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  • Everything I do, and everything I do professionally --

    我所做的一切,

  • my life -- has been shaped

    所有工作、生活的一切, 已經在我年輕時

  • by seven years of work as a young man in Africa.

    在非洲工作的七年裡所形塑而成。

  • From 1971 to 1977 --

    從 1971 年到 1977 年間

  • I look young, but I'm not — (Laughter) --

    我看起來年輕,但其實不然。(笑聲)

  • I worked in Zambia, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Somalia,

    我在尚比亞、 肯亞、 象牙海岸、 阿爾及利亞、和索馬利亞工作,

  • in projects of technical cooperation with African countries.

    與非洲國家共同進行技術合作專案

  • I worked for an Italian NGO,

    我為一個義大利非政府組織工作

  • and every single project that we set up in Africa

    然而,我們在非洲建立的每一個專案

  • failed.

    都失敗了。

  • And I was distraught.

    我當時相當懊惱,

  • I thought, age 21, that we Italians were good people

    我那時 21 歲,以為我們義大利人都是好人,

  • and we were doing good work in Africa.

    以為我們在非洲做善事;

  • Instead, everything we touched we killed.

    相反地,任何被我們碰到的事情都搞砸了。

  • Our first project, the one that has inspired my first book,

    我們第一個專案, 那激勵我寫出第一本書的專案——

  • "Ripples from the Zambezi,"

    《尚比西河的微瀾》(Ripples from the Zambezi)——

  • was a project where we Italians

    是一個由我們義大利人所策劃的專案,

  • decided to teach Zambian people how to grow food.

    這專案的目的是要 教尚比亞人如何種植糧食。

  • So we arrived there with Italian seeds in southern Zambia

    所以我們帶著義大利的種子 來到尚比亞南方,

  • in this absolutely magnificent valley

    在這壯闊的山谷

  • going down to the Zambezi River,

    沿著河直下到尚比西河,

  • and we taught the local people how to grow Italian tomatoes

    然後我們教當地人種植義大利番茄、

  • and zucchini and ...

    還有櫛瓜......

  • And of course the local people had absolutely no interest

    當然,當地人對那一點興趣都沒有,

  • in doing that, so we paid them to come and work,

    所以我們付他們薪水,希望他們來工作,

  • and sometimes they would show up. (Laughter)

    然後,他們偶爾會出現一下。(笑聲)

  • And we were amazed that the local people,

    我們當時覺得當地人很妙,

  • in such a fertile valley, would not have any agriculture.

    身在這肥沃的山谷中,卻沒有任何農作物,

  • But instead of asking them how come they were not

    但我們沒有問他們 為什麼他們不種植任何作物,

  • growing anything, we simply said, "Thank God we're here." (Laughter)

    我們就只是說:「感謝上帝,我們在這裡。」(笑聲)

  • "Just in the nick of time to save the Zambian people from starvation."

    「我們正好在這關鍵時刻, 將尚比亞人民從饑餓中解救出來。」

  • And of course, everything in Africa grew beautifully.

    當然,在非洲,所有作物都長得很漂亮,

  • We had these magnificent tomatoes. In Italy, a tomato

    我們有這些超棒的番茄,在義大利

  • would grow to this size. In Zambia, to this size.

    番茄是長這麼大的;而在尚比亞,番茄也是這麼大。

  • And we could not believe, and we were telling the Zambians,

    我們不相信,我們告訴尚比亞人:

  • "Look how easy agriculture is."

    「看,農業是多麼簡單。」

  • When the tomatoes were nice and ripe and red,

    後來,當番茄漂亮了,成熟了,變紅了,

  • overnight, some 200 hippos came out from the river

    一夜之間,大約有兩百隻河馬 從河裡跑出來

  • and they ate everything. (Laughter)

    把它們全吃完了。(笑聲)

  • And we said to the Zambians, "My God, the hippos!"

    我們當時對尚比亞人說: 「噢上帝啊,那些河馬!」

  • And the Zambians said, "Yes, that's why we have no agriculture here." (Laughter)

    尚比亞人說:「是啊,這就是爲什麽 我們這兒沒有農業。」(笑聲)

  • "Why didn't you tell us?" "You never asked."

