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  • Narrator: Here's a riddle for you,

    旁白:給你出個謎語

  • a man is standing in the desert.

    一個人站在沙漠中。

  • He's thirsty, parched, and surrounded by fresh water

    他口渴了,乾渴了,周圍都是淡水。

  • but he can't drink.

    但他不能喝。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • He's surrounded by fog.

    他被霧氣包圍了。

  • This isn't actually a riddle, it's a real problem

    這其實不是一個謎語,而是一個真正的問題。

  • scientists have been trying to solve for years.

    科學家們多年來一直試圖解決。

  • And the solution might just be this little beetle.

    而解決辦法可能就是這隻小甲蟲。

  • It might not look like much,

    它可能看起來不大。

  • but it can pull water out of thin air.

    但它能憑空拉出水來。

  • Two-thirds of people on Earth face an extreme water shortage

    地球上有三分之二的人面臨著極度缺水的問題。

  • at least one month a year.

    每年至少有一個月的時間。

  • Half a billion don't have enough water year-round.

    5億人常年沒有足夠的水。

  • And these numbers are only expected to rise

    而這些數字預計只會上升

  • as climate change takes its toll.

    由於氣候變化造成的損失。

  • But what many of these regions lack

    但這些地區中的許多地區缺乏的是

  • in traditional water sources, they make up for in fog,

    在傳統水源中,他們彌補了霧。

  • like the Namib Desert.

    如納米布沙漠。

  • It's one of the oldest and driest places in the world.

    這裡是世界上最古老、最乾燥的地方之一。

  • Depending on how far you are from the coast,

    取決於你離海岸有多遠。

  • rainfall averages about a half-inch to two inches per year.

    每年平均降雨量約為半英寸至兩英寸。

  • But it's what we would consider a fog desert,

    但這是我們認為的霧霾沙漠。

  • a place where fog is the main water source

    霧區

  • for plant and animal life, like the Namib Desert beetle.

    為動植物生命,如那密比亞沙漠甲蟲。

  • At first glance, this group of beetles

    乍看之下,這群甲蟲

  • would seem to be really bad at capturing fog.

    似乎真的不擅長捕捉霧氣。

  • It's tiny, it's round,

    很小,很圓。

  • and our current fog-collecting technology

    和我們現在的霧氣收集技術。

  • looks nothing like it.

    看起來一點也不像。

  • Fog meshes right now are based on leaves

    現在的霧狀網格是基於葉子的

  • and blades of grass,

    和草葉。

  • and their efficacy is determined

    而它們的功效決定於

  • by this complicated formula.

    通過這個複雜的公式。

  • Where these two basically confirm

    其中這兩個基本確認

  • that fast winds, big droplets,

    那快的風,大的水滴。

  • and slender targets across a large area

    和大面積細長目標

  • are the best conditions for collecting.

    是收藏的最佳條件。

  • And this one represents the mesh's ability

    而這個代表了網格的能力

  • to drain the collected droplets into a reservoir

    將收集到的液滴排入蓄水池中

  • without clogging.

    而不堵塞。

  • So, based on the formula, the Namib Desert beetle

    所以,根據這個公式,那密比亞沙漠甲蟲

  • shouldn't be able to do what it does.

    不應該能做到它所做的事情。

  • Since, you know, beetles aren't made of mesh.

    因為,你知道,甲蟲不是網眼做的。

  • And yet, when fog rolls in,

    然而,當霧氣滾滾而來的時候。

  • the beetle climbs to the top of a dune

    蠹蟲上山

  • and fog basks, leaning down and into the wind.

    和霧的沐浴,俯身入風。

  • Water droplets collect on its back

    水滴聚集在它的背上

  • and roll down to its mouth.

    並滾落到其口中。

  • As simple as that sounds, it's very literally

    雖然聽起來很簡單,但從字面上看,它是非常簡單的

  • like trying to catch a cloud and pin it down.

    就像想抓住一朵雲,然後把它釘在上面。

  • Hunter King: If you wave your fingers through mist,

    獵人王:如果你在霧中揮指。

  • you don't see just a path where your fingers were

    你看不到的只是一條你手指的路

  • and all the water collected.

    以及所有收集的水。

  • It just flows with the air, right through them.

    它只是隨著空氣流動,直接穿過它們。

  • Narrator: But the beetle manages to do what we cannot.

    但甲蟲能做到我們做不到的事但甲蟲卻能做到我們做不到的事。

  • The secret is in its exoskeleton.

    祕密就在於它的外骨骼。

  • And it's very much a secret.

    而且這是個非常大的祕密。

  • King: We are far away from that still,

    金。我們離這一點還很遠。

  • or we're getting closer.

    或者我們越來越接近了。

  • Narrator: A lot of research has been done

    旁白:已經做了很多研究

  • on how the water moves to the beetle's mouth,

    關於水如何移動到甲蟲的嘴裡。

  • but almost none has covered

    但幾乎沒有一個人涵蓋

  • how the droplets get there in the first place.

    水滴是如何到達那裡擺在首位的。

  • Hunter King and his team tried to find the answer

    獵人王和他的團隊試圖找到答案。

  • but hit an unexpected bump in the road.

