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  • as co vid 19 continues to spread around the globe.

    由於co vid 19繼續在全球範圍內傳播。

  • One tactic, in particular called contact tracing, has been highly effective in countries like Taiwan, Singapore and Iceland.

    其中有一種策略,特別是被稱為接觸追蹤,在臺灣、新加坡和冰島等國家非常有效。

  • But there is a tradeoff.

    但也要有所取捨。

  • Contact tracing asks us all to share data with the government and corporations information that some people prefer to keep private.

    聯繫追蹤要求我們所有人與政府和企業共享數據資訊,而這些資訊是一些人寧願保持隱私的。

  • So the question becomes, How much privacy would you be willing to trade to save lives?

    那麼問題就變成了,你願意用多少隱私來換取救命?

  • The specifics of contact tracing vary by country, but the basics remain the same.

    追蹤聯繫人的具體細節因國家而異,但基本原則是一樣的。

  • Step one.

    第一步:

  • Identify and isolate confirmed cases of covert 19 step to trace their movement and contact with others.

    查明並隔離已證實的祕密19步案件,以追蹤其動向和與他人的聯繫;

  • Backwards.

    倒退。

  • Finding people who may be at risk without knowing it.

    尋找可能處於危險中而不自知的人。

  • Step three.

    第三步:

  • Quarantine and track the movements of confirmed cases going forward.

    隔離和跟蹤已確認案件的動向。

  • It's a very lengthy process that requires many different steps, but at the end what you're trying to achieve this break that chain of transmission.

    這是一個非常漫長的過程,需要很多不同的步驟,但最後你要實現的是打破這個傳輸鏈。

  • So that way you don't have new outbreaks, if you will, or new cases of the disease itself.

    所以這樣一來,你就不會有新的疫情爆發,如果你願意的話,也不會有新的疾病本身的病例。

  • Rather than spending time treating new cases, contact tracing allows officials to stop the spread of the virus in the first place.

    與其花時間治療新的病例,不如進行接觸者追蹤,讓官員們能夠在第一時間阻止病毒的傳播。

  • That's how countries that have implemented contact tracing have been able to flatten the curve.

    這也是實施接觸追蹤的國家能夠平抑曲線的原因。

  • This requires a lot of manpower.

    這需要大量的人力。

  • It also requires a monumental amount of data, which is where the issue of privacy comes into play to make contact.

    這也需要大量的數據,這也是隱私問題的關鍵所在,要進行接觸。

  • Tracing truly effective, it is important to have verifiable records of people's whereabouts and contact with others.

    真正有效的追蹤,必須對人們的行蹤和與他人的聯繫有可核查的記錄。

  • Some countries have developed APS that trace your cell phones GPS signal, thus keeping a log of every place you've been.

    一些國家已經開發了APS,可以追蹤你的手機GPS信號,從而記錄你去過的每一個地方。

  • To many, that might sound like the start of a dystopian horror movie, the government tracking your every move and knowing everyone you speak with.

    對很多人來說,這可能聽起來像是一部荒誕恐怖電影的開始,政府跟蹤你的一舉一動,知道你的每個人說話。

  • On the other hand, the covert 19 pandemic seems straight out of a horror film itself.

    另一方面,隱祕的19大疫情似乎直接從恐怖片本身中走出來。

  • On the results of contact tracing speak for themselves.

    關於聯繫追蹤的結果不言而喻。

  • Take Singapore, for example.

    以新加坡為例。

  • The number of confirmed cases in the country is around 4500 as of April 16th, despite being relatively near China, the country where experts believe the virus originated, Singapore was aggressive and adopting contact.

    截至4月16日,全國確診病例數約為4500例,儘管離專家認為的病毒起源國中國比較近,但新加坡還是積極地採取了聯繫。

  • Tracing the country utilized the National Health Service, police detectives and a contact tracing app to track the spread of the virus.

    追蹤國家利用國家衛生服務機構、警方偵探和一個聯繫人追蹤應用程序來追蹤病毒的傳播。

  • Their contact tracing program was so effective that about 40% of people in the first wave of confirmed Cove in 19 cases in the country, discovered that they had been exposed to the virus when they received a phone call from Singapore's Ministry of Health.

    他們的接觸者追蹤計劃非常有效,在國內第一波19例確診的科夫中,約有40%的人,在接到新加坡衛生部的電話時,發現自己曾接觸過病毒。

  • The call informed them of when, where and how they came into contact with the virus and told them to be tested and isolated.

    電話中告知他們接觸病毒的時間、地點和方式,並告知他們要進行檢測和隔離。

  • Meanwhile, in the United States, government authorities have not yet aggressively pursued contact tracing as a tactic to help prevent the spread of covert 19 despite the fact that there are now more confirmed cases in the US than any other country in the world.

    與此同時,在美國,儘管美國目前的確診病例比世界上任何其他國家都多,但政府當局尚未積極推行追蹤接觸者的策略,以幫助防止祕密19的蔓延。

  • We saw this play out in New York City, where the first confirmed case of the novel Coronavirus was diagnosed on March 1st.