    「你們為什麼不告訴我們?」 「你們從來沒問過。」

  • I thought it was only us Italians blundering around Africa,

    我那時以為,只有我們義大利人 在非洲捅出嘍子而已,

  • but then I saw what the Americans were doing,

    但後來,我看看美國人做的事,

  • what the English were doing, what the French were doing,

    看看英國人做的事, 再看看法國人做的事,

  • and after seeing what they were doing,

    看完他們所做的後,

  • I became quite proud of our project in Zambia.

    我開始對我們在尚比亞的計劃感到自豪了。

  • Because, you see, at least we fed the hippos.

    因為,嘿,至少我們喂飽了那些河馬!

  • You should see the rubbish — (Applause) --

    你們應該看看我們那些破爛貨 (掌聲)——

  • You should see the rubbish that we have bestowed

    你們應該看看,我們提供給 那些毫無戒心的非洲人

  • on unsuspecting African people.

    的那些破爛貨,

  • You want to read the book,

    你們想要讀這本書的話,

  • read "Dead Aid," by Dambisa Moyo,

    可以讀《無用的援助》(Dead Aid), 作者是 Dambisa Moyo,

  • Zambian woman economist.

    尚比亞女經濟學家。

  • The book was published in 2009.

    這本書出版於 2009 年。

  • We Western donor countries have given the African continent

    我們西方援助國,在過去五十年來,

  • two trillion American dollars in the last 50 years.

    已經援助了非洲大陸兩兆美元。

  • I'm not going to tell you the damage that that money has done.

    我今天不是要告訴你們 這筆錢所造成的損害,

  • Just go and read her book.

    直接去讀她的書吧。

  • Read it from an African woman, the damage that we have done.

    讀讀那非洲女性所寫的書, 瞭解我們所造成的傷害。

  • We Western people are imperialist, colonialist missionaries,

    我們西方人是帝國主義者、殖民者和傳教士,

  • and there are only two ways we deal with people:

    我們只用兩種方法對付人:

  • We either patronize them, or we are paternalistic.

    要麼以恩人自居,資助(patronize)他們, 不然便一派家長式(paternalistic)的統治作風。

  • The two words come from the Latin root "pater,"

    這兩個字來自拉丁文字根 「pater」

  • which means "father."

    意指「父親」,

  • But they mean two different things.

    但它們意味著兩種不同的東西。

  • Paternalistic, I treat anybody from a different culture

    家長式(paternalistic)的統治作風,意味著 我對待任何不同文化背景的人

  • as if they were my children. "I love you so much."

    就如同他們是我的孩子, 「我非常愛你們。」

  • Patronizing, I treat everybody from another culture

    以恩人自居的資助(patronize),意味著 我對待任何不同文化背景的人

  • as if they were my servants.

    如同他們是我的僕人,

  • That's why the white people in Africa are called "bwana," boss.

    這就是為什麼,在非洲, 白人被稱為「bwana」,老闆。

  • I was given a slap in the face reading a book,

    我在讀這本書時, 臉上像是被賞了一記耳光。

  • "Small is Beautiful," written by Schumacher, who said,

    「小即是美」,Schumacher 曾這麼寫道,

  • above all in economic development, if people

    他說,在經濟發展上,如果人民

  • do not wish to be helped, leave them alone.

    不想被幫助,那就讓他們自己來;

  • This should be the first principle of aid.

    這應該作為援助的第一項原則,

  • The first principle of aid is respect.

    援助的第一項原則是尊重。

  • This morning, the gentleman who opened this conference

    今天早上,在這會議中 第一位演講的先生

  • lay a stick on the floor, and said,

    把一根棍子擺在地上,他問:

  • "Can we -- can you imagine a city

    「我們能夠想像,或者,你們能夠想像

  • that is not neocolonial?"

    哪一座城市不是新殖民主義的嗎?」

  • I decided when I was 27 years old

    我在 27 歲的時候決定

  • to only respond to people,

    只想回應人群,

  • and I invented a system called Enterprise Facilitation,

    我發明了一個叫做 企業促進(Enterprise Facilitation)的系統,

  • where you never initiate anything,

    在那,你永遠不須自行創立任何專案,

  • you never motivate anybody, but you become a servant

    你永遠無須激勵任何人,但你會成為

  • of the local passion, the servant of local people

    在地熱情的僕人, 當地人的僕人,

  • who have a dream to become a better person.

    而這些人有夢想: 他們希望成為更好的人。

  • So what you do -- you shut up.

