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  • The cosmos can be a dangerous place.

    宇宙可能是一個危險的地方。

  • Take black holes for example.

    以黑洞為例。

  • They're some of the most violent objects in our universe,

    它們是我們宇宙中最暴力的物體。

  • powerful enough to rip entire stars to pieces.

    強大到足以將整個星體撕成碎片。

  • Their secret weapon is gravity.

    他們的祕密武器是重力。

  • You see, the more mass you can shrink into a small space,

    你看,你可以把更多的品質收縮到一個小空間裡。

  • the stronger your gravitational force will become.

    你的引力就會變得越強。

  • To make Earth into a black hole, for instance,

    比如說,要把地球變成一個黑洞。

  • you'd have to shrink it to less than an inch across.

    你必須把它縮小到一英寸以下的寬度。

  • But real black holes are much larger than that

    但真正的黑洞要比這大得多

  • and pack way more mass than Earth.

    而且品質比地球大得多

  • Here's just how big black holes can really get.

    這就是黑洞到底能有多大。

  • There are three common types of black holes.

    常見的黑洞有三種類型。

  • The smallest are stellar black holes,

    最小的是恆星黑洞。

  • which form after a giant star explodes

    隕石

  • and collapses in on itself, like this one,

    並自相殘殺,比如這個。

  • which measures about 40 miles across,

    它的直徑約為40英里。

  • roughly three times the length of Manhattan.

    大約是曼哈頓長度的三倍。

  • But in that small space

    但在那個小空間裡

  • is enough mass to equal 11 of our suns.

    是足夠的品質,相當於我們11個太陽。

  • In another galaxy called M33,

    在另一個叫M33的星系裡。

  • there's a black hole that is 58 miles across

    有一個直徑58英里的黑洞。

  • and packs as much mass as 15.7 suns inside.

    並在裡面裝了15.7個太陽的品質。

  • Up next are the intermediate-mass black holes,

    接下來是中等品質黑洞。

  • like this one.

    像這個。

  • At 1,460 miles across,

    在1,460英里的範圍內。

  • it's nearly large enough to stretch from Florida to Maine,

    它幾乎大到可以從佛羅里達州延伸到緬因州。

  • and according to some calculations,

    而根據一些計算。

  • contains the mass of 400 suns.

    包含400個太陽的品質。

  • At this point,

    在這一點上。

  • black holes start to get pretty big compared to Earth,

    與地球相比,黑洞開始變得相當大。

  • but it's still nothing

    但這還不算什麼

  • when you consider the sheer mass they carry.

    當你考慮到他們所攜帶的純粹的品質。

  • Take this black hole for example.

    以這個黑洞為例。

  • It's nearly twice the size of Jupiter,

    它的大小几乎是木星的兩倍。

  • spanning a region about 172,000 miles wide,

    跨越約17.2萬英里寬的區域。

  • but inside is as much mass as 47,000 suns.

    但裡面的品質卻有47000個太陽那麼多。

  • But these black holes are nothing

    但這些黑洞什麼都不是

  • compared to supermassive black holes,

    與超大品質黑洞相比。

  • like Sagittarius A*,

    如射手座A*。

  • which lives at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.

    它生活在我們銀河系的中心。

  • It covers a region about 14.6 million miles in diameter.

    它覆蓋了一個直徑約1460萬英里的區域。

  • That's roughly 168 Jupiters across,

    這大概是168朱庇特的範圍。

  • and inside is the same amount of mass

    和裡面的品質是一樣的

  • as 4 million suns combined.

    作為400萬個太陽的總和。

  • Now, that may sound big,

    現在,這可能聽起來很大。

  • but Sagittarius A* is small

    但射手座A*小

  • compared to other supermassive black holes.

    與其他超大品質黑洞相比。

  • Take the one at the center of our neighbor,

    就拿我們鄰居中心的那個來說吧。

  • the Andromeda galaxy,

    仙女座星系。

  • which has a diameter of 516 million miles,

    它的直徑有5.16億英里。

  • larger than Jupiter's orbit,

    比木星的軌道大。

  • and contains enough mass

    並含有足夠的品質

  • to equal that of 140 million suns.

    以相當於1.4億個太陽的。

  • We're finally getting

    我們終於有了

  • to some of the largest black holes in the universe,

    到宇宙中一些最大的黑洞。

  • and yet, we haven't reached one

    然而,我們還沒有達到一個

  • that surpasses the size of our solar system.

    超越了太陽系的大小。

  • So let's look at the supermassive black hole

    那麼我們來看看超大品質黑洞吧

  • at the center of the Sombrero galaxy.

    在桑布羅星系的中心。

  • It measures 2 billion miles across,

    它的直徑有20億英里。

  • so it would stretch further than Uranus' orbit,

    所以它將比天王星的軌道延伸得更遠。

  • and it has about the same mass as 660 million suns.

    而且它的品質和6.6億個太陽的品質差不多。

  • And the supermassive black hole at the center of Messier 87

    而位於Messier 87中心的超大品質黑洞。

  • is so huge that astronomers could see it

    是如此巨大,天文學家可以看到它

  • from 55 million light-years away.

    從5500萬光年外。

  • It's 24 billion miles across

    縱橫240億裡

  • and contains the same mass as

    並含有相同的品質

  • 6 1/2 billion suns.

    六十五億個太陽。

  • But this supermassive black hole, as large as it is,

    但這個超大品質黑洞,大到。

  • could still fit within our solar system

    還能適應太陽系

  • with plenty of room to spare.

    有足夠的空間。

  • So we have to look at one of the most massive

    所以我們要看一個最龐大的。

  • of all supermassive black holes.

    所有超大品質黑洞的。

  • It has a diameter of about 78 billion miles.

    它的直徑約為780億英里。

  • For perspective, that's about 40% the size

    為方便起見,那是四成的面積。

  • of our solar system, according to some estimates.

    根據一些估計,太陽系的。

  • And it's estimated to be

    而且估計是

  • about 21 billion times the mass of our sun.

    大約是太陽品質的210億倍。

  • So there you have it,

    所以,你有它。

  • black holes can be millions of times larger

    黑洞可以大幾百萬倍

  • than suns and planets or as small as a city.

    比太陽和行星或小到一個城市。

  • It all depends on how much mass is inside.

    這要看裡面的品質有多大。

  • Turns out, when it comes to the cosmos,

    原來,說到宇宙。

  • size isn't the only thing that matters.

    尺寸不是唯一重要的東西。

The cosmos can be a dangerous place.

宇宙可能是一個危險的地方。

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宇宙中最極端的黑洞 (The Most Extreme Black Holes In The Universe)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 23 日
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