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  • Morse: "Cleaning your fruits and vegetables with bleach

    莫爾斯:"用漂白劑清洗水果和蔬菜。

  • is effective."

    是有效的"。

  • Madad: That is completely false.

    Madad。這是完全錯誤的。

  • We used to think that.

    我們以前也是這麼認為的。

  • Morse: "All schools should reopen

    莫爾斯:"所有學校都應該重新開學

  • because kids can't get COVID-19."

    因為孩子們不能得到COVID-19。"

  • We used to think that.

    我們以前也是這麼認為的。

  • But now we know it's not true.

    但現在我們知道這不是真的。

  • Hi, I'm Stephen Morse,

    嗨,我是Stephen Morse。

  • professor of epidemiology.

    流行病學教授。

  • My name is Dr. Syra Madad,

    我的名字是西拉-馬達德博士。

  • and I'm an infectious disease epidemiologist

    我是一個傳染病流行病學家。

  • here in New York City.

    這裡在紐約市。

  • Morse: In the past, we have debunked a number of myths.

    莫爾斯:過去,我們已經揭穿了一些神話。

  • But new myths keep coming up,

    但新的神話不斷出現。

  • and the same old ones keep coming back.

    而同樣的老毛病又不斷出現。

  • So let's get to work debunking more myths today.

    所以,今天我們就來揭穿更多的神話吧。

  • Madad: "Wearing a mask doesn't do anything."

    麥達德:"戴上面具什麼也做不了。"

  • Morse: And there are people who believe that.

    Morse有的人相信這一點。

  • And one reason is that until recently,

    而一個原因是,直到最近。

  • we weren't really recommending masks

    我們並不是真的推薦口罩

  • because we didn't know that they actually do a lot of good.

    因為我們不知道他們其實有很多好處。

  • There's a recent study from Hong Kong

    香港最近有一項研究

  • that was published in Nature

    發表在《自然》雜誌上的

  • that proves that even surgical masks

    證明了即使是手術面具

  • can prevent infected people

    可以防止感染者

  • from passing on the infection to others.

    以免傳染給他人。

  • Madad: We have seen that in states

    Madad。我們在各國都看到了這一點。

  • that didn't have a mask mandate,

    沒有面具任務的。

  • once they had that mask mandate,

    一旦他們有了那個面具任務。

  • over a period of time, you did see

    在一段時間內,你確實看到

  • the number of cases go down.

    案件數量下降。

  • So it's important to continue to wash your hands

    所以繼續洗手很重要。

  • and keep your distance while also wearing a mask.

    並保持距離,同時也戴上了口罩。

  • Morse: "Wearing a mask is dangerous

    莫爾斯:"戴上面具很危險。

  • because you'll get carbon dioxide poisoning."

    因為你會得二氧化碳中毒。"

  • But it takes a lot of carbon dioxide to do it,

    但這需要大量的二氧化碳才能做到。

  • and all of that actually

    而這一切其實

  • goes through the mask quite readily.

    很容易通過面具。

  • So it doesn't build up in the mask.

    所以它不會在面膜中積聚。

  • And we know that even when people are wearing masks,

    而且我們知道,即使人們戴著面具。

  • their oxygen levels in the blood

    其血液中的含氧量

  • are perfectly normal if they're not sick.

    是完全正常的,如果他們沒有生病。

  • So part of it is really getting used to it,

    所以一部分是真的習慣了。

  • the way we get used to wearing a necktie, for example.

    比如說,我們習慣戴領帶的方式。

  • Madad: Looking at those healthcare workers

    Madad:看著那些醫護人員

  • that do wear it for an extended period of time,

    的,確實長期佩戴。

  • that's a great model to show you

    那是一個偉大的模型給你看

  • that it does not cause carbon dioxide poisoning or toxicity.

    它不會造成二氧化碳中毒或毒性。

  • Morse: "All schools should reopen

    莫爾斯:"所有學校都應該重新開學

  • because kids can't get COVID-19."

    因為孩子們不能得到COVID-19。"

  • Once the schools reopen,

    一旦學校重新開學。

  • we're gonna see a situation

    我們將看到的情況

  • where there are a lot of kids together

    孩子多的地方

  • and the possibility of transmission becomes much greater.

    和傳播的可能性就會大大增加。

  • Madad: And on top of that, it's not also just the kids,

    麥達德。最重要的是,它也不只是孩子們。

  • it's also the teachers and the adults

    亦師亦友

  • that are in these schools

    在這些學校的

  • that are also at risk.

