Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Let's say that it would take you

    假設你需要花十分鐘

  • ten minutes to solve this puzzle.

    拚好這片拼圖

  • How long would it take

    那如果在雙手持續受到電擊的情況下

  • if you received constant electric shocks to your hands?

    會需要多久呢?

  • Longer, right?

    更久,對吧?

  • Because the pain would distract you from the task.

    因為疼痛會使你分心

  • Well, maybe not;

    嗯~也許不一定

  • it depends on how you handle pain.

    這取決於你如何處理疼痛感

  • Some people are distracted by pain.

    有些人會因為疼痛而分心

  • It takes them longer to complete a task,

    所以需要更多時間完成任務

  • and they do it less well.

    而且做得比較不好

  • Other people use tasks to distract themselves from pain,

    有些人利用任務分散他們對疼痛的注意力

  • and those people actually do the task

    而這些人

  • faster and better when they're in pain

    在疼痛時完成任務的速度

  • than when they're not.

    比不痛時來得更快也更好

  • Some people can just send their mind wandering.

    而有些人可以讓自己進入恍神狀態

  • to distract themselves from pain.

    以便分散對疼痛的注意力

  • How can different people

    為什麼不同人

  • be subjected to the exact same painful stimulus

    對於完全相同的疼痛刺激

  • and yet experience the pain so differently?

    所感受到的痛楚是如此不一樣呢?

  • And why does this matter?

    而這又為什麼重要?

  • First of all, what is pain?

    首先,疼痛是什麼?

  • Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience,

    疼痛會造成知覺及情緒上的不愉快

  • associated with actual or potential tissue damage.

    與已受傷或可能受傷的細胞組織有關

  • Pain is something we experience,

    因為疼痛是我們親身經歷的感受

  • so it's best measured by what you say it is.

    所以你說它有多痛,它就有多痛

  • Pain has an intensity;

    疼痛有不同的強度

  • you can describe it on a scale from zero, no pain, to ten, the most pain imaginable.

    你可以把它分為0~10級,代表從無感到無法想像的痛

  • But pain also has a character,

    但是疼痛也有不同特性

  • like sharp, dull, burning, or aching.

    像是刺痛、重擊的痛、燒灼的痛、或是隱隱作痛

  • What exactly creates these perceptions of pain?

    到底是什麼引發這些痛覺感受呢?

  • Well, when you get hurt,

    嗯~當你受傷時

  • special tissue damage-sensing nerve cells,

    一種偵測傷害的特殊神經細胞

  • called nociceptors, fire and send signals

    「疼痛感受器」被啟動

  • to the spinal cord and then up to the brain.

    它向脊髓發出訊號,接著傳送到大腦

  • Processing work gets done

    傳遞訊息的工作

  • by cells called neurons and glial.

    由神經元及膠質細胞完成

  • This is your grey matter.

    它們是大腦中的灰質

  • And brain superhighways carry information

    接著腦部超級高速公路 (胼胝體,連接左右腦的主要路徑)

  • as electrical impulses

    將訊息以電脈衝的方式

  • from one area to another.

    在大腦區域中互相傳導

  • This is your white matter.

    這是大腦中的白質

  • The superhighway that carries pain information

    胼胝體將疼痛訊號從脊髓

  • from the spinal cord to the brain

    運送到大腦的這段距離

  • is our sensing pathway

    是我們的感覺傳導路徑

  • that ends in the cortex,

    這條路徑延伸到腦皮層

  • a part of the brain that decides what to do

    也就是大腦中控制我們

  • with the pain signal.

    如何反應疼痛訊號的地方

  • Another system of interconnected brain cells

    另一個相互影響的腦細胞系統

  • called the salience network

    叫做顯著性神經網絡

  • decides what to pay attention to.

    它決定我們的注意力放在什麼地方

  • Since pain can have serious consequences,

    因為疼痛會帶來嚴重的後果

  • the pain signal immediately activates

    所以疼痛訊號一產生

  • the salience network.

    便立即啟動顯著性神經網絡

  • Now, you're paying attention.

    就像這樣讓你集中注意力!

  • The brain also responds to the pain

    大腦也對疼痛做出反應

  • and has to cope with these pain signals.

    以處理這些疼痛訊號

  • So, motor pathways are activated

    舉例來說,大腦啟動運動神經

  • to take your hand off a hot stove, for example.

