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  • Transcriber: TED Translators admin Reviewer: Ivana Korom

    轉錄者TED譯者admin 審稿人:Ivana KoromIvana Korom

  • We're now becoming aware of a significant relationship

    我們現在意識到了一個重要的關係。

  • between sleep and Alzheimer's disease.

    睡眠和阿爾茨海默氏症之間。

  • [Sleeping with Science]

    [與科學共眠]

  • Now, Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia

    現在,阿爾茨海默氏症是痴呆症的一種形式

  • typified usually by memory loss and memory decline.

    通常以記憶力衰退和記憶力下降為典型特徵。

  • And what we've started to understand

    而我們已經開始瞭解

  • is that there are several different proteins

    是有幾種不同的蛋白質

  • that seem to go awry in Alzheimer's disease.

    似乎在阿爾茨海默病中出了問題。

  • One of those proteins is a sticky, toxic substance

    其中一種蛋白質是一種粘性的有毒物質。

  • called beta-amyloid that builds up in the brain.

    稱為β-澱粉樣蛋白,在大腦中積聚。

  • The other is something called tau protein.

    另一種是叫陶氏蛋白的東西。

  • How are these things related to sleep?

    這些東西與睡眠有什麼關係?

  • Well first, if we look at a large-scale epidemiological level,

    首先,如果我們從大規模的流行病學層面來看。

  • what we know is that individuals

    我們知道的是,個人

  • who report sleeping typically less than six hours a night,

    報道稱每晚睡眠時間通常少於6小時的人。

  • have a significantly higher risk

    有明顯的高風險

  • of going on to develop high amounts

    形成高額的

  • of that beta-amyloid in their brain later in life.

    的β-澱粉樣蛋白在他們的大腦中,在以後的生活中。

  • We also know that two sleep disorders,

    我們還知道,兩種睡眠障礙。

  • including insomnia and sleep apnea, or heavy snoring,

    包括失眠和睡眠呼吸暫停,或沉重的鼾聲。

  • are associated with a significantly higher risk

    是與顯著較高的風險相關的

  • of Alzheimer's disease in late life.

    的阿爾茨海默病晚期。

  • Those are, of course, simply associational studies.

    當然,這些都是簡單的聯想研究。

  • They don't prove causality.

    它們不能證明因果關係。

  • But more recently,

    但最近。

  • we actually have identified that causal evidence.

    我們其實已經確定了這個因果證據。

  • In fact, if you take a healthy human being

    事實上,如果你把一個健康的人

  • and you deprive them of sleep for just one night,

    而你卻剝奪了他們的睡眠,僅僅一個晚上。

  • and the next day, we see an immediate increase

    第二天,我們看到一個立即增加

  • in that beta-amyloid,

    在該β-澱粉樣蛋白。

  • both circulating in their bloodstream,

    都在其血液中循環。

  • circulating in what we call the cerebrospinal fluid,

    循環在我們所說的腦脊液中。

  • and most recently, after just one night of sleep,

    而最近,在僅僅睡了一晚之後。

  • using special brain-imaging technology,

    使用特殊的腦成像技術。

  • scientists have found that there is an immediate increase

    科學家們發現,有一個立即增加

  • in beta-amyloid directly in the brain itself.

    中的β-澱粉樣蛋白直接在大腦本身。

  • So that's the causal evidence.

    所以這就是因果證據。

  • What is it then about sleep

    那什麼是睡眠

  • that seems to provide a mechanism

    似乎提供了一個機制

  • that prevents the escalation

    阻止升級的

  • of these Alzheimer's-related proteins?

    這些阿爾茨海默氏症相關蛋白的?

  • Well, several years ago,

    嗯,幾年前。

  • a scientist called Maiken Nedergaard

    梅肯・尼德加德

  • made a remarkable discovery.

    有了一個了不起的發現。

  • What she identified was a cleansing system in the brain.

    她確定的是大腦中的一個清潔系統。

  • Now, before that,

    現在,在這之前。

  • we knew that the body had a cleansing system

    我們知道,身體有一個清潔系統

  • and many of you may be familiar with this.

    和很多人可能都很熟悉。

  • It's called the lymphatic system.

    這就是所謂的淋巴系統。

  • But we didn't think that the brain had its own cleansing system.

    但我們沒有想到,大腦有自己的清潔系統。

  • And studying mice,

    而研究小鼠。

  • she was actually able to identify a sewage system within the brain

    她居然能夠識別出大腦中的汙水系統。

  • called the glymphatic system,

    稱為甘露系統。

  • named after the cells that make it up,

    以組成它的細胞命名。

  • called these glial cells.