    所以,你們要做的就是——閉上嘴。

  • You never arrive in a community with any ideas,

    你永遠不要帶著 任何想法抵達一個社區,

  • and you sit with the local people.

    而是與當地居民一同坐下來。

  • We don't work from offices.

    我們不在辦公室裡頭談事,

  • We meet at the cafe. We meet at the pub.

    而是在咖啡廳見面, 我們在酒吧見面,

  • We have zero infrastructure.

    我們沒有任何基礎設施。

  • And what we do, we become friends,

    我們所做的,就是變成朋友,

  • and we find out what that person wants to do.

    去弄清楚那人想做什麼。

  • The most important thing is passion.

    最重要的事,是熱情,

  • You can give somebody an idea.

    你可以給某人一個點子,

  • If that person doesn't want to do it,

    但如果那人不想做,

  • what are you going to do?

    你能怎麼辦?

  • The passion that the person has for her own growth

    對自己的成長感到熱情

  • is the most important thing.

    才是最重要的事。

  • The passion that that man has for his own personal growth

    人們為自己個人成長的熱情

  • is the most important thing.

    才是最重要的。

  • And then we help them to go and find the knowledge,

    這樣我們才能協助他們發現知識,

  • because nobody in the world can succeed alone.

    因為世上沒人能夠獨自成功。

  • The person with the idea may not have the knowledge,

    有點子的人不見得擁有知識,

  • but the knowledge is available.

    但知識就在那,信手拈來即可。

  • So years and years ago, I had this idea:

    所以許多年以前, 我有了這個想法:

  • Why don't we, for once, instead of arriving in the community

    為什麼我們不就試試看一次,就這麼一次, 我們不要跑到那裡告訴人們應該做什麼,

  • to tell people what to do, why don't, for once,

    為何不試試看,就這麼一次,

  • listen to them? But not in community meetings.

    聽取他們的意見?但不是在社區會議裡。

  • Let me tell you a secret.

    讓我告訴你一個秘密:

  • There is a problem with community meetings.

    社區會議有一個問題,

  • Entrepreneurs never come,

    企業家是永遠不會來的,

  • and they never tell you, in a public meeting,

    他們永遠不會在公開會議中告訴你,

  • what they want to do with their own money,

    他們想要怎麼用自己的錢做什麼,

  • what opportunity they have identified.

    他們永遠不會在那裡 告訴你他們發現了什麼機會。

  • So planning has this blind spot.

    所以,計劃存在著這個盲點。

  • The smartest people in your community you don't even know,

    你甚至不知道 你社區中最聰明的人是誰,

  • because they don't come to your public meetings.

    因為他們不會跑來參加你的公開會議。

  • What we do, we work one-on-one,

    我們怎麼做呢?我們一對一地見面,

  • and to work one-on-one, you have to create

    為了能一對一地工作,你必須建立

  • a social infrastructure that doesn't exist.

    一個不曾存在的社會基礎設施,

  • You have to create a new profession.

    你必須創造一種新的專業,

  • The profession is the family doctor of enterprise,

    這個專業是企業的家庭醫生,

  • the family doctor of business, who sits with you

    商業的家庭醫生, 他和你一起坐在一塊,

  • in your house, at your kitchen table, at the cafe,

    在你家裡、在你廚房桌邊、在咖啡館,

  • and helps you find the resources to transform your passion

    幫助你尋找資源,將你的熱情

  • into a way to make a living.

    轉化為一種謀生方式。

  • I started this as a tryout in Esperance, in Western Australia.

    我在西澳大利亞的 Esperance 開始嘗試這麼做,

  • I was a doing a Ph.D. at the time,

    我當時正在攻讀博士學位,

  • trying to go away from this patronizing bullshit

    正試著拋棄那家長式的連篇廢話,

  • that we arrive and tell you what to do.

    那些廢話就是:我們到達當地,告訴你們要做什麼。

  • And so what I did in Esperance that first year

    所以我在 Esperance 第一年所做的

  • was to just walk the streets, and in three days

    就只是逛大街,一連逛三天,

  • I had my first client, and I helped this first guy

    我遇到第一個客戶,我幫了這位老兄,

  • who was smoking fish from a garage, was a Maori guy,

    這位老兄在車庫裡頭熏魚,他是毛利人,

  • and I helped him to sell to the restaurant in Perth,

    我幫他把魚賣到 Perth 的餐廳,

  • to get organized, and then the fishermen came to me to say,

    幫他管理這些,然後漁民跑來跟我說:

  • "You the guy who helped Maori? Can you help us?"

