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  • The early days of the coronavirus pandemic were a confusing time.  

    冠狀病毒大流行的初期是一個混亂的時期。

  • There was a lot of conflicting information flying around

    有很多相互矛盾的資訊傳來傳去。

  • and it was hard to know what to believe about how the virus behaved and the best practices to stay safe.

    而對於病毒的表現和保持安全的最佳做法,很難知道該相信什麼。

  • Since then, things have stabilized somewhat and the official advice from public health organizations hasn't changed much:

    此後,情況有所穩定,公共衛生組織的官方建議也沒有什麼變化。

  • wash your hands, avoid crowded indoor spaces, wear a mask, and practice social distancing.

    洗手,避開擁擠的室內空間,戴上口罩,練習社交距離。

  • A lot of these precautions are based on the belief that the virus isn't airborne,

    這些預防措施很多都是基於病毒不是空氣傳播的信念。

  • but some researchers are now challenging this notion.

    但現在一些研究人員正在挑戰這種觀念。

  • So, what is at the heart of this debate, and how does it affect you?

    那麼,這場辯論的核心是什麼,對你有什麼影響?

  • Airborne can be something of a confusing label.

    空降可以是一個令人困惑的標籤。

  • Right now, it's widely accepted that the virus is carried by the droplets that we expel when we talk or cough.

    目前,人們普遍認為病毒是由我們說話或咳嗽時排出的飛沫攜帶的。

  • These droplets do travel through the air, but aren't consideredairbornebecause they typically fall out of the air immediately

    這些液滴確實在空中飛行,但不被認為是 "空中",因為它們通常會立即從空中落下。

  • and land within about two meters.

    並落在兩米左右的範圍內。

  • Hence the recommended social distancing guidelines.

    是以,建議採用社交疏遠準則。

  • But smaller than droplets are aerosolstiny particles that, as a rule of thumb, are under 5 microns in size.

  • For reference, that's smaller than a single red blood cell, which are typically about 6 to 8 microns in diameter.

    作為參考,這比單個紅細胞還要小,紅細胞的直徑一般在6到8微米左右。

  • These tiny specks can be suspended in air for much longer by air currents, so aerosols are airborne.

    這些細小的斑點可以通過氣流在空氣中懸浮的時間更長,所以氣溶膠是空氣中的。

  • Since the 1930's, the consensus was that aerosols were not a major transmitter of respiratory viruses like influenza.

    自上世紀30年代以來,人們一致認為氣溶膠不是流感等呼吸道病毒的主要傳播者。

  • When the novel coronavirus emerged it was categorized as a respiratory virus too,

    當新型冠狀病毒出現後,它也被歸為呼吸道病毒。

  • but oddly its symptoms are so varied it behaves in some ways like a vascular disease,

    但奇怪的是它的症狀千變萬化,在某些方面表現得像一種血管疾病。

  • and scientists still aren't clear exactly how this new virus operates.

    而科學家們仍然不清楚這種新病毒究竟是如何運作的。

  • If the virus was really just carried by droplets, there are some instances of infection that some scientists say shouldn't have been possible.

    如果病毒真的只是由飛沫攜帶,有些科學家說,有些感染的例子應該是不可能的。

  • Proponents of the aerosol transmission possibility point to a choir practice in Washington state

    支持氣溶膠傳播可能性的人指出,華盛頓州的一個唱詩班的做法。

  • that led to 33 members of a 61 person group to contract the virus.

    導致61人小組中33人感染病毒。

  • They claim it supports their notion that aerosols, poor ventilation, and long exposure time were to blame.

    他們聲稱,這支持了他們的觀點,即氣溶膠、通風不良和長時間接觸是罪魁禍首。

  • Other investigators couldn't rule out droplets or infected surfaces as culprits, though.

    但其他調查人員無法排除飛沫或感染表面是罪魁禍首。

  • You may be wondering why the World Health Organization won't say definitively if the virus is airborne or not.

    你可能想知道,為什麼世界衛生組織不會明確地說這種病毒是否通過空氣傳播。

  • They maintain there's just not enough proof yet.

    他們堅持認為只是還沒有足夠的證據。

  • One problem is that devices that sample for aerosols can damage a virus's protective lipid envelope,

    其中一個問題是,對氣溶膠進行採樣的設備會破壞病毒的保護性脂質包膜。

  • resulting in an undercount of how many viral particles are actually present in the sample.

    導致樣本中實際存在的病毒顆粒數量不足。

  • We don't know how long the virus can stay suspended in air and remain infectious,

    我們不知道病毒能在空氣中懸浮多久並保持傳染性。

  • though one study reports that can be as long as 16 hours.

    雖然一項研究報告稱,可以長達16小時。

  • We also don't know how much of a viral load is needed to cause infection.