    稱為這些膠質細胞。

  • Now, if that wasn't remarkable enough,

    如果這還不夠了不起的話

  • she went on to make two more incredible discoveries.

    她又有了兩個不可思議的發現。

  • First, what she found is that that cleansing system in the brain

    首先,她發現的是,大腦中的清潔系統

  • is not always switched on in high-flow volume

    在高流量的情況下,並不總是開啟。

  • across the 24-hour period.

    在24小時內,跨。

  • Instead, it was when those mice were actually sleeping,

    而是在那些老鼠真正睡覺的時候。

  • particularly when they went into deep non-REM sleep,

    特別是當他們進入深層非REM睡眠時。

  • that that cleansing system kicked into high gear.

    那清潔系統啟動到高速運轉。

  • The third component that she discovered,

    她發現的第三種成分。

  • and this is what makes it relevant

    正因如此

  • to our discussion on Alzheimer's disease,

    到我們討論阿爾茨海默病。

  • is that one of the metabolic by-products,

    是,代謝副產品之一。

  • one of the toxins that was cleared away during sleep,

    睡眠中被清除的毒素之一。

  • was that sticky, toxic protein, beta-amyloid,

    是那種粘稠的有毒蛋白質,β-澱粉樣蛋白。

  • linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    與阿爾茨海默氏症有關。

  • And just recently, scientists in Boston have discovered

    而就在最近,波士頓的科學家發現

  • a very similar type of pulsing, cleansing brain-mechanism

    一種非常類似的脈動,清潔大腦的機制。

  • in human beings as well.

    在人類中也是如此。

  • Now, some of this discussion may sound perhaps a little depressing.

    現在,有些討論聽起來也許有點令人沮喪。

  • We know that as we get older in life,

    我們知道,隨著生活年齡的增長。

  • our sleep seems to typically decline,

    我們的睡眠似乎通常會下降。

  • and our risk for Alzheimer's generally increases.

    而我們患老年痴呆症的風險普遍增加。

  • But I think there's actually a silver lining here,

    但我覺得這裡其實有一線生機。

  • because unlike many of the other factors

    因為與許多其他因素不同

  • that are associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease,

    與衰老和阿爾茨海默病有關的。

  • for example, changes in the physical structure of the brain,

    例如,大腦物理結構的變化。

  • those are fiendishly difficult to treat

    屢治不愈

  • and medicine doesn't have any good wholesale approaches right now.

    而醫學現在還沒有什麼好的批發方法。

  • But that sleep is a missing piece

    但這睡眠是一個缺失的部分

  • in the explanatory puzzle of aging and Alzheimer's disease

    老化與老年痴呆症的解釋難題

  • is exciting because we may be able to do something about it.

    是令人興奮的,因為我們也許能夠做些什麼。

  • What if we could actually augment human sleep

    如果我們真的能增強人類的睡眠呢?

  • and try to improve the quality

    並努力提高品質

  • of that deep sleep in midlife,

    的那份中年深度睡眠。

  • which is when we start to see the decline in deep sleep

    這時,我們開始看到深度睡眠的下降。

  • beginning to happen.

    開始發生。

  • What if we could actually shift

    如果我們真的可以轉移

  • from a model of late-stage treatment in Alzheimer's disease

    從阿爾茨海默病晚期治療的模型來看

  • to a model of midlife prevention?

    到中年預防的模式?

  • Could we go from sick care to actually healthcare?

    能否從看病變成真正的保健?

  • And by modifying sleep,

    而通過修改睡眠。

  • could we actually bend the arrow

    能否真的把箭折彎

  • of Alzheimer's disease risk down on itself?

    的阿爾茨海默病風險降到自己身上?

  • That's something that I'm incredibly excited about

    這是我非常興奮的事情。

  • and something that we're actively researching right now.

    也是我們現在正在積極研究的事情。

Transcriber: TED Translators admin Reviewer: Ivana Korom

轉錄者TED譯者admin 審稿人:Ivana KoromIvana Korom

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B1 中級 中文 睡眠 大腦 阿爾茨海默氏症 清潔 蛋白質 發現

睡眠和阿爾茨海默氏症之間有什麼關係?| 睡眠與科學,一個TED系列節目 (What's the connection between sleep and Alzheimer's disease? | Sleeping with Science, a TED series)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 26 日
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