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  • When Joseph Johnson went to vote in his first presidential election...

    當約瑟夫-約翰遜在第一次總統選舉中去投票時...

  • this isn't what he expected.

    這不是他所期望的。

  • The line went this way, in front of our auditorium...

    隊伍往這邊走,在我們的禮堂前... ...

  • and then snaked around into our library.

    然後蜿蜒曲折地走進我們的圖書館。

  • The last person at his polling location didn't get to vote until 1 am.

    他所在投票點的最後一個人直到凌晨1點才有機會投票。

  • It was the longest line that I've waited in in my entire life.

    這是我這輩子等過的最長的隊伍。

  • Some people, they were just like, "well, screw it."

    有些人,他們只是想「好吧,算了。」

  • This was in a heavily Democratic part of Houston, Texas.

    這是在德克薩斯州休斯頓一個民主黨人聚居的地方。

  • And it was a primary election, where Democrats and Republicans were voting on separate machines.

    而且那是一次初選,民主黨和共和黨是用不同的機器投票。

  • But the county had given both parties the same number of machines to use.

    但縣裡給雙方使用的機器數量是一樣的。

  • Also, Texas had closed hundreds of polling locations in recent years,

    另外,德克薩斯州近年來已經關閉了數百個投票點。

  • meaning more people had to vote at fewer places.

    意味著更多的人必須在更少的地方投票。

  • But not everyone has to wait.

    但不是每個人都要等待。

  • This is a map of all the polling locations in Joseph's county that had reports of long lines.

    這是約瑟夫縣所有有報道稱排長隊的投票點的地圖。

  • And here's the percentage of nonwhite voters in each area.

    這是每個地區非白人選民的比例。

  • Notice how most places with lines were in less-white areas?

    注意到大部分有線條的地方都在少白區嗎?

  • The poll closures, and the other decisions that led to those lines,

    投票關閉,以及導致這些線路的其他決定。

  • disproportionately affected people of color.

    對有色人種的影響尤為嚴重。

  • And whether or not that was intentional, those kinds of decisions, in places like Texas,

    以及是否是故意的,這些決定,在德州這樣的地方。

  • used to be highly regulated and much less frequent.

    以前是很規範的,頻率也低很多。

  • Today, that oversight is gone.

    如今,這種疏忽已經消失了。

  • But the 2020 election could decide whether it comes back.

    但2020年的選舉可能決定它是否回來。

  • This is the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama.

    這是阿拉巴馬州塞爾瑪市的埃德蒙-佩特斯橋。

  • In 1965, a group of civil rights activists, including the future congressman John Lewis,

    1965年,一群民權活動家,包括未來的國會議員約翰-劉易斯。

  • marched across the bridge, and were attacked and beaten by police.

    遊行過橋,遭到警察的襲擊和毆打。

  • They were marching for voting rights.

    他們是為了選舉權而遊行。

  • Back then, especially in the segregated South,

    那時,特別是在種族隔離的南方。

  • there was rampant voter suppression of Black Americans.

    有猖獗的選民壓制 美國黑人。

  • It started back when the 15th Amendment granted Black men the right to vote in 1870.

    這要從1870年第15條修正案賦予黑人男子投票權說起。

  • That right was enforced by federal troops, who occupied the southern states

    這一權利由聯邦軍隊執行,他們佔領了南部各州。

  • during a period known asReconstruction.”

    在一個被稱為 "重建 "的時期。

  • But what happened after Reconstruction, was that the states passed a number of laws

    但在重建後發生的事情是,各州通過了一系列的法律。

  • that effectively disenfranchised African Americans.

    這實際上剝奪了非洲裔美國人的權利。

  • Of course, no law could sayno Black people can vote” — it had to be a little sneakier.

    當然,任何法律都不能說 "黑人不能投票"--必須要偷偷摸摸。

  • Like the "grandfather clause," where you could only vote if your grandfather could vote.

    就像 "祖父條款",只有你的祖父能投票,你才能投票。

  • Which is impossible if your grandfather was a slave.

    如果你爺爺是個奴隸,這是不可能的。

  • There were literacy tests, where voters, mostly Black voters,

    有識字測試,選民,主要是黑人選民。

  • had to answer bizarre questions before they were allowed to vote.

    必須回答奇怪的問題,才允許投票。

  • Not just tests to see whether or not you could read,

    不僅僅是測試你是否會讀書。

  • but things like, could you recite the state's constitution?

    但像這樣的事情,你能背出國家的憲法嗎?

