字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 The date is 1272, and outside a small church in northern England, a crowd has gathered. 日期是1272年，在英格蘭北部的一座小教堂外，聚集了一群人。 Masons are putting the finishing touches on a new extension to the church, and the assembled 共濟會正在為教堂的新擴建工程做最後的修飾，而聚集在一起的人也在為教堂的新擴建工程做最後的修飾。 crowd peers through the final few holes left in the stone wall they are building. 眾人從他們正在修建的石牆上留下的最後幾個洞中望去。 Through those holes they can see a young woman, sitting on a rough wooden bed, clasping her 透過這些孔洞，他們可以看到一個年輕的女人，坐在一張粗糙的木床上，抱著她的。 hands together in prayer. 雙手合十祈禱。 Finally, the masons insert the last stone into place, and the woman is sealed away, 最後，石匠將最後一塊石頭插入到位，女人就被封存起來了。 never to feel the warmth of the sun on her skin or the warmth of a loved one's embrace 從來沒有感受到陽光對她皮膚的溫暖，也沒有感受到親人懷抱的溫暖。 ever again. 再也不會了。 She will live out her life and die in the tiny room she has just been entombed within. 她將在剛剛被埋葬的小房間裡度過她的一生，並死去。 But what might be most shocking of all is the fact that this isn't a punishment, in 但最讓人震驚的可能是，這並不是一種懲罰，在。 fact it's an honor. 事實上，這是一種榮譽。 And it's an honor that the young woman has chosen for herself. 而這也是這位年輕女子為自己選擇的榮譽。 Anchorites were a religious group that grew in popularity during the middle to late middle 安息人是中後期逐漸流行起來的一個宗教團體。 ages, and while they attracted both men and women, they were predominantly female with 齡，雖然它們吸引了男性和女性，但它們主要是女性的，其中有很多女性。 as many as twice as many women as men becoming anchorites. 婦女比男子多一倍的人數成為主力軍； These pious men and women dedicated their life wholeheartedly to God, and more specifically 這些虔誠的男人和女人全心全意地把他們的生命獻給了上帝，更具體地說就是 to prayer for the salvation of the world- and the best way to accomplish this in their 為拯救世界而祈禱--而實現這一目標的最佳途徑，就是在他們的身上。 minds was to seal themselves away, where they could not be tempted or led astray from their 思想是把自己封存起來，在那裡他們不會受到誘惑，也不會誤入歧途。 path. 路徑。 It's believed that John the Baptist served as inspiration for the Anchorite way of life, 人們相信，施洗者約翰是安克雷特生活方式的靈感來源。 as he was a hermit monk who retreated from the world so that he may come closer to God. 因為他是一個隱士，他從世界上撤退，以便他可以更接近上帝。 For his faith and devotion, God rewarded him with the privilege of preparing others for 因著他的信心和奉獻，神賞賜給他特權，讓他預備別人去參加 the coming of Jesus, and ultimately with the baptism of Jesus himself as the latter began 耶穌的到來，並最終與耶穌本人的洗禮一起，因為後者開始了 his earthly ministry. 他在地上的事奉。 Yet while John the Baptist was a famous hermit, he wasn't a recluse by any means, and certainly 雖然施洗約翰是個著名的隱士，但他並不是一個隱士，當然也不是一個隱士。 did not go to the extreme lengths that Anchorites did. 並沒有像安丘人那樣走極端。 Hermitdom was also popular during the time of the Anchorites, and for much the same reasons 隱居在安息人時代也很流行，原因也大同小異。 as John the Baptist's- becoming a hermit was a way of leaving the world behind and enduring 就像施洗者約翰一樣，成為隱士是離開世界的一種方式，也是忍受的一種方式。 a life of hardship in a bid to become closer to God. 艱苦的生活，以爭取更接近上帝。 Unlike today where we consider hermits to be creepy weirdos, hermits were largely honored 不像今天，我們認為隱士是令人毛骨悚然的怪人，隱士在很大程度上是被尊重的。 during the Middle Ages, as their seclusion was seen as an act of pious devotion to God. 在中世紀，他們的隱居被視為對上帝虔誠的奉獻行為。 Hermits were often sought out for their spiritual wisdom and counsel, and received some level 隱士常常因為他們的精神智慧和建議而被尋找，並得到某種程度的 of honor rather than disdain. 的榮譽而不是蔑視。 For some, hermitdom was too easy a path to follow, and these people decided that they 對一些人來說，隱居是一條太容易走的道路，這些人決定他們 needed a more extreme form of social isolation in order to get close to God. 需要一種更極端的社會隔離形式，才能接近上帝。 