    也有風險的。

  • And so we wanna protect everybody.

    所以我們想保護大家。

  • There are countries in Asia

    亞洲有一些國家

  • that have reopened schools successfully

    順利復課的學校

  • and have been able to remain open.

    並一直能夠保持開放。

  • They started off with having low number of cases,

    他們一開始的案件數量少。

  • and they also had contingency plans in place

    他們還制定了應急計劃

  • where you have smaller classroom sizes,

    在那裡,你有較小的教室規模。

  • children sitting further apart, wearing masks.

    孩子們坐在更遠的距離,戴著面具。

  • You also have countries that have shown

    你也有國家表現出

  • that they opened schools too early,

    他們過早開學;

  • and then they had to close down multiple times.

    然後他們不得不多次關閉。

  • And so we wanna make sure we're in a position

    所以我們要確保我們在一個位置上。

  • that we have the upper hand

    勝券在握

  • when it comes to this virus.

    當談到這個病毒。

  • "Asymptomatic people aren't contagious."

    "無症狀的人是不會傳染的。"

  • Morse: Asymptomatic people, people who feel

    MorseAsymptomatic people, people who feel

  • and look perfectly well,

    並且看起來非常好。

  • are contagious to others.

    是會傳染給別人的。

  • And we worry about them

    我們擔心他們

  • because they may not know what they're spreading.

    因為他們可能不知道自己在傳播什麼。

  • Madad: In fact, during the early days,

    馬德:事實上,在早期。

  • that is when you are most infectious.

    那是你最有感染力的時候。

  • Morse: The reality is we have to assume

    莫爾斯:現實是,我們必須假設。

  • that anyone who could have it,

    誰都可以擁有它。

  • indeed could have it,

    確實可以擁有它。

  • and they could pass it on to others.

    他們可以把它傳遞給其他人。

  • This is why we're making recommendations

    這就是我們提出建議的原因

  • that everybody should wear a mask,

    每個人都應該戴上面具。

  • even if they're feeling well,

    即使他們感覺良好。

  • because we don't know and they themselves may not know

    因為我們不知道,他們自己也未必知道

  • that they could be infected

    他們可能會被感染

  • and able to infect others.

    並能感染他人。

  • Madad: "Young, healthy people won't die from COVID-19."

    Madad:"年輕健康的人不會死於COVID-19。"

  • We have seen cases where you have individuals

    我們看到的情況是,你有個人

  • that have no medical condition

    無病呻吟

  • still unfortunately die from COVID-19.

    仍不幸死於COVID-19。

  • Morse: It may be a very small proportion,

    莫爾斯:可能是很小的比例。

  • but when you have a very large number of infected people,

    但當你有一個非常多的感染者。

  • those numbers add up very quickly.

    這些數字加起來非常快。

  • Madad: We are seeing, based on certain data

    Madad。根據某些數據,我們看到

  • that is coming out, is that even with young people,

    的出來,就是連年輕人。

  • if they don't have a severe case of COVID-19,

    如果他們沒有嚴重的COVID-19病例。

  • they are at increased risk, for example,

    他們的風險增加,例如:

  • of strokes and other types of ailments.

    的中風和其他類型的疾病。

  • And so looking at the death rate in the young

    所以,從年輕人的死亡率來看。

  • is a false sense of security.

    是一種虛假的安全感。

  • Morse: "You cannot get COVID-19 twice."

    Morse:"你不可能得到COVID -19兩次。"

  • Madad: We still don't know

    Madad我們還是不知道

  • what long-term immunity looks like,

    長期免疫力是什麼樣的。

  • and so in the immediate future,

    所以在眼前。

  • can you get reinfected with COVID-19

    你會不會再感染COVID-19?

  • in a short period of time?

    在短時間內?

  • The likelihood is no.

    可能性是沒有。

  • Individuals that have been tested positive again

    再次檢測呈陽性的個人

  • for COVID-19 likely just have residual virus

    為COVID-19可能只是有殘留的病毒。

  • in their body or in their bodily fluids.

    在其體內或體液中。

  • But in terms of long term,

    但從長遠來看。

  • can you get COVID-19 a year after or two years after?

    你能在一年後或兩年後拿到COVID-19嗎?

  • That is something that we still don't know yet,

    這是我們還不知道的事情。

  • and it's one of those things that time will tell.

    這就是時間會證明的事情之一。

  • Morse: If you get it again, will it be less bad,

    莫西:如果你再得一次,會不會不那麼糟糕。

  • will it be worse, will it be the same?

