deep within is the brightest star yet discovered.

    我們的銀河系深藏在裡面的是迄今發現的最亮的恆星。

  • R136a1 is 10 million times brighter than the sun.

    R136a1的亮度是太陽的1000萬倍。

  • Now if that star happened to go supernova, at its peak, it would blast out photons with

    如果那顆恆星碰巧成為超新星,在它的巔峰時期,它就會以光子的速度噴射出來。

  • a luminosity of around 500 billion yottawatts.

    亮度約為5000億yottawatts。

  • To advance to a level three civilization, you have to marshal the power of an entire

    要晉級到三級文明,你必須集合整個國家的力量

  • galaxy.

    銀河系。

  • The Milky Way, with about two hundred billion stars, has an estimated total luminosity of

    銀河系擁有約兩千億顆恆星,總光度估計為1.5億。

  • 3 trillion yotta-watts, a three followed by 36 zeros.

    3萬億約塔瓦特,一個3後面是36個0。

  • The author Isaac Asimov imagined a galaxy-scale civilization in his Foundation series.

    作家艾薩克-阿西莫夫在他的《基金會》系列中想象了一個星系級的文明。

  • Galaxia, he called it, is a super-organism that surpasses time and space to draw upon

    他稱,Galaxia是一個超越時間和空間的超級組織,可以藉助於

  • all the matter and energy in a galaxy.

    銀河系中所有的物質和能量。

  • But who’s to say that’s the upper limit for civilizations?

    但誰又能說這是文明的上限呢?

  • To boldly go beyond Level 3, a civilization would need to marshal the power of a quasar.

    要想大膽地超越3級,一個文明就需要調集類星體的力量。

  • A quasar is about a thousand times brighter than our galaxy.

    類星體比我們的銀河系要亮一千倍左右。

  • Here is where cosmic power production enters a whole new realm, based on the physics of

    在這裡,宇宙力量的產生進入了一個全新的領域,基於物理學上的。

  • extreme gravity.

    極端重力。

  • It was Isaac Newton who first defined gravity, as the force that pulls the apple down and

    是牛頓首先給萬有引力下了定義,它是把蘋果拉下來的力量,也是把蘋果拉下來的力量。

  • holds the earth in orbit around the sun.

    使地球圍繞太陽的軌道運行。

  • Albert Einstein re-defined it in his famous General Theory of Relativity.

    愛因斯坦在他著名的廣義相對論中重新定義了它。

  • Gravity isn’t simply the attraction of objects like stars and planets, he said, but a distortion

    他說,引力並不是簡單的恆星和行星等物體的吸引力,而是一種變形

  • of space and time, what he called space-time.

    的空間和時間,他稱之為時空。

  • If space-time is like a fabric, he said, gravity is the warping of this fabric by a massive

    他說,如果說時空就像一塊布料,那麼引力就是這塊布料被一個巨大的變形

  • object like a star.

    像星星一樣的物體。

  • A planet orbits a star when it’s caught in this warped space like a ball spinning

    當一顆行星繞著一顆恆星運行時,它就像一個球一樣被捲入這個扭曲的空間中,就像一個旋轉的球一樣

  • around a roulette wheel.

    圍繞著輪盤賭。

  • Some scientists began to wonder: if matter became dense enough, could it warp space to

    一些科學家開始思考:如果物質變得足夠緻密,它是否可以扭曲空間到

  • such an extreme that nothing could escape its gravity, not even light?

    極端到任何東西都無法逃脫它的引力,甚至連光都無法逃脫?

  • With so much power being emitted from such a small area, scientists suspected that quasars

    在如此小的範圍內釋放出如此大的能量,科學家們懷疑類星體

  • were actually being powered by black holes.

    實際上是由黑洞提供動力。

  • How a totally dark object can do this has been narrowed by decades of observations and

    一個完全黑暗的天體是如何做到這一點的,經過幾十年的觀察和,已經縮小了範圍。

  • theory.

    理論。

  • If a black hole spins, it can turn into a violent, cosmic tornado.