    卻遇到了意想不到的坎坷。

  • The original beetle

    原來的甲蟲

  • that scientists started researching first had exactly that,

    科學家們首先開始研究的正是有。

  • bumps on its exoskeleton.

    它的外骨骼上的凸起。

  • And those bumps were theorized to have an impact

    而這些顛簸理論上是有影響的。

  • on the efficiency of fog collection.

    對霧氣收集效率的影響。

  • But...

    但是...

  • King: It turns out the beetle that has the bumps

    王:原來是有疙瘩的甲蟲。

  • is not one of the fog-basking beetles.

    並不是霧障甲蟲中的一種。

  • Narrator: King and his team decided to move forward

    旁白:King和他的團隊決定繼續前進

  • with their experiment anyways.

    與他們的實驗反正。

  • In the lab, they 3D-printed spheres and cylinders

    在實驗室裡,他們3D打印了球體和圓柱體。

  • with various surface textures, smooth, ridged, and bumpy.

    具有不同的表面紋理,光滑、有脊、有凹凸。

  • They then put the spheres in a foggy wind tunnel.

    然後,他們把這些球體放在一個霧氣繚繞的風洞裡。

  • Turns out the sphere with one millimeter bumps

    原來球體上有一毫米的凸點

  • captured fog 2.5 times better than the smooth sphere.

    捕獲的霧氣比光滑球體好2.5倍。

  • - If you add ridges

    - 如果加上脊

  • that are maybe a little bit like the beetle

    也許有一點像甲蟲

  • that we found is the fog basker,

    我們發現的是霧盆客。

  • you go up to something like a factor of two,

    你去的東西像兩個因素。

  • so it's still not small.

    所以還是不小。

  • Narrator: Further research in partnership

    敘述者:進一步的合作研究

  • with computational fluid dynamics experts

    與計算流體動力學專家

  • at the University of Illinois, zoomed in even closer.

    在伊利諾伊大學,更近距離放大。

  • They developed a computer model

    他們開發了一個計算機模型

  • that tested droplets' ability to bump into a surface.

    測試液滴撞擊表面的能力。

  • Tiny water droplets have very little inertia,

    小小的水滴有很小的慣性。

  • and have to squeeze a film of air out of the way

    擠出一層空氣

  • before making contact.

    在接觸之前,。

  • The model found that the less squeezing droplets have to do,

    該模型發現,擠壓液滴要做的事情越少。

  • the more that bump into the surface,

    撞到表面的越多。

  • which is what you should get with rougher textures.

    這是你應該得到的更粗糙的紋理。

  • These tiny details are important

    這些微小的細節很重要

  • for harnessing and recreating these properties

    駕馭和重現這些特性的方法。

  • into a usable technology.

    變成一種可用的技術。

  • King: If we understand the beetle's game,

    王:如果我們瞭解甲蟲的遊戲。

  • then we can play it differently towards greater effect.

    那麼我們可以用不同的方式來發揮更大的效果。

  • Narrator: Even a slight increase in efficacy

    旁白:哪怕是功效的輕微增加

  • could improve the lives of people

    可以改善人們的生活

  • who rely on current fog capture tech.

    誰依靠目前的霧氣捕捉技術。

  • And we're not just talking drinking water here,

    而且我們不只是在談論飲用水。

  • fog capture can open agricultural doors,

    霧氣捕捉可以打開農業大門。

  • allowing people to raise more crops and livestock.

    讓人們能夠飼養更多的農作物和牲畜;

  • Identifying these properties is one thing.

    識別這些特性是一回事。

  • But once scientists are able to harness them,

    但一旦科學家能夠駕馭它們。

  • engineers should be able to design

    工程師應該能夠設計

  • all sorts of fog collectors.

    各種各樣的霧氣收集器。

  • Stand-alone fog-collecting structures, for sure.

    獨立的集霧結構,是肯定的。

  • But they could also use the material

    但他們也可以使用材料

  • to coat existing objects

    來塗抹現有的對象

  • to turn anything into a fog collector.

    把任何東西變成霧氣收集器。

  • King: There have been proposals about modifying tents,

    金。有人提出了關於修改帳篷的建議。

  • say for refugee camps,

    難民營的說法。

  • if we were to say that these tents

    如果說這些帳篷

  • are going to be in a place

    將要在一個地方

  • where there is enough wind-driven fog,

    在有足夠的風動霧的地方。

  • then you could make bumps on the surface of it.

    那你就可以在它的表面上做凸起。

  • Narrator: Both King's semi-accidental bump discovery

    旁白:都是King的半意外碰撞發現的

  • and the still-unknown qualities

    和尚不為人知的品質

  • of the actual fog-basking beetle

    霧化甲蟲的實際情況。

  • could help solve the riddle,

    可以幫助解開謎底。

  • giving that man in the desert a better way to drink.

    給那個沙漠裡的人一個更好的喝水方式。

  • And, potentially, ending water scarcity for good.

    而且,有可能徹底結束水資源短缺。

Narrator: Here's a riddle for you,

旁白:給你出個謎語

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B1 中級 中文 甲蟲 霧氣 球體 沙漠 旁白 表面

這種甲蟲如何幫助解決我們的水危機|進化科技 (How This Beetle Could Help Solve Our Water Crisis | Evolutionary Tech)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 23 日
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