    會不會更糟,會不會一樣?

  • We don't know.

    我們不知道。

  • Madad: "You won't get the virus if you hold your breath

    麥達:"你憋著一口氣,就不會感染病毒。

  • when someone sneezes or coughs."

    當有人打噴嚏或咳嗽的時候。"

  • But what we know about these virus particles

    但我們對這些病毒顆粒的瞭解

  • is that they can still land on your mucus membrane

    是他們仍然可以降落在你的粘膜上。

  • even if you're not breathing.

    即使你沒有呼吸。

  • So, for example, if you're touching a high-touch surface

    所以,舉例來說,如果你接觸的是一個高觸感的表面。

  • and then you're touching your mucus membrane,

    然後你就會接觸到你的黏膜。

  • you obviously are able to transmit the virus

    很明顯你是可以傳播病毒的

  • through that indirect means, if you will.

    通過這種間接手段,如果你願意。

  • Morse: So, we have alternatives.

    莫爾斯:所以,我們還有其他選擇。

  • We have masks, we have good hand hygiene,

    我們有口罩,我們有良好的手衛生。

  • and social distancing

    和社會疏遠

  • to make sure that you won't be in the line of fire

    以確保你不會在火線。

  • when somebody coughs or sneezes.

    當有人咳嗽或打噴嚏時;

  • That's a lot safer than holding your breath.

    這比憋氣安全多了。

  • Madad: "Consuming disinfectants will kill the virus."

    麥達德:"食用消毒劑可以殺死病毒。"

  • Bleach and other types of disinfectants

    漂白劑和其他類型的消毒劑

  • are not to be used for ingesting

    不得用於攝取

  • or injecting or to put on skin.

    或注射或塗抹皮膚。

  • These are corrosive chemicals.

    這些都是腐蝕性的化學品。

  • They can actually cause death and disability.

    它們實際上會導致死亡和殘疾。

  • Morse: Use it on your floors. Use it on your countertops.

    莫爾斯:用在你的地板上。用在你的檯面上。

  • That's where it really does the work,

    這才是它真正的作用所在。

  • and that's what really helps.

    而這才是真正的幫助。

  • "Cleaning your fruits and vegetables

    "清潔你的水果和蔬菜

  • with bleach is effective."

    用漂白劑是有效的"。

  • Madad: That is completely false.

    Madad。這是完全錯誤的。

  • If you're going to be putting chemicals

    如果你要把化學品

  • on fruit and vegetables that you are then going to ingest,

    上的水果和蔬菜,然後你要攝入。

  • you're putting yourself more in harm's way.

    你把自己更多的傷害方式。

  • So, washing your fruit and vegetables

    所以,清洗水果和蔬菜

  • is very similar to how you were washing your fruit

    和你洗水果的方式很相似。

  • and vegetables before COVID-19 existed.

    和蔬菜,在COVID-19存在之前。

  • Washing it under water and making sure

    在水中清洗,並確保

  • that you're cleaning any fruit and vegetable.

    你在清洗任何水果和蔬菜。

  • These are just basic good practices.

    這些只是基本的良好做法。

  • 'Cause it's not just COVID-19

    "因為這不僅僅是COVID-19

  • that obviously you wanna make sure

    顯然你想確保

  • that you are preventing,

    你要防止的。

  • but it's also all the other microbes

    但它也是所有其他的微生物。

  • that can cause illnesses.

    會引起疾病的。

  • "Warm weather will stop the coronavirus."

    "溫暖的天氣會阻止冠狀病毒。"

  • Morse: Well, here we are at the end of July,

    莫爾斯:好了,現在是7月底了。

  • and if anyone still believes that myth,

    如果有人還相信這個神話。

  • I think we have plenty of proof.

    我想我們有很多證據。

  • Madad: There's an epidemiological potential significance

    Madad:有一個流行病學的潛在意義。

  • to warmer weather because people are going outside,

    到溫暖的天氣,因為人們都去外面。

  • but in terms of the weather itself

    但就天氣本身而言

  • and the effect on the virus,

    以及對病毒的影響。

  • it has not shown to have impact.

    它沒有顯示出有影響。

  • Morse: So, until we find something like a vaccine

    莫爾斯:所以,在我們找到類似疫苗的東西之前

  • that's effective or something else

    療效

  • that's going to stop it,

    這將阻止它。

  • this virus, given the opportunity to infect,

    這種病毒,只要有機會感染。

  • will continue to infect.

    會繼續感染。

  • "99% of cases aren't dangerous."