    如果黑洞旋轉,就會變成猛烈的宇宙龍捲風。

  • Gas and stars begin to flow in along a rapidly rotating disk. The spinning motion of this

    氣體和恆星開始沿著一個快速旋轉的圓盤流入。這個旋轉的運動

  • so-calledaccretion diskgenerates magnetic fields that twist up and around.

    所謂的 "吸積盤 "產生的磁場,扭曲起來,繞。

  • These fields can channel some of the inflowing matter out into a pair of high-energy beams,

    這些場可以將一些流入的物質引導出來,形成一對高能束。

  • or jets.

    或噴射器。

  • Gas and dust nearby catch the brunt of this energy, growing hot and bright enough to be

    附近的氣體和塵埃首當其衝地捕捉到了這些能量,變得越來越熱,越來越亮,以至於被

  • seen billions of light years away.

    在數十億光年外看到。

  • Amazingly, the power of a black hole can rise to even greater extremes at the moment of

    令人驚奇的是,黑洞的威力可以上升到更大的極致,在黑洞的

  • its birth.

    它的誕生。

  • As a giant star ages, heavy elements like iron gradually build up in its core.

    隨著一顆巨恆星的衰老,鐵等重元素會逐漸在其核心堆積。

  • As its gravity grows more intense, the star begins to shrink, until it reaches a critical

    隨著引力越來越大,恆星開始縮小,直到達到一個臨界點,才開始縮小。

  • threshold.

    閾值。

  • Its core literally collapses in on itself.

    它的核心實際上是在自己身上崩潰。

  • That causes the star to explode in a supernova. And now, in death, the star can unleash gravity’s

    這將導致恆星在超新星中爆炸 That causes the star to explode in a supernova.現在,在死亡時,恆星可以釋放出引力的作用。

  • true fury.

    真正的憤怒。

  • In the violence of the star’s death, gravity can cause its massive core to collapse to

    在恆星死亡的暴力過程中,引力會使其巨大的核心坍塌到

  • a point, forming a black hole.

    一個點,形成一個黑洞。

  • In some rare cases, the new-born monster powers a jet that accelerates to within a tiny fraction

    在一些罕見的情況下,新出生的怪物動力噴氣,加速到極小的部分內

  • of the speed of light.

    的光速。

  • For a few minutes, these so-calledgamma ray burstsare known to be the brightest

    幾分鐘,這些所謂的 "伽馬射線暴 "被稱為是最亮的。

  • events since the big bang

    大爆炸以來的事件...

  • Three orders of magnitude above a quasar, at a billion billion yotta-watts, a ten with

    比類星體高三個數量級,在億億塔瓦特,一個十與。

  • 42 zeros.

    42個零。

  • Remarkably, they are still not the most powerful events known.

    值得注意的是,它們仍然不是已知最強大的事件。

  • Albert Einstein‘s equations contained an astonishing prediction: that when massive

    阿爾伯特-愛因斯坦的方程中包含了一個驚人的預言:當巨大的。

  • bodies accelerate or whip around each other, they can stir up the normally smooth fabric

    身體加速或相互纏繞,它們會攪亂通常光滑的結構,使其變得更加複雜。

  • of space-time.

    的時空。

  • They produce a series of waves that move outward like ripples on a pond.

    它們會產生一系列的波浪,像池塘上的漣漪一樣向外移動。

  • Scientists are now hoping to detect these gravitational waves, and verify Einstein’s

    科學家們現在希望能探測到這些引力波,並驗證愛因斯坦的。

  • predictionusing precision lasers and some of the most perfect large-scale vacuums ever

    預測... 使用精確的脈衝光和一些有史以來最完美的大型吸塵器。

  • created.

    創建。

  • At the Laser Interferometry Gravitational Wave Observatory, known as LIGO, they are

    在被稱為LIGO的脈衝光干涉測量引力波天文臺,他們是

  • hoping to record

    希望記錄...

  • The collision of ultra-dense remnants of dead stars known as neutron stars and of black

    被稱為中子星的超密集的死星殘餘物和黑子星的碰撞。

  • holes.