  • And poll taxes, requiring voters, again mostly Black voters, to pay to be allowed to vote.

    而人頭稅,要求選民,同樣主要是黑人選民,交錢才可以投票。

  • They selectively chose who had to abide by these rules.

    他們有選擇地選擇了誰必須遵守這些規則。

  • In the 1950s and 60s, Congress passed several civil rights laws

    在20世紀50年代和60年代,國會通過了幾項民權法。

  • that attempted to protect voting rights, getting rid of things like poll taxes.

    試圖保護投票權,擺脫人頭稅等東西。

  • Still, by 1964, in Mississippi, barely 7% of nonwhite Americans could vote.

    不過,到了1964年,在密西西比州,只有7%的非白人美國人可以投票。

  • Selma's Bloody Sunday drew attention to that.

    塞爾瑪的 "血腥星期天 "引起了人們的注意。

  • It made Americansand Congresswonder if local officials,

    這讓美國人--還有國會--懷疑地方官員是否。

  • like these guys,

    像這些傢伙。

  • could really be trusted to enforce these new civil rights laws.

    能否真正信任執行這些新的民權法。

  • So Congress wrote another one.

    所以國會又寫了一個。

  • Ten days after Selma, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was introduced.

    塞爾瑪事件十天後,1965年《投票權法》出臺。

  • It added additional protections, got rid of literacy tests...

    它增加了額外的保護,擺脫了讀寫測試... ...

  • But it also had a way to prevent any other creative changes:

    但它也有辦法防止任何其他創造性的變化。

  • State governments had to submit their changes to the federal government for approval.

    州政府必須將其修改意見提交聯邦政府準許。

  • The Voting Rights Act identified parts of the country that had a history of voter discrimination,

    《投票權法》確定了該國部分地區存在選民歧視的歷史。

  • mostly in the South, and set up federal oversight.

    主要在南方,並建立了聯邦監督。

  • So if these places wanted to change anything about voting,

    所以如果這些地方想改變什麼投票。

  • like enacting a new law, or closing polling locations,

    如頒佈新的法律,或關閉投票站。

  • it first had to get the okay from the US Justice Department, or federal courts,

    它首先要得到美國司法部,或者聯邦法院的同意。

  • that it wasn't discriminatory.

    這不是歧視性的。

  • Immediately, nonwhite voter registration in these Southern states grew.

    立即,南方這些州的非白人選民登記增多。

  • Like in Mississippi, where it went from barely 7% to almost 60% in just three years.

    就像在密西西比州,短短三年時間就從勉強的7%上升到近60%。

  • The Voting Rights Act did what earlier civil rights laws hadn't.

    《投票權法》做了以前民權法沒有做的事情。

  • But in 2013, the Supreme Courtwith a majority of Republican-appointed judges

    但在2013年,最高法院--由共和黨任命的法官佔多數-

  • took on a case about the Voting Rights Act.

    接手了一個關於《投票權法》的案子。

  • They decided that the way the law calculated which states would have that federal oversight

    他們決定用法律的方式來計算哪些州會受到聯邦的監督。

  • was outdated and therefore unconstitutional.

    是過時的,是以是違憲的。

  • "No one doubts that there is still voting discrimination in the South and in the rest of the country.

    "沒有人懷疑,在南方和全國其他地區仍然存在投票歧視。

  • We do, however, find that the coverage formula in Section 4 violates the Constitution."

    不過,我們確實認為第4條中的覆蓋公式違反了憲法"。

  • Almost immediately, voting laws that had previously been denied for being discriminatory

    幾乎是立即,以前因歧視性而被否定的投票法

  • were enacted in these states.

    在這些州頒佈了。

  • Literally the same day as the Supreme Court's decision, Texas did just that,

    就在最高法院作出決定的同一天,德克薩斯州也這樣做了。

  • announcing a voter ID law that a federal judge had previously rejected,

    宣佈一項聯邦法官此前拒絕的選民身份證法。

  • because it was "the most stringent in the country,"

    因為它是 "全國最嚴格的"。

  • andimposed strict, unforgiving burdens on the poor."

    並 "對窮人施加嚴格的、無情的負擔"。

  • Other states enacted voter ID laws, too.

    其他州也頒佈了選民身份證法。

  • Along with other measures that had previously been stopped, like purging voter rolls,

    連同之前被制止的其他措施,比如清理選民名單。

  • and closing polling locations:

    和關閉投票站。

  • 1,173 places in total.

    共1 173個名額。

  • 750 just in Texas.