    我們在紐約市看到了這一幕,3月1日,紐約市確診了首例新型冠狀病毒的病例。

  • Just a week prior, the woman who tested positive had returned to New York from Doha, Qatar, landing at John F.

    就在一週前,這名檢測呈陽性的女子從卡達多哈返回紐約,在約翰-F-降落。

  • Kennedy International Airport.

    肯尼迪國際機場。

  • Public officials promised to track down every person who had been aboard her flight to identify other potential cases.

    公職人員承諾,將追查每一個曾乘坐她的班機的人,以查明其他潛在的案件。

  • But according to the New York Times, that never happened.

    但據《紐約時報》報道,這種情況從未發生過。

  • A lack of available tests and the uniquely dense population of New York City also contributed to the rapid spread of the virus in the city and the state, where more than 240,000 cases have now been reported.

    由於缺乏可用的檢測手段,加上紐約市人口密度獨特,也導致了該病毒在該市和該州的迅速傳播,目前已有超過24萬例的報告。

  • And while New York did engage in contact tracing to an extent, it was nowhere near as vigorous as in countries where the practice has been highly effective.

    雖然紐約確實在一定程度上進行了聯繫追查,但遠不如那些做法非常有效的國家那麼積極。

  • China, for example, implemented a huge workforce, and they were able to do tens of thousands off contact tracing every single day.

    例如,中國實施了龐大的勞動力,他們每天都能進行數萬次的接觸追蹤。

  • We do not have that infrastructure here in the United States.

    在美國,我們沒有這種基礎設施。

  • Yet another thing to note is that they were just doing it in a very small area of China.

    然而還有一點需要注意的是,他們只是在中國一個很小的區域內進行。

  • We would need to do it throughout the United States because we are having hotspots throughout the United States.

    我們需要在全美國進行,因為我們在全美國都有熱點。

  • In New York City, where the population is over 8.3 million, 50 disease detectives were deployed to trace the spread of the virus in the early days of the outbreak.

    在人口超過830萬的紐約市,在疫情爆發初期,就派出了50名疾病檢測人員,追蹤病毒的傳播。

  • That's only one disease detective for every 166,000 people.

    也就是每16.6萬人中才有一個疾病檢測員。

  • Wuhan, China, where the crisis is thought to have originated, has a slightly higher population.

    被認為是危機起源地的中國武漢,人口略多。

  • They're more than 9000 disease detectives were deployed to trace known cases.

    他們出動了9000多名疾病偵查員,追蹤已知病例。

  • This disparity is not unique to New York, however, in the United States on Lee.

    不過,這種差距並不是紐約獨有的,在美國的李。

  • About 3600 disease detectives have been trained by the Epidemic Intelligence Service program since 1951.

    自1951年以來,約有3600名疾病偵探接受了流行病情報處方案的培訓。

  • That's for a population of over 329 million people.

    那是針對3.29億多人口而言的。

  • While manual contact tracing is important, Data helps.

    人工追蹤聯繫人固然重要,但Data也能提供幫助。

  • Singapore has released a nap that not only tracks user's location but also uses Bluetooth to record proximity to others for using the APP and the manual contact.

    新加坡發佈了一款午睡,不僅可以追蹤用戶的位置,還可以用藍牙記錄與他人的接近,以便使用APP和人工聯繫。

  • Tracing may not be as robust.

    追蹤可能不那麼有力。

  • In the United States.

    在美國:

  • Data collection certainly is.

    數據收集當然是。

  • Citizens movements are on full display.

    市民運動充分展示了。

  • The A Silicon Valley companies big and small, lesser known entities like Cubic and you know, cast have already been providing tracking data to the public.

    A硅谷大大小小的公司,像Cubic和你知道的,投等不太知名的實體已經在向公眾提供追蹤數據。

  • And while you know cast collects its data via an opt in app, Cubic says only that it relies on cue Bix first party data to create its interactive map.

    而你知道投通過選擇應用來收集其數據,Cubic表示只是依靠線索Bix第一方數據來創建其互動地圖。

  • So with the technology and data for contact tracing readily available, the question remains.

    所以,在有了現成的聯絡人追蹤技術和數據後,問題依然存在。

  • Why was the U.

    為什麼美國。

  • S so slow to adopt Contact tracing on a wider scale?

    在更大範圍內採用接觸式追蹤方面進展如此緩慢?

  • The answer may be our own rights to privacy and how dearly we hold them.

    答案可能是我們自己的隱私權,以及我們對隱私權的珍視。

  • American's attitudes about their private data being shared are well documented.

    美國人對自己的私人數據被共享的態度是有據可查的。

  • Wiretapping phones of American citizens was a hot button political issue in the not so distant past and more recently, large corporations mining us for data has come to the forefront of the national consciousness.

