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  • Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    譯者: Yunchi Hsu 審譯者: Yi-Ping Cho (Marssi)

  • In the summer of 2014,

    在 2014 年的夏天,

  • I found myself sitting across from a man

    我坐在一位男性的對面,

  • who, by every definition, was my enemy.

    這個人,從各種意義上來說, 都算是我的敵人。

  • His name was Craig Watts,

    他叫做克雷格‧沃茨,

  • and he's a chicken factory farmer.

    是一位養雞的農夫。

  • My career is devoted to protecting farmed animals

    我的生涯是致力於保護養殖場的動物,

  • and ending factory farming.

    並終結工廠化養殖業。

  • And up until this point in my life,

    到我的人生中的這一刻為止,

  • I had spent every waking moment

    我花費每個清醒的時刻,

  • standing up against everything this man stood for,

    起身反對這個男人代表的一切,

  • and now, I was in his living room.

    而當下,我就坐在他的客廳裡。

  • The day I met Craig Watts

    我遇見克雷格‧沃茨那天,

  • he had been raising chickens for 22 years

    他已經為一家叫做「寶鵰」的公司 養雞養了二十二年,

  • for a company called Perdue,

    這間公司是全國 第四大生產雞肉的公司。

  • the fourth largest chicken company in the entire country.

    當他還年輕的時候,

  • And as a young man,

    他就渴望著以這種謀生方式留在

  • he had yearned for this way to stay on the land

    該州中最貧困的縣中的農場。

  • in one of the poorest counties in the state.

    所以當雞肉公司進駐到鎮上時,

  • So when the chicken industry came to town,

    他心想:「這簡直是美夢成真!」

  • he thought, "This is a dream come true."

    他借了二十五萬美元的貸款,

  • He took a quarter of a million dollar loan out,

    並建造了這些雞舍。

  • and he built these chicken houses.

    寶鵰會給他一群雞,他就飼養牠們,

  • Perdue would give him a flock, he'd raise them,

    而每個雞群都帶給他報酬,

  • and each flock he'd get paid,

    然後他就以小額還款的方式還清貸款,

  • and then he'd pay off in small increments that loan,

    就像是抵押貸款一樣。

  • like a mortgage.

    但沒多久,雞生病了。

  • But pretty soon, the chickens got sick.

    那畢竟是個養殖場,

  • It's a factory farm, after all,

    裡面有兩萬五千隻雞

  • there are 25,000 chickens

    擠滿整片養殖場的地板上,

  • that are stuffed wall-to-wall,

    吃牠們自己糞便維生, 呼吸充滿氨味的空氣。

  • living on their own feces, breathing ammonia-laden air.

    有些病雞會活不下來。

  • And when chickens get sick, some of them die.

    而死掉的雞不能賣來賺錢,

  • And you don't get paid for dead chickens,

    克雷格開始付不清他的貸款,

  • and Craig started to struggle to pay off his loan,

    他知道他犯了錯,

  • he realized he made a mistake,

    但這個情況下, 他只不過是個契約傭工。

  • but he was all but an indentured servant at this stage.

    當我見到他時, 他已經在崩潰的臨界點。

  • When I met him, he was at a breaking point.

    要付的款項彷彿沒有盡頭,

  • The payments seemed never-ending.

    如同他雞群的

  • As did the death,

    死亡、絕望與病痛。

  • despair and illness of his chickens.

    如果我們人類試著想像出極其不公、

  • Now, if we humans tried to think of some super unjust,

    不義、骯髒且殘酷的糧食體系,

  • unfair, filthy and cruel food system,

    沒有甚麼比工廠化養殖業還要來得糟糕。

  • we could not have thought of anything worse than factory farming.

    全球每年有八百億養殖場的動物

  • Eighty billion farmed animals around the world annually

    被飼養及屠殺。

  • are raised and slaughtered.

    牠們被塞在籠子與倉庫裡, 永遠不見天日。

  • They're stuffed in cages and warehouses never to see the light of day.

    但對這些養殖場動物,這不只個問題。

  • And that's not just a problem for those farmed animals.

    畜牧業

  • Animal agriculture,

    所占的溫室氣體排放量

  • it accounts for more greenhouse gas emissions

    比所有的飛機、火車和汽車 合在一起的排放量還要多。

  • than all of the planes, trains and automobiles put together.

    三分之一的可耕地被用來

  • And one third of our arable land is used

    種植用來餵養殖場動物的糧食,

  • to grow feed to feed factory-farmed animals,

    而非種來給我們吃。

  • rather than ourselves.

    那些土地上都被噴灑 無以計數的化學藥物。

  • And all that land is sprayed with immeasurable chemicals.