    「你就是那個幫助毛利人的先生? 你能協助我們嗎?」

  • And I helped these five fishermen to work together

    然後我幫助這五個漁夫, 幫助他們他們一起合作,

  • and get this beautiful tuna not to the cannery in Albany

    我們不把這漂亮的鮪魚 以每一公斤六十美分的價格 賣到 Albany 的罐頭工廠,

  • for 60 cents a kilo, but we found a way

    而是,我們找到新方式,把這魚,

  • to take the fish for sushi to Japan for 15 dollars a kilo,

    以每一公斤十五美元 賣到日本做壽司。

  • and the farmers came to talk to me, said,

    後來,農夫也前來跟我說:

  • "Hey, you helped them. Can you help us?"

    「嘿,你幫了他們。你也能幫我們嗎?」

  • In a year, I had 27 projects going on,

    一年下來,我手上有了二十七個專案,

  • and the government came to see me to say,

    接著,政府也來找我,問:

  • "How can you do that?

    「你是怎麼做到的?

  • How can you do — ?" And I said, "I do something very, very, very difficult.

    你是怎麼做到的?」我說: 「我所做的事非常、 非常、 非常困難——

  • I shut up, and listen to them." (Laughter)

    我閉上嘴,我聆聽他們的意見。」(笑聲)

  • So — (Applause) —

    所以 ,(掌聲)

  • So the government says, "Do it again." (Laughter)

    所以,政府說:「那就繼續做。」(笑聲)

  • We've done it in 300 communities around the world.

    我們已經在世界各地 三百個社區中從事這些專案了,

  • We have helped to start 40,000 businesses.

    我們協助了四萬個創業計劃。

  • There is a new generation of entrepreneurs

    有些新一代的企業家

  • who are dying of solitude.

    死於孤獨,

  • Peter Drucker, one of the greatest management consultants in history,

    彼得 · 杜拉克,歷史上最重要的管理顧問之一,

  • died age 96, a few years ago.

    幾年前過世了,九十六歲,

  • Peter Drucker was a professor of philosophy

    彼得 · 杜拉克在從商以前

  • before becoming involved in business,

    是一位是哲學教授,

  • and this is what Peter Drucker says:

    而這是彼得 · 杜拉克曾經說過的話:

  • "Planning is actually incompatible

    「規劃,事實上,

  • with an entrepreneurial society and economy."

    是和創新社會與經濟不相容的。」

  • Planning is the kiss of death of entrepreneurship.

    「規劃是創業精神的死亡之吻。」

  • So now you're rebuilding Christchurch

    所以,你現在是在重建基督城,

  • without knowing what the smartest people in Christchurch

    然而卻不知道那些在基督城中

  • want to do with their own money and their own energy.

    最聰明的人想要用自己的錢 和動力做什麽事。

  • You have to learn how to get these people

    你必須學會如何接近這些人

  • to come and talk to you.

    讓他們跑來和你談談,

  • You have to offer them confidentiality, privacy,

    你必須為他們保密機密,尊重隱私,

  • you have to be fantastic at helping them,

    你必須想要幫助他們,

  • and then they will come, and they will come in droves.

    然後他們就會來, 他們會成群結隊地來找你。

  • In a community of 10,000 people, we get 200 clients.

    在一個有一萬人的的社群裡, 我們得到了兩百多個客戶,

  • Can you imagine a community of 400,000 people,

    你可以想像一個有四十萬人的社區

  • the intelligence and the passion?

    裡頭所擁有的聰明才智和熱情嗎?

  • Which presentation have you applauded the most this morning?

    今早的演說,你們覺得那個最棒?

  • Local, passionate people. That's who you have applauded.

    在地的、充滿熱情的人, 這些就是你們為之鼓掌的人。

  • So what I'm saying is that

    所以,我的意思是,

  • entrepreneurship is where it's at.

    這就是創業精神的所在。

  • We are at the end of the first industrial revolution --

    我們正處於第一次工業革命的終點,

  • nonrenewable fossil fuels, manufacturing --

    那些不可再生的化石燃料與製造業——

  • and all of a sudden, we have systems which are not sustainable.

