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  • How do you know what's happening in your world?

    你如何得知世上所發生的事?

  • The amount of information just a click away may be limitless,

    只要按一下滑鼠就可以接收的資訊是無止盡的

  • but the time and energy we have to absorb and evaluate it is not.

    但我們吸收、評論它們的時間和精力卻非如此

  • All the information in the world won't be very useful

    如果你不知該如何閱讀新聞的話

  • unless you know how to read the news.

    世上所有資訊 對你來說就用處不大

  • To your grandparents, parents,

    對你的祖父母、父母

  • or even older siblings,

    甚至較年長的兄姊來說

  • this idea would have sounded strange.

    這想法聽來也許有些怪異

  • Only a few decades ago, news was broad-based.

    僅僅在幾十年前,新聞是廣泛傳播的

  • Your choices were limited

    你的選擇僅僅限於

  • to a couple of general interest magazines

    一些雜誌

  • and newspaper of record,

    報紙

  • and three or four TV networks

    和三或四個電視頻道

  • where trusted newscasters delivered the day's news

    可靠的新聞播報員 每晚在準確的固定時刻

  • at the same reliable time every evening.

    報導著當日新聞

  • But the problems with this system soon became apparent as mass media spread.

    但這個系統的弊病,在大眾傳媒擴增後便很快地浮現出來

  • While it was known that authoritarian countries controlled and censored information,

    儘管大家都知道威權國家會控制、審查資訊

  • a series of scandals showed democratic governments were also misleading the public,

    然而一系列的醜聞顯示,民主國家的政府、曾誤導公眾

  • often with media cooperation.

    通常是透過媒體企業集團

  • Revelations of covert wars, secret assassinations, and political corruption

    秘密戰事、暗殺計劃,與政治腐敗醜聞的揭露

  • undermined public faith in official narratives presented by mainstream sources.

    使得大眾對主流新聞來源的官方論述開始喪失信心

  • This breakdown of trust in media gatekeepers lead to alternative newspapers, radio shows, and cable news competing with the major outlets and covering events from various perspectives.

    這種對媒體守門人的信任危機,使另類的報刊、廣播節目 和有線電視頻道得以和主流新聞頻道一爭高下,並從各種不同角度 報導單一新聞事件

  • More recently, the Internet has multiplied the amount

    近來,隨著社群網站、部落格 和線上影片的興起

  • of information and viewpoints,

    網路擴大了

  • with social media, blogs, and online video

    各種意見和資訊量

  • turning every citizen into a potential reporter.

    使每個公民都成為潛在的報導者

  • But if everyone is a reporter, nobody is,

    但如果人人都是報導人的話 真相便難以追蹤

  • and different sources may disagree,

    不同的新聞來源會有出入,

  • not only on opinions, but on the facts themselves.

    不僅是意見上,還有對於事實的陳述也會有落差。

  • So how do you get the truth, or something close?

    因此,你該如何得知真相? 或獲得較為可靠的訊息?

  • One of the best ways is to get the original news

    一種最可靠的辦法 是獲得最初的新聞

  • unfiltered by middlemen.

    尋找那尚未被中間人篩濾過的新聞

  • Instead of articles interpreting a scientific study

    不只是閱讀一段 早已經人解讀的科學報告

  • or a politician's speech,

    或政治演說

  • you can often find the actual material and judge for yourself.

    你可以時常搜尋真實資訊 並且自行判斷其真偽

  • For current events, follow reporters on social media.

    對於當下事件,你可以 追蹤社群網路的報導者

  • During major events, such as the Arab Spring

    在重大事件的發生期間,比如阿拉伯之春

  • or the Ukrainian protests,

    或烏克蘭抗議事件

  • newscasters and bloggers have posted updates and recordings

    播報員和部落客會在紛亂的事件中

  • from the midst of the chaos.

    更新線上記錄與資料

  • Though many of these later appear in articles or broadcasts,

    雖然這些資料許多稍後會在 報章雜誌或電視廣播中出現

  • keep in mind that these polished versions

    記得,這些經由修飾過的版本

  • often combine the voice of the person who was there

    通常都夾雜了那在場記者

  • with the input of editors who weren't.