    我們也不知道需要多大的病毒量才能引起感染。

  • If it turns out a relatively small number of viruses are dangerous, then aerosols would represent more of a threat.

    如果事實證明相對較少的病毒是危險的,那麼氣溶膠將代表更多的威脅。

  • Still, there's enough concern that almost 240 clinicians, infectious-disease physicians, epidemiologists, engineers, and aerosol scientists

    不過,還是有足夠的關注,近240名臨床醫生、傳染病醫生、流行病學家、工程師和氣溶膠科學家。

  • published an open letter to the World Health Organization pushing them to reconsider their position

    發表了一封致世界衛生組織的公開信,促使他們重新考慮其立場。

  • and their advice on how to combat transmission.

    以及他們對如何防治傳播的建議。

  • The authors argue the WHO's standard of proof is too high,

    作者認為,世衛組織的證明標準太高。

  • even though they claim more evidence exists of airborne transmission than passing through droplets or surfaces.

    儘管他們聲稱有更多的證據表明空氣傳播比通過飛沫或表面傳播更有效。

  • The WHO has since changed their stance somewhat and now says it's possible that the coronavirus is carried through aerosols,

    世衛組織後來有些改變立場,現在說冠狀病毒有可能是通過氣溶膠攜帶的。

  • but they're not recommending precautions like improving ventilation or using upper-room UV light to kill it.

    但他們並不建議採取改善通風或使用上房紫外線燈殺滅等預防措施。

  • Part of the reason they haven't pushed for additional precautions is because they have to consider the cost of following their guidelines.

    他們沒有推動額外的預防措施的部分原因是他們必須考慮到遵循其準則的成本。

  • If countries with scarce resources implement measures that are ultimately meaningless, it can keep them from focusing their efforts on effective precautions.

    如果資源稀缺的國家實施最終毫無意義的措施,就會使它們無法集中精力採取有效的預防措施。

  • Then again, if the virus is really transmitted by aerosols, then insufficient measures can cost lives too.

    話又說回來,如果病毒真的是通過氣溶膠傳播的,那麼措施不足也會付出生命的代價。

  • It's not an enviable position to be in.

    這不是一個令人羨慕的位置。

  • But what does this all mean for you, specifically? What should you change?

    但這一切對你來說,具體意味著什麼?你應該改變什麼?

  • Well, if you've been wearing a mask and avoiding spending long periods of time inside crowded and poorly ventilated buildings, you're already on the right track.

    好吧,如果你一直戴著口罩,避免在擁擠和通風不良的建築物內長時間停留,你已經走在正確的道路上了。

  • These are already the guidelines the WHO recommends.

    這些已經是世界衛生組織建議的準則。

  • Even cloth masks can help break the chains of transmission.

    即使是布藝口罩也能幫助打破傳播鏈。

  • Less so if the virus is carried by aerosols, but a well fitted mask that covers the nose and mouth can still help.

    如果病毒是由氣溶膠攜帶的,就不太一樣了,但一個合身的口罩,遮住鼻子和嘴巴,還是有幫助的。

  • Aerosols can build up indoors and the more people there are, the more likely that someone is shedding the virus.

    氣溶膠會在室內積聚,人越多,就越容易有人感染病毒。

  • So again, don't linger inside around people if you can avoid it.

    所以再次強調,如果可以避免的話,不要在人的周圍逗留在裡面。

  • Researchers are still debating whether or not the virus is airborne but it shouldn't really change the game plan for most of us.

    研究人員仍在爭論該病毒是否通過空氣傳播,但它不應該真正改變我們大多數人的遊戲計劃。

  • Continue to do your part and look out for yourself and others and we can get through this.

    繼續做好自己的本分,為自己和他人著想,我們就能度過難關。

  • As events unfold, we have kept up with the scientific understanding of the novel coronavirus.

    隨著事件的發展,我們已經跟上了對新型冠狀病毒的科學認識。

  • If you want to know more about this topic check out our coronavirus playlist here.

    如果你想了解更多關於這個話題,請在這裡查看我們的冠狀病毒播放列表。

  • Make sure to subscribe to Seeker for more COVID-related news and I'll see you next time on Seeker.

    一定要訂閱《求索者》,瞭解更多COVID相關新聞,我們下期《求索者》見。

  • Thanks for watching, and stay safe.

    謝謝你的觀看,注意安全。

The early days of the coronavirus pandemic were a confusing time.  

冠狀病毒大流行的初期是一個混亂的時期。

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B2 中高級 中文 病毒 傳播 飛沫 措施 空氣 組織

冠狀病毒到底是不是 "空降"? (Is the Coronavirus ‘Airborne’ or Not?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 08 日
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