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  • this'll happened about 66 million years ago, Theo Impact was as powerful as 10 billion atomic bombs on the catastrophic global effects on the environment were even deadlier.

    這將發生在大約6600萬年前,西奧的影響是強大的,如100億原子彈上的災難性全球影響的環境是更致命的。

  • 75% of life on Earth win extinct, including a dominant group of animals that has come to mesmerize our attention.

    地球上75%的生命贏得了滅絕,其中包括一個主要的動物群體,它已經開始吸引我們的注意力。

  • The diversity that we see in dinosaurs is really a reflection off how successful they were.

    我們在恐龍身上看到的多樣性 其實反映了它們的成功程度。

  • Meat Nat Geo Explorer Diego Pol, one of the paleontologist who discovered the largest dinosaur ever.

    肉肉Nat Geo探險家Diego Pol,是發現史上最大恐龍的古生物學家之一。

  • Dinosaurs were predominant in our world for over 100 and 40 million years.

    恐龍在我們這個世界上占主導地位的時間超過1億年和4000萬年。

  • Humans have bean in this planet for 200,000 years on.

    人類在這個星球上已經有20萬年的豆。

  • There's no many cases in the history of our planet that one group, it's so predominant and so successful for such a long time.

    在我們地球的歷史上,沒有多少個案例,有一個群體,它這麼佔優勢,這麼成功,時間這麼長。

  • Humans and dinosaurs didn't overlap, not even close.

    人類和恐龍並沒有重疊,甚至沒有接近。

  • Let's go, Tyrone.

    我們走吧,泰隆。

  • And as we've seen in Hollywood, Way can be thankful for that.

    而我們在好萊塢也看到了,韋氏可以感恩了。

  • But dinosaur fossils left humans wondering.

    但恐龍化石卻讓人類感到疑惑。

  • Where'd they go?

    他們去哪兒了?

  • Dinosaur extinction has Bean a fascinating topic for a long, long time.

    恐龍的滅絕在很長一段時間內都是憨憨的迷人話題。

  • We see their presence up to 66 million years old, and then after that there's nothing.

    我們在6600萬年前就能看到它們的存在,之後就什麼都沒有了。

  • They're gone throughout the 20th century There were, Ah, lot of arguments, theories very dramatically from the somewhat plausible to the downright bizarre.

    他們走了整個20世紀 有,啊,很多爭論,理論非常戲劇化 從有點可信的到徹頭徹尾的怪異。

  • Some pointed out of control hormones or cataracts.

    有的指出激素失控或白內障。

  • Others blamed a world taken over by hungry caterpillars.

    其他人則指責這個世界被飢餓的毛毛蟲所佔據。

  • The answers eluded experts until 1980 when two scientists working here discovered a clue.

    答案一直困擾著專家們,直到1980年,兩位在這裡工作的科學家發現了一條線索。

  • The link to it being an asteroid impact started almost by accident.

    與小行星撞擊的聯繫幾乎是偶然開始的。

  • Walter Alvarez and his father, Louis Alvarez, were actually very interested in a place called Rubio, Italy.

    沃爾特-阿爾瓦雷斯和他的父親路易斯-阿爾瓦雷斯,其實對意大利一個叫魯比奧的地方非常感興趣。

  • There were lime stones that were Cretaceous, and then there were lime stones that were after the mutations what we call the Paleo gene, and that the extinction event was writing that boundary.

    有的石灰石是白堊紀的,然後有的石灰石是在突變之後的,我們稱之為古生物基因,滅絕事件就是在寫這個界限。

  • Instead of finding anything sort of background normal, they actually found a spike in something called a radio.

    他們沒有發現任何背景正常的東西,而是真的發現了一種叫做無線電的東西的峰值。

  • Iridium is a surprise because we have very little or idiom present on the surface of the earth versus what the asteroids are made of.

    銥星是一個驚喜,因為我們在地球表面與小行星是由什麼組成的,很少或成語存在。

  • Walter and Louis Alvarez co authored a groundbreaking paper hypothesizing that an asteroid was responsible for the mass extinction.

    沃爾特和路易斯-阿爾瓦雷斯共同撰寫了一篇開創性的論文,假設一顆小行星是造成大滅絕的原因。

  • But that in itself raised another question.

    但這本身就提出了另一個問題。

  • Where's the crater?

    隕石坑在哪裡?

  • Scientists have further into the layer of iridium for answers?

    科學家已進一步進入銥層尋找答案?

  • The real key clue was, while it's only a centimeter thick layer and most of the world.

    真正的關鍵線索是,雖然它只有一釐米厚的一層,而世界上大部分地區。

  • As you approach the Gulf of Mexico, that layer becomes much, much thicker.

    當你接近墨西哥灣時,那層會變得更厚。

  • We start seeing layers that are a meter thick or even hundreds of meters places as you get closer and closer to the place where the impact happens.

    當你越來越接近撞擊發生的地方時,我們開始看到有一米厚甚至上百米的地方。

  • By the early nineties, the science was becoming more convincing more than 3000 ft below the surface of the Yucatan Peninsula.

    到了九十年代初,在尤卡坦半島地表以下3000英尺處,科學變得更有說服力。

  • Latest saucer shaped structure different from volcanic terrain This was the chicks loob crater.

    最新的碟形結構與火山地形不同 這是小雞loob火山口。

  • So to answer the fundamental questions about how this particular impact caused a mass extinction event way needed to drill into it.