To become an anchorite, an individual needed to get the cooperation of a church, as their 要成為一個錨定者，一個人需要得到教會的合作，作為他們的。 cell where they would spend the rest of their life needed to be constructed on the side 牢房，他們將在那裡度過他們的餘生，需要在邊上建造。 of a church where they could still be close to religious services. 的教堂，在那裡他們仍然可以接近宗教儀式。 The anchorite had to prove to the Bishop of the church that they were capable of supporting 錨定者必須向教會的主教證明他們有能力支持。 themselves for a number of years, and had the services of at least one servant to bring 幾年來，他們自己，並有至少一個僕人的服務，使他們的生活更加豐富多彩。 them food and water as well as remove their waste. 他們的食物和水，以及清除他們的廢物。 This has led modern researchers to puzzle over the practice, as it is clear that only 這使得現代研究者對這種做法感到困惑，因為顯然只有 educated, financially well-to-do individuals could afford to engage in such a lifestyle, 受過教育、經濟上富裕的人可以負擔得起這種生活方式。 and these aren't the type of people who's lives are so difficult that they might seek 而這些人不是那種生活太困難，以至於他們可能會尋求 to escape them by any means necessary. 不擇手段地逃避它們。 This is evidence then that the life of an Anchorite was not just chosen by those who 那麼，這就證明了安可人的生活不僅僅是由那些人選擇的。 participated, but even desired, bizarre as that might seem to us today. 參與，甚至是希望，雖然這在今天的我們看來很奇怪。 Once entombed, the Anchorite was forbidden from ever leaving their enclosure, and given 一旦被埋葬，Anchorite就被禁止離開他們的圍牆，並被給予 that there was no doorway and they were surrounded in solid stone, escape was a moot point. 他們沒有門路，而且周圍都是堅固的石頭，逃跑是沒有意義的。 The only openings to the outside world were two to three slits cut into the rock. 通往外界的唯一開口是在岩石上開出的兩到三條縫隙。 One slit would face into the church, from where the Anchorite could see the altar and 一條縫隙將朝向教堂，從那裡，安克雷特可以看到祭壇和。 could partake in mass. 可以參加彌撒。 Another slit would face outwards, from where the Anchorite could receive visitors. 另一條縫隙會朝外，從這裡可以接待來訪者。 Sometimes a third slit was cut for the anchorite to receive food and water and to pass their 有時，第三條縫隙被切開，讓錨石接受食物和水，並通過他們的。 waste to a servant on the outside. 浪費給外面的僕人。 The interior of the cell contained only sparse and very rough wooden furnishings, typically 牢房內部只有稀稀拉拉、非常粗糙的木製傢俱，典型的就是 "大鍋飯"。 just a rough cot to sleep on, a desk, and possibly a chest or set of drawers. 只是一張睡覺用的粗糙的小床，一張桌子，可能還有一個箱子或一套抽屜。 Fresh hay may have been shoved through the slits for the Anchorite to make a bed with, 新鮮的乾草可能被從縫隙裡塞進去，讓碇人與之做床。 but that was the extent of comfort for the imprisoned. 但這是對被囚禁者的安慰程度。 In fact, the more difficult the living conditions the more holy the experience was considered, 事實上，生活條件越是艱苦，越是被認為是神聖的經歷。 and Anchorites often actively strove for discomfort in order to bring themselves closer to God. 和安哥利人為了使自己更接近神，常常主動爭取不舒服。 The interior of the cell was typically about twelve square feet, or the size of a small 牢房的內部面積通常約為12平方英尺，或相當於一個小房間的大小。 bedroom. 臥室。 There was no bathroom, largely because this was the middle ages, and the anchorite would 沒有衛生間，主要是因為這裡是中世紀，而錨定者會... have to make use of a bucket, living with their waste until it was collected by a servant 桶，與垃圾為伴，直到有僕人來收集 on the outside. 在外面。 In summer months with sweltering heat, the cell provided little to no relief from breezes, 在悶熱的夏季，小區裡的微風幾乎沒有緩解。 as the slits cut into the chamber were far too small to allow much air flow. 因為在艙內開的縫隙太小，無法讓空氣流通。 The insufferable heat must have only been worsened by the stench from the anchorite's 令人難以忍受的炎熱一定是由於錨人的臭味而加劇的。 waste, and their own body as Anchorites would be unable to bathe. 廢物，而自己的身體作為安可人將無法沐浴。 Some Anchorites did include additional furnishings so that they could pursue a trade craft while 一些安科利人確實包括了額外的傢俱，以便他們可以在從事貿易手藝的同時 entombed. 