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  • this video was made possible by curiosity.

    這段視頻是由好奇心促成的。

  • Stream Watch unlimited documentaries for free for a month at curiosity, stream dot com slash real life floor.

    在好奇心,流點網斜線真人樓免費觀看一個月的無限紀錄片。

  • Historically, Persia has wielded massive international influence and prestige.

    歷史上,波斯擁有巨大的國際影響力和威望。

  • But there's always been one problem that severely limits any civilization in Iran, including the modern Iran.

    但一直以來,有一個問題嚴重限制了伊朗的任何文明,包括現代伊朗。

  • Iran's geographic spawn point is Nerf, and here's why take a look at this topographic map of the country.

    伊朗的地理產卵點是納夫,下面就來看看這個國家的地形圖吧。

  • To the west are the Zagros Mountains, a large chain that makes up a significant portion of the border with Iraq into the north or the Albores Mountains.

    西面是扎格羅斯山脈,這條大山脈構成了與伊拉克交界的北部或阿爾博雷斯山脈的重要部分。

  • Together, the Zagros and Albores largely protect the Iranian Heartland, located atop high plains inside in modern times.

    扎格羅斯人和阿爾博爾人共同保護著伊朗心臟地帶,位於現代內部的高平原之上。

  • Of the eight largest Iranian cities, with over one million inhabitants on Lee, one of them, a vase, is located outside of this Heartland between the mountains here on the plains that connect to Iraq, Iran's various mountains, separate people and languages, which has caused numerous ethnic and linguistic groups to develop inside of the area.

    伊朗的八大城市中,有一百多萬的居民在利,其中有一個花瓶,就在這個心臟地帶的外面,這裡的平原上的山脈之間,連接著伊拉克,伊朗的各個山脈,分開了人和語言,這就造成了這個地區裡面發展了眾多的民族和語言群體。

  • Transportation between areas of Iran by ground has always been difficult, meaning that whatever regime rules must rules strongly and often harshly in order to keep the disconnected in diverse areas across the mountains united the major cities of Persia have always been located across these various valleys and high plains in between the numerous mountains, which serves as a kind of double edged sword.

    伊朗各地區之間的陸路交通一直都很困難,這意味著無論哪個政權的規則都必須強硬地規則,而且往往是嚴厲地規則,以保持不同地區的脫節,隔著山脈統一波斯的主要城市一直都位於這些不同的山谷和高平原,在眾多的山脈之間,這就像一把雙刃劍。

  • On the one hand, the mountain ranges make any invasion of Iran a difficult operation.

    一方面,山脈使得任何入侵伊朗的行動都很困難。

  • The Zagros can be used as an easily defensible high ground position against on invading army from the west, while the Albores conserve as a barrier to invasion from the north.

    扎格羅斯可以作為易守難攻的高地,抵禦來自西面的入侵軍隊,而阿爾博雷斯則作為抵禦北面入侵的屏障。

  • And even if an enemy overcomes those, they'd still have to fight across the mountains and valleys of the Heartland and take each city one by one.

    而且就算敵人克服了這些,他們也要翻山越嶺,越過心地的山谷,逐一攻下每一座城市。

  • However, the mountains can also serve toe box, an Iranian empire inside, and limit their ability to project power beyond them, Geography always plays a major role in warfare.

    然而,山脈也可以起到趾盒、伊朗帝國內部的作用,並限制他們將力量投射到山脈之外的能力,地理總是在戰爭中發揮重要作用。

  • In the 1980 Iraq launched an all out invasion into Iran, with the goal of annexing the oil rich western province of Khuzestan and hopefully overthrowing the Iranian regime and halting the Iranian revolutions influence from spreading any further west.

    1980年,伊拉克全面入侵伊朗,目的是吞併西部石油資源豐富的胡齊斯坦省,希望推翻伊朗政權,阻止伊朗革命的影響進一步向西蔓延。

  • Let's go back to a topographic map of what the Iran Iraq border looks like in the first couple years of the war, Iraq made limited progress and occupying Kurdistan here, largely because it's just a extension of the illusion plane in Iraq itself and is an easy, flat surface for mobilized units and troops to travel across.

    我們再來看看兩伊邊境的地形圖,在戰爭的前幾年,伊拉克在這裡取得的進展有限,佔領庫爾德斯坦,主要是因為這裡只是伊拉克本身幻象平面的延伸,對於調動的部隊和軍隊來說,是一個容易穿越的平面。

  • Kyrgyzstan is the only province of Iran that's located primarily west of the Zagros.