    "99%的情況都不危險。"

  • Yes, it is true that probably

    是的,是真的,可能

  • only about 1%

    只佔1%

  • of those people who get infected

    感染者中

  • and get sick are going to die,

    和生病都會死。

  • but many of the others will get very sick,

    但其他很多人都會病得很重。

  • and some of the others will get so sick

    還有一些人將會生病

  • that they may be affected for life.

    他們可能會受到終身影響。

  • Madad: Our indicator should not be the death rate,

    Madad。我們的指標不應該是死亡率。

  • because you can have individuals

    因為你可以有個人

  • that may have survived the infection of COVID-19

    可能在COVID-19感染後倖存下來的生物。

  • but then go on to suffer a stroke

    中風

  • because of the long-term effects of COVID-19.

    因為COVID-19的長期影響。

  • Morse: So a lot of these cases really are dangerous.

    莫爾斯:所以很多這樣的案例真的很危險。

  • Madad: "The United States has one

    馬德:"美國有一

  • of the lowest mortality rates."

    死亡率最低"。

  • Taking the mortality at its face value

    從表面上看,死亡率

  • is a huge disservice

    貽害無窮

  • because it's not painting the full picture

    因為畫蛇添足

  • in terms of the whole effect

    從整體效果來看

  • that COVID-19 has on an individual.

    COVID-19對個人的影響。

  • Morse: Unfortunately, when you think about

    莫爾斯:不幸的是,當你想到

  • the entire population on mortality rate,

    整個人口的死亡率。

  • it's actually unbelievably high.

    它實際上是不可思議的高。

  • We don't really want to measure this

    我們並不真的想衡量這個

  • by the number of people

    按人數

  • who get saved at the last minute.

    誰在最後一刻得到救贖。

  • What we wanna aim for is really a low infection rate,

    我們要追求的是真正的低感染率。

  • because the infection is gonna be there.

    因為感染是會在那裡。

  • Mortality rate proves you're just getting better

    死亡率證明你只是在不斷進步

  • at treating the severe cases.

    在治療重症病例方面。

  • Madad: "5G technology is spreading COVID-19."

    馬德:"5G技術正在傳播COVID-19。"

  • COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets

    COVID-19通過呼吸道飛沫傳播。

  • when somebody coughs, sneezes, or talks.

    當有人咳嗽、打噴嚏或說話時。

  • 5G towers and technology do not have an influence

    5G鐵塔和技術不具有影響力。

  • on your ability to get infected with COVID-19.

    感染COVID-19的能力。

  • Morse: The reality is the two are totally unrelated.

    莫爾斯:事實上,這兩者完全沒有關係。

  • You can spread computer viruses

    你會傳播電腦病毒

  • through technology on the internet,

    通過互聯網上的技術。

  • but real viruses requires human contact.

    但真正的病毒需要人與人接觸。

  • "The media is blowing the pandemic out of proportion."

    "媒體把疫情吹得太大了。"

  • I really wish this were true.

    我真的希望這是真的。

  • And I think it depends a lot

    我認為這取決於很多

  • on which media you're listening to.

    在你收聽的媒體上。

  • By talking about conspiracy theories

    通過談論陰謀論

  • and "no big deal," to say that it's all a hoax,

    和 "沒什麼大不了的",說這都是個騙局。

  • these things help the virus.

    這些東西有助於病毒。

  • The virus doesn't care.

    病毒並不在意。

  • The reality is it's here, it's real,

    現實就在這裡,它是真實的。

  • it will infect given the opportunity.

    只要有機會,它就會感染。

  • Madad: It is science, and it is evidence,

    馬德:這是科學,也是證據。

  • and it is public health that will save lives.

    而拯救生命的是公共衛生。

  • It's not politicians, it's not conspiracy theories,

    這不是政客,也不是陰謀論。

  • it's not misinformation.

    這不是錯誤的資訊。

  • And as we continue to learn together,

    而隨著我們一起不斷學習。

  • the public-health guidance will change,

    公眾健康指南將發生變化。

  • because we wanna go with what we know to be effective

    因為我們想用我們所知道的有效的東西去做

  • in terms of keeping everybody safe.

    在保障大家安全方面。

  • Morse: Stay safe, stay well, and...

    注意安全,保重身體,還有...

  • Madad: Stay tuned and stay informed,

    Madad。保持關注,隨時瞭解情況。

  • and that's very important.

    這是非常重要的。

Morse: "Cleaning your fruits and vegetables with bleach

莫爾斯:"用漂白劑清洗水果和蔬菜。