    與不在場編輯的兩種觀點

  • At the same time, the more chaotic the story,

    同時,越是混亂的事件

  • the less you should try to follow it in real time.

    你越不應該盲從於即時報導

  • In events like terrorist attacks and natural disasters,

    在一些重大事件 比如恐怖攻擊或自然災害

  • today's media attempts continuous coverage

    時下的媒體會 試圖不斷地播報此事件

  • even when no reliable new information is available,

    即便他們手上毫無任何新資訊可供報導

  • sometimes leading to incorrect information

    有時候這樣會導致訛傳

  • or false accusations of innocent people.

    或嫁禍於無罪之人

  • It's easy to be anxious in such events,

    人們很容易在這種事件中感到焦慮

  • but try checking for the latest information

    但,請試著在一天當中的某些時刻

  • at several points in the day,

    獲取這些資訊

  • rather than every few minutes,

    而不是每分每秒地取得資訊

  • allowing time for complete details to emerge

    讓時間來證明可靠線索

  • and false reports to be refuted.

    並排除不實的報導

  • While good journalism aims for objectivity,

    儘管,好的新聞報導追求客觀性

  • media bias is often unavoidable.

    坊間的媒體偏見 仍舊時常存在

  • When you can't get the direct story,

    當我們無法直接獲知故事來源時

  • read coverage in multiple outlets

    你可以儘可能地閱讀多種管道的資訊

  • which employ different reporters and interview different experts.

    來自不同報導者的撰稿 以及不同專家的訪談

  • Tuning in to various sources and noting the differences

    探索不同來源的資訊,注意其差異

  • lets you put the pieces together

    這樣可以讓你拼湊出

  • for a more complete picture.

    完整事件的全貌

  • It's also crucial to separate fact from opinion.

    區分事實與意見,也是很重要的

  • Words like think, likely, or probably

    像是「想」、「可能」或「也許」

  • mean that the outlet is being careful

    意謂著這份報導 正謹慎地提供資訊

  • or, worse, taking a guess.

    或,比較糟的是,試圖揣測

  • And watch out for reports that rely on anonymous sources.

    小心那些依據匿名線索的報導

  • These could be people who have little connection to the story,

    這些可能是一些 跟事件本身毫無關聯

  • or have an interest in influencing coverage,

    或一些試圖藉由 影響報導而獲益的人士

  • their anonymity making them unaccountable

    匿名使他們所提供的資料

  • for the information they provide.

    不可信賴

  • Finally, and most importantly,

    最後,最重要的是

  • try to verify news before spreading it.

    請試著在散播新聞前 確認資訊的無誤

  • While social media has enabled the truth

    雖然社群網路

  • to reach us faster,

    使真相更為迅速地傳播

  • it's also allowed rumors to spread

    它也使謠言在人們明辨它之前

  • before they can be verified

    更易於散佈

  • and falsehoods to survive

    錯誤的資訊得到指正

  • long after they've been refuted.

    仍長存於人們口舌之間

  • So, before you share that unbelievable

    所以在你分享那些難以置信

  • or outrageous news item,

    或令人氣憤的新聞前

  • do a web search to find any additional

    請做點查證工作,上網搜尋

  • information or context you might have missed

    看看是否有任何其他你遺漏的資訊或脈絡

  • and what others are saying about it.

    看看其他人怎麼談論這件事

  • Today, we are more free than ever

    今天,我們比過去任何時刻都要自由

  • from the old media gatekeepers

    我們免除了舊時代

  • who used to control the flow of information.

    媒體守門人的資訊控制

  • But with freedom comes responsibility:

    然而,更多的自由 也意謂著更多的責任

  • the responsibility to curate our own experience

    這責任意謂著 在展示我們自身經驗的同時

  • and ensure that this flow does not become a flood,

    必須確保這樣的資訊 不至於過分浮濫

  • leaving us less informed than before we took the plunge.

    以避免我們在行動前 取得更少資訊

How do you know what's happening in your world?

你如何得知世上所發生的事?

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【資訊】如何正確選擇新聞 (How to Choose Your News)

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