    吉爾吉斯斯坦是伊朗唯一一個主要位於扎格羅斯以西的省份。

  • But Iraq made only small progress, invading further up north into the Zagros because of the difficulty in attacking the Iranian high ground positions.

    但伊拉克只取得了很小的進展,由於難以攻克伊朗的高地陣地,伊拉克又向北入侵扎格羅斯。

  • In this way, the Zagros protected Iran against attacks along her entire border.

    這樣一來,扎格羅人就保護了伊朗的整個邊境不受攻擊。

  • Iraq's invasion was stunted, and after two years the Iranians comply.

    伊拉克入侵受阻,兩年後,伊朗人遵守。

  • Clete Lee pushed them out and began their own counter invasion of Iraq.

    克利特-李把他們趕了出去,開始了自己對伊拉克的反侵略。

  • But this was just a difficult for the Iranians.

    但這對伊朗人來說只是一個難題。

  • The front line across the border territory was significantly closer to the major Iraqi population centers and military depots in Baghdad and Basra, and they could resupply their front largely across easy and flat terrain.

    越過邊境地區的前線離巴格達和巴士拉的伊拉克主要人口中心和軍事倉庫明顯更近,他們可以在輕鬆平坦的地形上對前線進行補給。

  • The Iranians, on the other hand, had to supply their front far away from their major population, centers and depots and from across the other side of the Zagros as well.

    而伊朗人則必須在遠離其主要人口、中心和倉庫的前線進行補給,也要從扎格羅斯的另一邊進行補給。

  • Iranian troops and supplies therefore had to make a difficult journey across the mountains in order to reach the front line and in combination with a large international trade embargo.

    是以,伊朗的軍隊和物資必須經過艱難的跋涉,翻山越嶺才能到達前線,再加上大量的國際貿易禁運。

  • The Iranian military suffered from supply shortages throughout the war, which was a problem that the Iraqi military simply didn't have to deal with.

    伊朗軍方在整個戰爭期間都存在補給不足的問題,這也是伊拉克軍方根本不需要處理的問題。

  • It's part of the reason why Iraq, with a population on Lee a quarter the size of Iran, was capable of holding them off in a stalemate for six entire years before a white piece was finally signed.

    這也是為什麼伊拉克在李上的人口只有伊朗的四分之一,卻能在僵持了整整六年後才最終簽下白棋的原因之一。

  • That changed no borders and gave no reparations after half a million dead.

    在死了五十萬人之後,沒有改變任何邊界,也沒有給予任何賠償。

  • Historically and in our present time Persia Slash Iran has always sought to expand her influence to the West, and geography largely dictates this.

    歷史上和我們現在的波斯斯拉什伊朗一直都在尋求將自己的影響力擴大到西方,而地理環境在很大程度上決定了這一點。

  • Despite the difficulty in crossing the Zagros Mountains, westward expansion is still just easier for a Persian regime than any other direction.

    儘管越過扎格羅斯山脈困難重重,但對於波斯政權來說,向西擴張仍然只是比其他方向更容易。

  • To the east is Afghanistan, a region even more mountainous and difficult to control that Iran is.

    東邊是阿富汗,這個地區比伊朗更多山,更難控制。

  • While there's also Pakistan, a country with over 2.5 times their population in a nuclear weapons armed state to boot.

    雖然還有巴基斯坦,一個人口是他們2.5倍以上的國家,還是一個核武器武裝國家。

  • To the north is Central Asia, a region of the world dominated by open steppes and deserts, where farming is largely impossible that historically was dominated by nomadic tribal peoples instead of settled civilizations, conquering and holding the area for long from the step towards was essentially impossible, or just not worth it for any civilization until the advent of gunpowder and modern armies.

    北面是中亞,這個世界上以開闊的草原和沙漠為主的地區,農耕基本上是不可能的,歷史上以遊牧部落民族為主,而不是定居文明,征服並長期保持這個地區,從步向基本上是不可能的,或者說對任何文明來說都是不值得的,直到火藥和現代軍隊的出現。

  • And today the entire area is still largely under the influence of Russia, so no realistic expansion in that direction, either.

    而如今整個地區基本上還是在俄羅斯的影響下,所以也沒有現實的向這個方向擴張。

  • That essentially leaves the West, and in times of regional weakness or instability, Persia has always exploited this geographic opportunity.