    我們的手才會離開滾燙的火爐

  • But modulation networks are also activated

    同時,調節網絡也被啟動

  • that deliver endorphins and enkephalins,

    產生安多酚及腦內啡

  • chemicals released when you're in pain or during extreme exercise,

    這些化學物質在感到疼痛或是激烈運動的時候被釋放

  • creating the runner's high .

    讓你產生「跑者愉悅感」

  • These chemical systems help regulate and reduce pain.

    這些化學系統幫助你調節及緩和疼痛

  • All these networks and pathways work together

    所有的網絡與路徑共同合作

  • to create your pain experience,

    創造你的疼痛感受

  • to prevent further tissue damage,

    避免身體組織受更多傷害

  • and help you to cope with pain.

    同時也幫助你面對疼痛

  • This system is similar for everyone,

    每個人疼痛系統作用的方式很類似

  • but the sensitivity and efficacy of these brain circuits

    但是大腦迴路的敏感度及效能

  • determines how much you feel and cope with pain.

    決定你的疼痛程度及反應機制

  • This is why some people have greater pain than others

    這是為什麼有些人感受到的疼痛比別人多

  • and why some develop chronic pain

    為什麼有些人得到慢性疼痛後

  • that does not respond to treatment,

    接受治療卻沒什麼效果

  • while others respond well.

    而另一些人受相同治療卻有效

  • Variability in pain sensitivities

    疼痛感受程度的差異

  • is not so different than all kinds of variability

    其實與對其它刺激的反應差異

  • in responses to other stimuli.

    沒什麼兩樣

  • Like how some people love roller coasters,

    像有些人喜歡坐雲霄飛車

  • but other people suffer from terrible motion sickness.

    有些人卻感到嚴重的頭暈目眩

  • Why does it matter that there is variability

    究竟大腦存在這種反應疼痛的差異

  • in our pain brain circuits?

    對我們有什麼影響呢?

  • Well, there are many treatments for pain,

    針對不同類型的疼痛

  • targeting different systems.

    有各種不同的治療方式

  • For mild pain, non-prescription medications

    對於比較輕微的症狀

  • can act on cells where the pain signals start.

    非處方藥就能在疼痛產生的地方發揮療效

  • Other stronger pain medicines and anesthetics

    而其它針對較大疼痛的止痛藥或麻醉劑

  • work by reducing the activity in pain-sensing circuits

    是藉著降低疼痛感受迴路的活性

  • or boosting our coping system, or endoprhins.

    或增強支持系統及安多酚,來達到效果

  • Some people can cope with pain

    有些人會運用一些方法

  • using methods that involve

    幫助自己面對疼痛,包含:

  • distraction, relaxation, meditation, yoga,

    分散注意力、放鬆心情、冥想、做瑜珈

  • or strategies that can be taught,

    或是一些需要經過學習的應對方法

  • like cognitive behavioral therapy.

    像是認知行為治療

  • For some people who suffer from severe chronic pain,

    有些人患有嚴重慢性疼痛

  • that is pain that doesn't go away

    這代表疼痛感無影隨行

  • months after their injury should've healed,

    即使是在傷口復原數個月之後

  • none of the regular treatments work.

    一般性治療對慢性疼痛可是一點用都沒有

  • Traditionally, medical science has been about

    傳統上,醫療科學仍然持續為廣大的族群

  • testing treatments on large groups

    測試更有效的治療方法

  • to determine what would help a majority of patients.

    以幫助大多數的病患

  • But this has usually left out

    但是慢性疼痛常常被忽略

  • some who didn't benefit from the treatment

    有些人的症狀沒有因為治療而改善

  • or experienced side effects.

    有些人則經歷一些副作用

  • Now, new treatments that directly stimulate or block

    但是現今已發展出新的治療方式了!

  • certain pain-sensing attention or modulation networks

    透過阻擋疼痛感受器作用

  • are being developed,

    或促使調節網絡啟動

  • along with ways to tailor them to individual patients,

    再加上依個別病患需求而調整的治療方法

  • using tools like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    例如用核磁共振影像

  • to map brain pathways.

    來描繪出大腦路徑

  • Figuring out how your brain responds to pain

    了解你的大腦如何反應疼痛

  • is the key to finding the best treatment for you.

    是找到最佳治療方式的關鍵

  • That's true personalized medicine.

    也是真正為你量身訂做的藥方

Let's say that it would take you

假設你需要花十分鐘

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 大腦 治療 路徑 訊號 啟動

【TED-Ed】大腦如何反應疼痛? (How does your brain respond to pain? - Karen D. Davis)

  • 13437 1316
    keep seeing 發佈於 2015 年 02 月 14 日
影片單字