    僅在德州就有750人。

  • An analysis by the Guardian looked at the 50 Texas counties

    衛報》的分析研究了德州50個縣

  • that gained the most Black and Hispanic residents from 2012-2018,

    2012-2018年,獲得最多黑人和西班牙裔居民的。

  • and the 50 Texas counties that gained the fewest Black and Hispanic residents.

    以及獲得黑人和西班牙裔居民最少的50個德州縣。

  • In these counties, the combined population fell by 13,000 over that time.

    在這段時間裡,這些縣的人口合計減少了1.3萬人。

  • And 34 of their polling places were closed.

    而他們的34個投票點被關閉。

  • In these counties, the combined population grew by 2.5 million people.

    在這些縣裡,人口合計增長了250萬。

  • But 542 of their polling places were closed.

    但其中542個投票站被關閉。

  • Many officials in these states say changes like these aren't intended to disenfranchise specific voters.

    這些州的許多官員說,這樣的變化並不是為了剝奪特定選民的權利。

  • But there's no way to really know.

    但是沒有辦法真正知道。

  • What we do know is that almost all these states' governments are controlled by Republicans.

    我們知道的是,這些州的政府幾乎都是由共和黨人控制的。

  • And the groups who tend to be disenfranchised by these changes are more often poor people

    而往往被這些變化剝奪權利的群體更多的是窮人

  • and people of color.

    和有色人種。

  • Most of whom tend to vote Democratic.

    他們中的大多數人傾向於投票給民主黨。

  • Even when they're saying it's not, it's very hard to believe that, in fact,

    即使他們在說不是,也很難相信,事實上。

  • they didn't have a strategic discussion

    他們沒有進行戰略討論

  • about how they could minimize the Democratic Party's vote.

    關於他們如何能儘量減少民主黨的選票。

  • In the Supreme Court decision, the Chief Justice told Congress it's okay to have oversight,

    在最高法院的判決中,首席大法官告訴國會,可以進行監督。

  • just don't base it on old data.

    只是不要基於舊數據。

  • "Congress must ensure that the legislation it passes speaks to current conditions."

    "國會必須確保它所通過的立法符合當前的情況。"

  • And so in 2019, the House of Representatives did just that,

    於是在2019年,眾議院就這樣做了。

  • passing a new bill to update the criteria for which states get federal oversight.

    通過一項新法案,更新各州獲得聯邦監督的標準;

  • John Lewis, then a congressman in his 17th term, presided over the vote.

    時任第17屆國會議員的約翰-劉易斯主持了投票。

  • But the bill passed almost entirely along party lines.

    但該法案几乎完全按照政黨路線通過。

  • Almost no Republicans voted for it, and nearly every Democrat did.

    幾乎沒有共和黨人投了贊成票,幾乎每個民主黨人都投了贊成票。

  • Then the bill moved to the Republican-held Senate, where it isn't going to get a vote.

    然後,該法案移至共和黨把持的參議院,在那裡它不會得到投票。

  • And even if it does pass the Senate, the Trump White House has threatened to veto it,

    而即使它真的在參議院通過,特朗普白宮也威脅要否決它。

  • arguing the oversight is unnecessary.

    辯稱監督是不必要的。

  • But the House, Senate and White House are all up for grabs in the 2020 election.

    但在2020年的大選中,眾議院、參議院和白宮都是爭奪的對象。

  • And this is one of the many areas the two presidential candidates have polar opposite views:

    而這也是兩位總統候選人觀點截然相反的眾多領域之一。

  • "Pass the bill to restore the Voting Rights Act.

    "通過法案,恢復《投票權法》。

  • It's one of the first things I'll do as president if elected."

    這是我當選總統後首先要做的事情之一。"

  • In 2020, John Lewis died.

    2020年,約翰-劉易斯去世。

  • The bill whose passage he'd presided over was renamed in his memory.

    為了紀念他,他主持通過的法案被重新命名。

  • If the John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act becomes law,

    如果《約翰-劉易斯投票權促進法》成為法律。

  • its formula would restore federal oversight for several states.

    其方案將恢復聯邦對幾個州的監督。

  • Including Texas.

    包括德州。

  • It's like, if there are no rules to the game,

    這就像,如果沒有遊戲規則。

  • then no one can really play the game.

    那就沒有人可以真正的玩這個遊戲。

When Joseph Johnson went to vote in his first presidential election...

當約瑟夫-約翰遜在第一次總統選舉中去投票時...

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美國投票線長到底意味著什麼 (What long voting lines in the US really mean)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 17 日
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