    還有,重要的生態棲息地,

  • And ecologically important habitats,

    如亞馬遜叢林,

  • like the Amazon,

    被砍伐並燒毀,

  • are cut down and are burnt,

    我們做的這一切都是為了 餵飽這些養殖場的動物。

  • all so we can feed and house farmed animals.

    當我的三個小孩長大的時候,

  • By the time my three kids grow up,

    他們很有可能已經看不到

  • there's very unlikely to be polar bears,

    北極熊、蘇門答臘象和紅毛猩猩。

  • Sumatran elephants, orangutans.

    在我還活著的時候,

  • In my lifetime,

    鳥類、兩棲類、爬蟲類 和哺乳類動物的數量已減少一半。

  • the number of birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals has halved.

    而主要的罪魁禍首,

  • And the main culprit

    即是全球對肉類、奶製品 與雞蛋的需求。

  • is our global appetite for meat, dairy and eggs.

    對我而言,直到這一刻,

  • And for me, up until this point,

    克雷格‧沃茨是個壞人。

  • the villain was Craig Watts.

    當我坐在他家的客廳裡時,

  • And as I sat there in his living room,

    我的恐懼和憤怒轉變成其他的情緒。

  • my fear and my anger turned into something else.

    羞愧。

  • Shame.

    我花了整個人生責怪他、

  • My whole life I had spent blaming him,

    痛恨他、

  • hating him,

    甚至詛咒他生病。

  • I even wished him ill.

    我從來都沒有

  • I had never once

    想到他的掙扎與選項。

  • thought about his struggle, his choices.

    他會不會是一個潛在的盟友呢?

  • Could he be a potential ally?

    我從來沒有想到

  • I never had thought

    他就和雞群一樣感到受困其中。

  • he feels as trapped as the chickens.

    我們已經在那裡坐了幾個小時,

  • So we had been sitting there for hours

    從中午坐到下午、

  • and the midday turned into afternoon,

    坐到黃昏、坐到黑夜。

  • turned into dusk, turned into darkness,

    然後他突然說:

  • and he suddenly said,

    「好吧。那你準備好 去看那些雞了嗎?」

  • "OK, are you ready to see the chickens?"

    所以在夜幕之下,

  • So under the cover of darkness,

    我們走向這些長長的灰色屋舍之一。

  • we walked towards one of these long, gray houses.

    他推開了門,

  • And he swung open the door

    我們踏入屋內,

  • and we stepped inside,

    一股強烈的氣味朝我們撲來,

  • and we were hit with this overpowering smell

    我身上的每一吋肌肉都緊繃起來,

  • and every muscle in my body tensed up

    我開始咳嗽又泛淚。

  • and I coughed and my eyes teared.

    生理上的不適讓我太難受了,

  • I was too overwhelmed by my own physical discomfort,

    我甚至忘了先觀察四周,

  • I didn't even look around at first,

    但是當我觀察到時,

  • but when I did,

    眼前見到的景象使我落淚。

  • what I saw brought me to tears.

    成千上萬隻破殼而出的小雞,

  • Tens of thousands of newly hatched chicks

    在這個逐漸黯淡的倉庫裡,

  • in this darkened warehouse

    無處可去且無所適從。

  • with nowhere to go and nothing to do.

    接下來的幾個月,

  • Over the next few months, I returned many times,

    我和導演雷根‧霍奇回去那裡很多次,

  • with filmmaker Raegan Hodge,

    為了記錄、瞭解,

  • to record, to understand,

    並和克雷格建立信任。

  • to build trust with Craig.

    我陪他走過他的雞舍,

  • And I walked his houses with him

    他一邊拾起已經死掉的、垂死的、

  • as he picked up dead and dying birds,

    腳長得畸形的、呼吸困難的,

  • birds with messed-up legs and trouble breathing

    和無法好好行走的鳥兒。

  • and difficulty walking.

    我們用鏡頭將這些全捕捉下來。

  • And all of this we caught on film.

    然後,我們決定做一件

  • And then we decided to do something

    我認為我們在初次見面時 都沒想到會做的事。

  • I don't think either he or I ever expected to do when we first met.

    我們決定要公開這些影像。

  • We decided to release that footage.

    這會為我們兩人都帶來非常高的風險。

  • And that was really risky for both of us.

    對他來說風險很高, 因為他可能會失去收入來源、

  • It was risky for him because he could lose his income,

    失去他的家和土地, 並且讓他的鄰居討厭他。

  • his home, his land, his neighbors hating him.

    而我可能會使我的組織遭到控告、

  • And I could risk getting my organization sued,

    或成為他失去一切的禍因。

  • or being the reason that he would lose everything,

    但儘管如此,我們必須這麼做。

  • but we had to do it anyway.

    《紐約時報》發布報導,

  • "The New York Times" broke the story

    在二十四小時內,

  • and within 24 hours,

    已經有一百萬的人看了我們的影片。

  • a million people had seen our video.