    所以,要回答關於這種特殊的撞擊如何造成大規模滅絕事件的基本問題,需要鑽研它。

  • Where it actually hit was lime stones.

    其實打的地方是石灰石。

  • So calcium carbonate, which makes a lot of CO two when you vaporize it.

    所以碳酸鈣,當你把它汽化後,會產生大量的CO二。

  • But even more important, perhaps, where the bath rights thes are rocks that are high in sulfur.

    但更重要的是,也許,在浴池權利的地方,都是含硫量高的岩石。

  • And so when those get vaporized, they actually put native sulfur into the atmosphere, which, when combined with water, becomes sulfate aerosols, which is a pollutant that actually succeeds in cooling the planet off.

    所以當這些被汽化後,它們實際上是把原生硫放到了大氣中,當與水結合後,就變成了硫酸鹽氣溶膠,這是一種汙染物,實際上成功地讓地球冷卻下來。

  • If it had happened a little bit earlier or a little bit later, in terms of the rotation of the earth.

    如果從地球自轉的角度來說,早一點或晚一點發生。

  • It could have easily hit the Atlantic Ocean or the Pacific Ocean and entirely missed this shelf environment with all these sediments beneath it.

    它很容易撞上大西洋或太平洋,完全錯過了這個陸架環境,下面有這麼多沉積物。

  • And if it had done that, most of the material that would have been rejected would be the a prized asteroid and just water where it hit and with the energy it hit, seemed to have had the right recipe to create a global catastrophe.

    而如果它這麼做了,大部分會被拒絕的材料會是一顆珍貴的小行星,而只是水,在它撞擊的地方,以它撞擊的能量,似乎已經有了製造全球災難的正確配方。

  • Dinosaurs were likely living in a vulnerable time leading up to the asteroid, but perhaps more surprising eyes the realization that not all dinosaurs went extinct.

    恐龍很可能生活在小行星前的脆弱時期,但也許更讓人驚訝的眼神是,並非所有恐龍都滅絕了。

  • So most people think that dinosaurs are extinct.

    所以大多數人認為恐龍已經滅絕了。

  • But this is completely false because, you know, if you look out your window, you're going to see a living dinosaur, a za vertebrate paleontologists.

    但這是完全錯誤的,因為,你知道,如果你向窗外望去,你會看到一隻活生生的恐龍,一隻za脊椎動物古生物學家。

  • My specialty is understanding how birds evolved from dinosaurs and then also how the earliest birds evolved into what we would consider.

    我的專業是瞭解鳥類是如何從恐龍進化而來的,然後也瞭解最早的鳥類是如何進化成我們認為的樣子。

  • Ah, bird.

    啊,鳥。

  • Today you have this huge diversity of dinosaur AEA, and then you have one group that's called the Thera Pota, and everybody knows Thera pods that includes famous members like Velociraptor or T rex.

    今天,你有這個巨大的多樣性的恐龍AEA,然後你有一個群體,叫做Thera Pota,大家都知道Thera pods,包括著名的成員,如伶盜龍或霸王龍。

  • But one group of thera pods eventually gave way to birds.

    但有一組瑟拉艙最終讓給了鳥類。

  • This'll resilient group of Thera pods is represented today by over 10,000 living species of birds.

    今天,這個富有彈性的瑟拉豆莢群體由1萬多種活體鳥類代表。

  • Modern birds is the most diverse played of vertebrates living on land on the planet today.

    現代鳥類是當今地球上生活在陸地上的脊椎動物中最多樣化的玩。

  • So people are always saying that, like this is the age of the mammals always like to joke and be like it's still the age of the dinosaurs.

    所以人們總是說,像現在是哺乳動物的時代總是喜歡開玩笑,要像現在還是恐龍的時代。

  • While the dinosaur extinction mystery has come a long way since the early theories, discoveries today are still necessary pieces of the bigger picture.

    雖然恐龍滅絕之謎與早期的理論相比已經有了長足的進步,但今天的發現仍然是大局的必要組成部分。

  • You have to like puzzles a discovery.

    你必須喜歡拼圖和發現。

  • It's certainly important, but it will not answer all your questions.

    這當然很重要,但它不會回答你所有的問題。

  • It will be a big and important piece in your puzzle.

    這將是你拼圖中重要的一大塊。

  • Mass extinction events are incredibly powerful tools for us to understand the way life and ecosystems operate.

    大規模滅絕事件是我們瞭解生命和生態系統運作方式的非常有力的工具。

  • And so the chicks love event is the most recent of these mass extinction events on Earth Sciences Never done right.

    所以小雞戀愛事件是地球科學上最近的一次大規模滅絕事件,從來沒有做對過。

  • We just find mawr questions that need answering.

    我們只是發現需要回答的問題。

  • Mm hmm.

    嗯哼。

this'll happened about 66 million years ago, Theo Impact was as powerful as 10 billion atomic bombs on the catastrophic global effects on the environment were even deadlier.

這將發生在大約6600萬年前,西奧的影響是強大的,如100億原子彈上的災難性全球影響的環境是更致命的。

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為什麼恐龍的滅絕是一個持續的謎題|Nat Geo Explores (Why the Dinosaurs’ Extinction is an Ongoing Puzzle | Nat Geo Explores)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 24 日
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