    這基本上就剩下西方了,在地區疲軟或不穩定的時候,波斯總是利用這個地理機會。

  • Look at the imperial borders of the ancient acumen it empire, the sustain Ian Empire, the Safavid Empire and the AF shard empire, and you'll begin to recognize the same patterns.

    看看古敏它帝國、維持伊恩帝國、薩法維帝國和AF碎片帝國的帝國邊界,你會開始認識到同樣的模式。

  • While Persia has occasionally expanded to the east, the north and the south, those directions have never been a great as their westward expansion has.

    雖然波斯偶爾也會向東、北、南三面擴張,但這些方向從來沒有像他們向西擴張那樣大。

  • And that's because once the Persian armies have crossed over the Zagros and if there's no other civilizations strong enough to immediately stop them in Iraq, there's not much in their way geographically from there all the way to Egypt.

    而這是因為波斯軍隊一旦越過扎格羅斯,如果在伊拉克沒有其他足夠強大的文明可以立即阻擋他們,那麼從那裡一直到埃及,他們在地理上的阻礙就不多了。

  • But Persia doesn't necessarily seek out conquest and expansion, just in order to dominate Persia has been invaded and attacked and conquered multiple times during her history from every direction, partially as a consequence of being at the crossroads of the world between Europe, Africa and Asia.

    但波斯不一定要尋求征服和擴張,只是為了稱霸波斯在歷史上曾多次受到來自四面八方的入侵和攻擊征服,部分原因是處於歐洲、非洲和亞洲之間的世界十字路口。

  • Greeks, Arabs, Mongols and Turks have all taken their turns for invasions across history, and this is letter run to seek out a policy of expanding her territory in order to protect her core area.

    希臘人、阿拉伯人、蒙古人、突厥人在歷史上都曾輪番入侵,這是信跑為了保護自己的核心區域,尋求擴大領土的政策。

  • This partially explains why today Iran still seeks influence in countries like Syria, Lebanon, in Iraq to the west of her borders.

    這就部分解釋了為什麼今天伊朗仍在其邊界以西的敘利亞、黎巴嫩、伊拉克等國尋求影響力。

  • However, it's not all bad.

    不過,也不全是壞事。

  • One way that Iran received a buff to her geography stats came in the 20th century.

    伊朗在地理統計上獲得buff的方式之一是在20世紀。

  • With the discovery of massive oil fields, 10% of all the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas reserves are located right here in the southwestern corner of the country, which has given tremendous wealth to the states.

    隨著大規模油田的發現,世界上已探明的石油儲量的10%和天然氣儲量的15%就在我國的西南角,這給各州帶來了巨大的財富。

  • Well, this could be easily seen as a geographic blessing.

    好吧,這很容易被看成是地理上的福氣。

  • It's also sort of a double edged sword.

    這也算是一把雙刃劍。

  • The Iranian economy these days is heavily reliant on oil and gas.

    現在的伊朗經濟嚴重依賴石油和天然氣。

  • In 2012, for example, roughly 80% of Iran's public revenue was made up exclusively of oil exports.

    以2012年為例,伊朗大約80%的公共收入完全由石油出口構成。

  • This essentially means that today, the most critically valuable territory that Iran possesses is Kirgizstan, where the majority of this oil and gas is extracted from because Houston is also the most critically vulnerable region of Iran.

    這實質上意味著,如今伊朗擁有的最關鍵價值的領土是吉爾吉斯斯坦,這些石油和天然氣大部分都是從那裡開採出來的,因為休斯頓也是伊朗最關鍵的脆弱地區。

  • Geographically, as mentioned previously, Kyrgyzstan and the oil fields are located almost entirely west of the protection of the Zagros Mountains on a plane connecting to Iraq, meaning that it is certainly the easiest Iranian province to occupy in the event of a war.

    從地理上看,如前所述,吉爾吉斯斯坦和油田幾乎全部位於連接伊拉克的平面上的扎格羅斯山脈保護範圍以西,這意味著一旦發生戰爭,吉爾吉斯斯坦無疑是伊朗最容易佔領的省份。

  • But there's more than just that.

    但不止於此。

  • Perhaps the biggest weakness in all of Iran's geography is located just to the south here, the Strait of Hormuz.

    也許伊朗地理上最大的弱點就在這裡的南邊,霍爾木茲海峽。

  • Persian empires have always spend strong land powers but have never really been strong naval powers.