    從各種意義來看,它爆紅了,

  • It went viral by every definition,

    接著我們突然有了全球性的平台

  • and suddenly we had this global platform

    來討論工廠化養殖業。

  • for talking about factory farming.

    而和克雷格的合作使我思考一些問題:

  • And working with Craig got me thinking.

    外頭還有哪些意想不到的的盟友?

  • What other unlikely allies are out there?

    若我跨入敵人的地盤,

  • What other progress,

    我還可以有哪些進展、學到哪些教訓?

  • what other lessons can I learn if I cross those enemy lines?

    我學到的第一條教訓是

  • The first lesson I learned

    我們必須適應跨出舒適圈。

  • is that we have to become comfortable with being uncomfortable.

    若只有和我們持相同意見的人說話,

  • Only talking to people who agree with us,

    是不會幫我們找到解決方案的。

  • it's not going to get us to the solution.

    我們必須願意進到其他人的地盤。

  • We have to be willing to enter other people's space.

    因為很多時候,

  • Because quite often,

    敵人才有能力改變

  • the enemy has the power to change the problem

    我們試著解決的問題。

  • that we're trying to solve.

    以我來說,沒有任何一隻雞 是歸我管的,

  • In my case, I'm not in charge of a single chicken.

    農夫和肉品公司才是負責的人。

  • The farmer is and so are the meat companies.

    所以我如果我想要解決問題, 就必須進入他們的地盤。

  • So I need to enter their space if I want to solve the problem.

    在與克雷格合作之後,過了幾年,

  • And a couple of years after working with Craig,

    我再一次做了當初從未預期到的事,

  • I did something again I never expected to do.

    我和一位更大的、所謂的 敵人坐下進行談話,

  • I sat down with an even bigger so-called enemy:

    他正是寶鵰的總裁吉姆‧佩德。

  • Jim Perdue himself.

    在我的爆紅影片裡,我將他當成壞人。

  • The man I had made the villain of my viral video.

    再次,透過幾場艱難的對話

  • And again, through difficult conversations

    並跨出自己的舒適圈,

  • and being uncomfortable,

    佩德發起了家禽業公司有史以來

  • Perdue came out with the first animal care policy

    第一套的動物照護政策。

  • of any poultry company.

    他們同意在這個政策中

  • In it, they agreed to do

    做到一些我們在影片中批評 他們沒做到的事情,

  • some of the things we had criticized them for not doing in the viral video,

    像是為房舍裝設窗戶,

  • like put windows into houses.

    並為此幫忙付錢。

  • And pay for them.

    對我來說,這真是一堂寶貴的教訓。

  • And that was a really important lesson for me.

    第二條教訓是:

  • The second lesson

    當我們坐下來和敵人

  • is that when we sit down to negotiate

    協商時,

  • with the enemy,

    我們必須記得, 我們面對的同樣是位人類,

  • we need to remember, there's a human being in front of us

    而且很可能和我們有很多共通點,

  • that very likely has more in common with us

    但我們不願意承認。

  • than we care to admit.

    當我被邀請去參訪

  • And I learned this firsthand

    一家大型家禽業公司的總部時, 我親身體悟到這條教訓。

  • when I was invited to visit at a major poultry company's headquarters.

    這是我的組織第一次被邀請,

  • And it was the first time that my organization had been invited,

    也是在他們邀請的組織當中, 第一個赴約來參訪的。

  • and any organization had been invited, to visit with them.

    而當我們經過長廊時,

  • And as we walked through the corridor,

    真的有人從辦公室隔間探頭出來偷看,

  • there were literally people who were peeking our from the cubicles

    看一下動物權利的運動家 到底長甚麼樣子。

  • to get a quick look at what does an animal rights activist look like,

    而我們走過──

  • and we walked --

    我就長這個樣子,所以我不知道 他們預期的是甚麼。

  • I look like this, so I don't know what they were expecting.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    但當我走進會議室,

  • But as we walked into the boardroom,

    有一位負責的行政主管,坐在那裡。

  • there was an executive who was in charge, sitting there.

    他將手臂交叉在胸前,

  • And his arms were crossed

    看來他不想在那裡見到我。

  • and he did not want me to be there.

    我打開我的筆電,

  • And I flipped open my laptop,

    我的桌面背景出現,

  • and my background photo came up,

    那是一張我的三個小孩的照片。

  • and it was a picture of my three kids.

    我女兒很明顯長得跟我兒子不一樣。

  • My daughter clearly looks different than my sons.

    而當他看到那張照片時,他放下了手臂

  • And when he saw that photo he uncrossed his arms

    且歪著頭,往前靠近,並說:

  • and he tilted his head and he leaned forward and he said,

    「那些是妳的小孩嗎?」

  • "Are those your kids?"