    洞。

  • According to computer simulations, as two black holes spiral into a fateful embrace,

    根據計算機模擬,隨著兩個黑洞螺旋式地進入命運的懷抱。

  • the energy carried by each gravity wave rises five orders of magnitude above a gamma ray

    每一個引力波所攜帶的能量都比伽馬射線高出五個數量級。

  • burst, to a hundred billion trillion times the power of our sun.

    爆發,達到我們太陽的千億萬億倍的力量。

  • Does the collision of black holes define the known power limits of our universe?

    黑洞的碰撞是否定義了我們宇宙的已知功率極限?

  • Perhaps not.

    也許不是。

  • As turbulent as the environment of a black hole might be, its true power may well lie

    儘管黑洞的環境可能很動盪,但它真正的力量很可能就在於

  • deep in its core.

    深入其核心。

  • A black hole’s mass is enshrouded within a dark sphere called the event horizon.

    黑洞的品質被籠罩在一個稱為事件地平線的黑暗球體中。

  • Since the 1920s, scientists have described the mathematics of the event horizon as the

    自20世紀20年代以來,科學家們將事件地平線的數學描述為。

  • equivalent of a waterfall. It’s the point of no return, beyond which water falls freely

    相當於瀑布。這是一個不歸點,過了這個點,水就會自由地流下來。

  • into the gorge.

    入峽谷。

  • At the event horizon of a black hole, space itself falls freely in at the speed of light.

    在黑洞的事件地平線上,空間本身以光速自由落入。

  • If the black hole is spinning, then the flow spirals down and around an inner horizon that

    如果黑洞在旋轉,那麼氣流就會螺旋式下降,並圍繞著一個內層地平線,這個內層地平線就是黑洞。

  • envelops the singularity. That’s the central region where space-time becomes infinitely

    包裹著奇點。那是時空變得無限大的中心區域。

  • warped.

    扭曲的。

  • Any matter that rides this river of space whips around the inner horizon so fast that

    任何物質都會乘著這條空間之河在地平線上飛快地旋轉,以至於...

  • centrifugal force tends to fling it back out.

    離心力往往會把它甩回來。

  • As that happens, it collides with matter that’s streaming in, whipping up a ferocious cosmic

    當這種情況發生時,它與流進來的物質相撞,掀起了一場凶猛的宇宙風雲。

  • storm.

    風暴。

  • The energy of the colliding streams feeds upon itself, rising to what may well be a

    碰撞流的能量自給自足,上升到很可能是一個......。

  • limit imposed by nature. It dissipates only as it falls into the singularity and disappears.

    自然界所施加的限制。它只有在落入奇點而消失時才會消散。

  • Fortunately, for us, gravity walls off such energy extremes behind the event horizon,

    幸運的是,對我們來說,引力將這種極端的能量阻隔在事件地平線之後。

  • where they cannot affect the rest of the universe.

    在那裡他們不能影響宇宙的其他部分。

  • And so here we sit. Our world is nestled within a vast stream of cosmic energy, somewhere

    所以我們坐在這裡。我們的世界依偎在巨大的宇宙能量流中,在某個地方...

  • between the spin of an electron and the maelstrom of a black hole.

    電子的自旋和黑洞的漩渦之間。

  • There’s no telling whether a future Earth civilization will be able harness enough energy

    不知道未來的地球文明是否能夠利用足夠的能源。

  • to advance into the cosmos.

    以進階到宇宙中。

  • For now, as we tap into the tiny morsels of power at our disposal, we venture a closer

    現在,當我們利用我們所掌握的微小的力量時,我們大膽地走近了

  • look at a universe blazing with activity.

    看看一個宇宙的活動熾熱。

  • We are its product and its star struck admirer.

    我們是它的產品,也是它的明星崇拜者。

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All across the immense reaches of time and space, energy is being exchanged, transferred,

在巨大的時空範圍內,所有的能量都在交換、轉移。

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B2 中高級 中文 黑洞 能量 宇宙 恆星 引力 焦耳

宇宙最強大的力量 The Most Powerful Objects in the Universe

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 04 月 06 日
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