    突然間,我們的系統變得無法永續,

  • The internal combustion engine is not sustainable.

    內燃引擎是無法永續的,

  • Freon way of maintaining things is not sustainable.

    用氯氟烴作為穩定劑也是無法永續的,

  • What we have to look at is at how we

    我們必須要研究如何在

  • feed, cure, educate, transport, communicate

    糧食、 醫療、 教育、交通、和通信領域上

  • for seven billion people in a sustainable way.

    以永續的方式為七十億人服務。

  • The technologies do not exist to do that.

    目前的科技無法做到這一點。

  • Who is going to invent the technology

    誰會發明綠色革命的科技?

  • for the green revolution? Universities? Forget about it!

    大學嗎?別指望它 !

  • Government? Forget about it!

    政府嗎?算了吧 !

  • It will be entrepreneurs, and they're doing it now.

    這將會是企業家,而他們現在就在作這件事。

  • There's a lovely story that I read in a futurist magazine

    許多年前,我在一本關於未來學家的雜誌裡

  • many, many years ago.

    讀到一篇可愛的故事,

  • There was a group of experts who were invited

    在 1860 年,有一批專家

  • to discuss the future of the city of New York in 1860.

    受邀討論紐約市的未來,

  • And in 1860, this group of people came together,

    在 1860 年,這群人聚在一起,

  • and they all speculated about what would happen

    猜測一百多年後

  • to the city of New York in 100 years,

    紐約會發生什麼事,

  • and the conclusion was unanimous:

    他們得出的結論是一致的:

  • The city of New York would not exist in 100 years.

    一百年後,紐約會消失。

  • Why? Because they looked at the curve and said,

    為什麼呢?因為他們觀察曲線,說,

  • if the population keeps growing at this rate,

    如果人口按照這個速度不斷增加,

  • to move the population of New York around,

    那麼在紐約,運送這些市民將需要

  • they would have needed six million horses,

    六百萬匹馬,

  • and the manure created by six million horses

    而這六百萬匹馬的糞便

  • would be impossible to deal with.

    將無法處理,

  • They were already drowning in manure. (Laughter)

    人們最後都會淹沒在糞便中。(笑聲)

  • So 1860, they are seeing this dirty technology

    所以 1860 年,他們認為這種骯髒的技術

  • that is going to choke the life out of New York.

    會使紐約隕歿。

  • So what happens? In 40 years' time, in the year 1900,

    所以後來怎麼了?四十年後,1900 年,

  • in the United States of America, there were 1,001

    美國有了 1001 家

  • car manufacturing companies -- 1,001.

    汽車製造公司 — — 1001。

  • The idea of finding a different technology

    發掘不同的技術的點子

  • had absolutely taken over,

    成為主流,

  • and there were tiny, tiny little factories in backwaters.

    當時在荒僻的地區出現了小工廠,

  • Dearborn, Michigan. Henry Ford.

    迪爾伯恩,密西根州。亨利 · 福特。

  • However, there is a secret to work with entrepreneurs.

    然而,與企業家一起工作,有個秘訣,

  • First, you have to offer them confidentiality.

    首先,你要為他們提供保密性,

  • Otherwise they don't come and talk to you.

    否則他們不會來和你談。

  • Then you have to offer them absolute, dedicated,

    接著,你要為他們提供絕對的、專屬於他們的

  • passionate service to them.

    熱情服務。

  • And then you have to tell them the truth about entrepreneurship.

    然後你必須告訴他們 有關創業精神的道理。

  • The smallest company, the biggest company,

    無論最小或最大的公司

  • has to be capable of doing three things beautifully:

    都要能夠完成三件事:

  • The product that you want to sell has to be fantastic,

    你銷售的產品必須非常棒,

  • you have to have fantastic marketing,

    你必須有絕佳的行銷手段,

  • and you have to have tremendous financial management.

    你必須要優異的財務管理。

  • Guess what?

    你們知道嗎?

  • We have never met a single human being

    我們在這世上,從未見過有人

  • in the world who can make it, sell it and look after the money.

    可以就只是做出成品, 賣掉它,然後拿到錢。

  • It doesn't exist.

    這並不存在,

  • This person has never been born.

    這個人從未來到這世上。

  • We've done the research, and we have looked

    我們做過研究,研究過

  • at the 100 iconic companies of the world --

    世上一百家指標性企業——