    我說:「是的。

  • And I said, "Yeah.

    我才剛領養了我的女兒──」

  • I just got back from adopting my daughter -- "

    對於一場專業會議而言, 我講了太多廢話了。

  • And I babbled on way too much for a professional meeting.

    他打斷了我,又說:

  • And he stopped me and he said,

    「我有兩個領養的小孩。」

  • "I have two adopted kids."

    接下來的二十分鐘,

  • And for the next 20 minutes,

    我們就只聊那件事。

  • we just talked about that.

    我們談論關於領養和做家長的事情。

  • We talked about adoption and being a parent

    在那個時刻,

  • and in those moments,

    我們忘記了在那張桌上我們所應該

  • we forgot who we were supposed to be

    扮演的角色。

  • at that table.

    高牆傾倒了,

  • And the walls came down,

    我們搭建起一道橋樑, 跨越彼此的界線。

  • and a bridge was built and we crossed this divide.

    我們在這家公司上得到更多的進展,

  • And more progress was made with that company

    多虧我們所建立的人性連結。

  • because of that human connection that we made.

    我要分享的最後一條教訓是:

  • My last lesson for you

    當我們坐下來和所謂的敵人談話時,

  • is that when we sit down with the so-called enemy,

    我們必須找出雙贏的可能。

  • we need to look for the win-win.

    在拜訪了像克雷格‧沃茨 這樣的農夫之後,

  • Instead of going in with farmers like Craig Watts

    我想的並不是: 「我得叫他們別做這行了。」

  • and thinking, "I need to put them out of farming,"

    我開始想我可以如何幫助 他們成為不同類型的農夫,

  • I started to think how can I help them be different kinds of farmers,

    像是,去種大麻或香菇。

  • like, growing hemp or mushrooms.

    一位後來和我合作的農夫 就真的去種了。

  • And a farmer I later worked with did exactly that.

    他也和我一同參與 曝光報導也拍了影片,

  • He did do the exposé with me and filmed,

    我們又再一次找上《紐約時報》,

  • and we went with "The New York Times" again,

    但他所做的還不只這樣。

  • but he went beyond that.

    他放棄了養雞,

  • He quit chicken factory farming,

    結果他發現,

  • and it turns out

    那幾間又大、又長的灰色農舍,

  • that those big, long, gray warehouses

    是可以用來種別種作物的

  • are the perfect environment

    完美生長環境。

  • for growing something else.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    那正是大麻,各位,是大麻!

  • That's hemp, people, that's hemp.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    他可以用環保的謀生方式留在農場,

  • Here is an environmentally friendly way to stay on the land,

    並付清帳單,

  • to pay the bills,

    而這是一位吃全素的動物權利運動家

  • that a vegan animal rights activist

    與一位養雞的農夫都能認同的做法。

  • and a chicken farmer can get behind.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    與其想著

  • And instead of thinking,

    我如何讓這些肉品公司關門大吉,

  • how can I get these big meat companies out of business,

    我開始思考,如何幫他們 發展不同的產業。

  • I started thinking, how can I help them evolve into a different kind of business.

    他們可以不靠屠殺動物來取得蛋白質,

  • One where the protein doesn't come from slaughtered animals,

    而是從植物身上取得。

  • but rather, plants.

    信不信由你,

  • And believe it or not,

    這些大公司正要開始朝這方向發展。

  • these big companies are starting to move their ships in that direction.

    嘉吉、泰森和寶鵰正在把植物蛋白

  • Cargill and Tyson and Perdue are adding plant-based proteins

    列入他們的供應鏈。

  • into their supply chain.

    佩德本人則說:

  • And Perdue himself said that,

    「我們的公司是提供優質蛋白質的公司,

  • "Our company is a premium protein company,

    而蛋白質不必來自於動物。」

  • and nothing about that says that it has to come from animals."

    在我的家鄉亞特蘭大,

  • And in my own home town of Atlanta,

    肯德基攜手「超越肉類」, 進行了素食炸雞的

  • KFC did a one-day trial with Beyond Meat,

    一日試賣活動。

  • for plant-based chicken nuggets.

    反應超乎想像,

  • And it was insane,

    排隊隊伍繞了街角好幾圈,

  • there were lines wrapped around the corner,

    四面八方都塞車,

  • there was traffic stopped in all directions,

    你會以為他們是在免費放送 碧昂絲的演唱會門票。

  • you would think they were giving out free Beyoncé tickets.

    大家已經準備好接受改變。

  • People are ready for this shift.

    我們必須搭建一個可以讓所有人

  • We need to build a big tent

    都能進來避雨的帳篷。

  • that everyone can get under.

    從養雞場的農夫,

  • From the chicken factory farmer,

    到大型肉品公司,

  • to the mega meat company,

    到動物權利運動家。

  • to the animal rights activist