    波斯帝國一直以來都是花費強大的陸上力量,但從未真正成為強大的海上力量。

  • And this is largely the reason why most of Iran's coastline is located here in the Persian Gulf, including the entire coast of coup Gaston, where most of Iran's oil and gas is extracted.

    而這也是伊朗大部分海岸線位於波斯灣這裡的主要原因,包括整個加斯頓海岸,伊朗的大部分石油和天然氣都是在這裡開採的。

  • The only way for warships or commercial ships to get out of the Persian Gulf is through this narrow chokepoint that's only 21 miles wide at its narrowest point.

    軍艦或商船要想離開波斯灣,唯一的辦法就是通過這個最窄處只有21英里寬的狹窄卡口。

  • Some countries, like the United Kingdom, have historically been difficult to blockade because an enemy navy would have to surround the entire island with ships to prevent any resource is from leaking through.

    有些國家,比如英國,歷史上很難封鎖,因為敵方海軍必須用艦艇包圍整個島嶼,以防止任何資源被洩露出去。

  • But all in enemy has to do to blockade.

    但所有在敵人要做的封鎖。

  • The majority of Iran is to block that 21 mile wide opening, and nothing could get in or out across the ocean.

    伊朗大部分是為了堵住那個21英里寬的開口,什麼東西都不能越洋進出。

  • And it's even worse than that.

    而且比這更糟糕。

  • Today, one third of the entire global supply of liquefied natural gas and 25% of the global supply of oil passes through this 21 mile wide straits.

    如今,全球三分之一的液化天然氣供應和25%的石油供應都通過這個21英里寬的海峽。

  • In theory, since Iran controls the entire northern coastline, they could blockade or mind the straight themselves and cut the entire world off from massive amounts of critical resource is such an action would be catastrophic upon the global economy and likely trigger an immediate response.

    理論上,由於伊朗控制了整個北部海岸線,他們可以封鎖或介意自己的直線,並切斷整個世界與大量的關鍵資源是這樣的行動將是災難性的全球經濟,很可能會觸發一個立即反應。

  • The Strait of Hormuz is therefore the most important feature of Iran's geographic limitations.

    是以,霍爾木茲海峽是伊朗地理侷限的最重要特徵。

  • If Iran were to ever lose control of this 21 mile stretch of area, all would be lost.

    如果伊朗失去對這21英里地區的控制,一切都將失去。

  • Of course, humans can do a lot to make a bad geographic starting point a little better.

    當然,人類可以做很多事情,讓一個不好的地理起點變得更好一些。

  • You can spend your peasants tax dollars on things like forts or castles and weak or strategic areas to buff them up.

    你可以把農民的稅金花在堡壘或城堡等東西上,弱點或戰略區域也可以用它來緩衝。

  • So if you want to see what it actually takes to build a castle, you should watch how to build a castle.

    所以,如果你想知道建造一座城堡到底需要什麼,你應該看如何建造一座城堡。

  • Next on Curiosity Stream.

    接下來在好奇流。

  • Ah, glorious hour long documentary explaining how civilizations in the Middle Ages constructed castles and defensive positions before the advent of modern construction technology.

    啊,光榮的一個小時的紀錄片,解釋了在現代建築技術出現之前,中世紀的文明如何建造城堡和防禦陣地。

  • This is just one of thousands of titles that you can watch on your desktop.

    這只是您可以在桌面上觀看的數千個標題之一。

  • Smart TV, IOS, Android, Apple TV, Roku Chromecast and Mawr platforms through curiosity stream.

    智能電視、IOS、Android、Apple TV、Roku Chromecast和Mawr平臺通過好奇流。

  • They're the perfect site for anybody who likes being entertained and taught something at the same time.

    他們是一個完美的網站,任何人誰喜歡被娛樂,並在同一時間教的東西。

  • And what's best for real life, Laura viewers is that you can watch any of these thousands of titles for free for 31 days by signing up at curiosity stream dot com slash real life floor and using the code Real Life Lord during the sign up process.

    而最適合真人勞拉觀眾的是,只要在好奇心流點點網斜線真人樓註冊,並在註冊過程中使用代碼真人主,就可以在31天內免費觀看這上千部作品中的任何一部。

  • Thank you for watching, and I'll see you again next week.

    謝謝你的觀看,下週再見。

this video was made possible by curiosity.

這段視頻是由好奇心促成的。

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B1 中級 中文 伊朗 伊拉克 山脈 地理 波斯 帝國

為什麼伊朗的地理環境很糟糕 (Why Iran's Geography Sucks)

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2020 年 11 月 21 日
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