    竊聽美國公民的電話在不久前還是一個熱點政治問題,而最近,大公司挖掘我們的數據已經成為國民意識的焦點。

  • Those attitudes may shift as the covert 19 crisis continues.

    隨著19號祕密危機的持續,這些態度可能會發生變化。

  • So in order for us to get Teoh, a post coronavirus disease era where we're able to lift some of these social distancing restrictions and you know, for all intensive purposes, resume whatever our normal lives will look like, we need to make sure we're able to implement rigorous contact tracing, um, to be able thio, isolate those individuals and quarantine individuals that may have the disease itself.

    是以,為了讓我們得到Teoh,一個后冠狀病毒疾病的時代,在那裡我們能夠解除一些這些社會距離的限制,你知道,對於所有密集的目的,恢復我們的正常生活將是什麼樣的,我們需要確保我們能夠實施嚴格的接觸跟蹤,嗯,能夠thio,隔離那些個人和隔離個人,可能有疾病本身。

  • While a recent poll showed that a majority of Americans agree that measures like closing schools and businesses are necessary to combat the coronavirus, they also share a desire to return the day to day operations of the country to his close to normal as possible as soon and as safely as possible.

    雖然最近的一項民意調查顯示,大多數美國人同意像關閉學校和企業這樣的措施是必要的,以打擊冠狀病毒,他們也分享了一個願望,以返回國家的日常運作到他的接近正常儘快和儘可能安全。

  • At the same time, health experts predict a second wave of the virus to hit sometime in 2020 or 2021 so offering up our location information might be the best way to get through this safeguarding privacy is something that is going to be a huge roadblock.

    與此同時,健康專家預測第二波病毒將在2020年或2021年的某個時候襲擊,所以提供我們的位置資訊可能是最好的方式,通過這種保障隱私的方式是一個巨大的路障。

  • But at the same time, I think that we're living in a very technology savvy society where we should be able Thio with some degree, you know, work around that.

    但與此同時,我認為我們生活在一個非常精通技術的社會里,我們應該能夠在一定程度上,你知道,圍繞著這個工作。

  • I think we can have this even as a voluntary basis, being able to consent in a way and letting them know this is obviously what's great not just for them, but for the greater community.

    我認為我們即使是在自願的基礎上也可以有這樣的做法,能夠在某種程度上同意,讓他們知道這顯然是什麼,不僅對他們來說是偉大的,而且對更大的社會來說是偉大的。

  • If you won't want to resume our normal life, whatever that again, I'm gonna look like, um, you know, this is something that needs to be done.

    如果你不想恢復我們的正常生活,不管那是什麼,我都會看起來,嗯,你知道,這是需要做的事情。

  • The tech world has already started to publicly collect this data.

    科技界已經開始公開收集這些數據。

  • Facebook's Data for good Program has created data maps that show distributions of people reporting covitz symptoms, density of at risk populations, areas that are socially connected to current hotspots and more.

    Facebook的 "數據為善計劃 "製作了數據地圖,顯示了報告科維茲症狀的人群分佈、高危人群的密度、與當前熱點的社會聯繫區域等。

  • Apple and Google have announced plans for a joint venture to create an opt in contact tracing app that would be compatible with both Apple and Android phones.

    蘋果和谷歌已經宣佈計劃成立一家合資公司,打造一款可以兼容蘋果和安卓手機的聯繫人追蹤應用。

  • But with this push for more government access to location tracking data also comes another push for more user protection.

    但在推動政府更多獲取位置追蹤數據的同時,也帶來了另一個推動更多用戶保護的問題。

  • As of now, there are no comprehensive federal laws around data privacy in the United States.

    截至目前,美國還沒有一部圍繞數據隱私的綜合性聯邦法律。

  • It's happened only on a state level in 2000 and 18 that California Consumer Privacy Act was enacted, giving California users a legal right to know what data is collected, the right to delete personal information held by businesses and the right to opt out of the sale of personal information.

    2000年和18年,加州消費者隱私法的頒佈才發生在州一級,加州用戶有合法的權利知道收集了哪些數據,有權利刪除企業持有的個人信息,有權利選擇不出售個人信息。

  • Other states air following California's lead.

    其他州也在效仿加州的做法。

  • Nevada passed similar legislation, and New York, Texas and Washington have also proposed legislation similar to California's Privacy Act.

    內華達州通過了類似的立法,紐約州、德克薩斯州和華盛頓州也提出了類似加州《隱私法》的立法。

  • In other states, legal rights to data privacy are not nearly as clear or strong.

    在其他州,數據隱私的法律權利沒有那麼明確或強烈。

  • So in the case of the US, what we do know is that large amounts of data, including location tracking, are already being collected.

    所以在美國的情況下,我們知道的是,大量的數據,包括位置跟蹤,已經被收集起來了。

as co vid 19 continues to spread around the globe.

由於co vid 19繼續在全球範圍內傳播。

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B1 中級 中文 追蹤 數據 接觸 隱私 病毒 新加坡

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