窀穸。 One famous anchorite was a renowned goldsmith, and worked with raw ore brought to him, crafting 有一位著名的錨石匠是一位著名的金匠，他用帶來的原礦進行加工，製作出了 it into jewelry and holy symbols. 變成首飾和聖物。 These would have been the time's version of a Louis Vuitton bag today, as Anchorites were 這些應該是當時的路易威登包包的今天的版本，因為Anchorites是。 that highly renowned and wearing an item crafted by one would have been a great honor. 享有極高的聲譽，穿上一件由一個人製作的物品，那將是一種極大的榮耀。 For this reason, Anchorite 'guidebooks' encouraged them to limit their crafting or sewing to 是以，Anchorite的 "指南 "鼓勵他們限制自己的手工藝或縫製工作。 simple, modest items, as the celebrity of these figures was well known. 簡單、簡陋的物品，因為這些人物的名氣是眾所周知的。 Celebrity was itself a bit of a problem for the anchorite, and despite being able to receive 名人本身對主播來說就是一個小問題，儘管能夠接受 visitors through the slit in their cell, they were expressly discouraged from doing so. 牢房的縫隙中，明確勸阻訪客不要這樣做。 Anchorite guide books warned that anchorites were to limit their time spent with visitors 碇人導遊書警告說，碇人要限制與遊客相處的時間。 to a minimum, and churches were instructed to forbid the gathering of large groups of 儘量減少，並訓示教會禁止大群人聚集在一起。 visitors. 訪客。 While Anchorites were highly sought after for spiritual guidance and religious advice, 雖然安可利人因精神指導和宗教建議而備受追捧。 they were discouraged from spending their time chatting away as they were supposed to 他們不願意把時間花在閒聊上。 focus on prayer and religious study instead. 專注於祈禱和宗教學習，而不是。 Celebrities though, they were, and despite being extreme recluses, Anchorites were highly 名人雖然是，他們是，儘管是極端的隱居者，但安克雷特人是高度。 honored within the Church. 在教會內受到尊敬。 In a society where women held little to no power, women Anchorites- who outnumbered men 在一個婦女幾乎沒有權力的社會里，女安人--她們的數量超過了男人。 by as much as two to one- were seen as the highest spiritual authority within their church, 以二比一的比例被視為教會內最高的屬靈權威。 even higher than the Bishop himself. 甚至比主教本人還要高。 Their wisdom was even sought after by nobles, and even kings and queens. 他們的智慧甚至受到貴族，甚至國王和皇后的追捧。 Some modern researchers postulate that women chose to become Anchorites so that they could 一些現代研究者推測，女性選擇成為安丘人，是為了能夠。 escape the social oppression of their day, and receive prestige and honor in a world 脫離了當時的社會壓迫，在這個世界上獲得了聲望和榮譽。 where they would have otherwise been nothing much more than a wife, expected to rear and 否則，他們將只是一個妻子，期待著養育和保護他們。 raise children. 撫養孩子； Some in fact believe that the life of an anchorite was so popular with women because they sought 其實有些人認為，碇人的生活之所以如此受女性歡迎，是因為她們追求的是 it as a means of escaping forced marriages. 作為逃避強迫婚姻的一種手段。 The term anchorite is believed to have originated from the prestige afforded to these solitaires, 錨石一詞被認為是源於這些獨石所具有的威望。 as their wisdom and piety was believed to be the literal anchor of a church. 因為他們的智慧和虔誠被認為是教會的文字支柱。 Dedicating their life wholeheartedly to prayer, these men and women were thought to be immune 這些人全心全意地將自己的生命獻給了祈禱，他們被認為是免疫的。 to worldly temptations and deceits, and thus could steer a church through troublesome periods 抵抗世俗的誘惑和欺騙，是以可以引導教會度過困難時期。 by being its spiritual anchor. 通過成為其精神支柱。 This was a role taken extremely seriously by the Anchorite, with part of their motivation 這是一個被安克雷特人極為重視的角色，他們的部分動機是什麼？ for entombment being a need to pray for the sins of the world. 為墓葬是需要為世界的罪孽祈禱。 By dedicating themselves to praying for the world, the Anchorite hoped to intercede between 獻身於為世界祈求，安居人希望在之間進行調解。 God's judgment and a wicked world, and the Anchorite would spend much of their time in 神的審判和一個邪惡的世界，而安居客會花很多時間在。 supplication for God's mercy. 祈求上帝的憐憫。 The family and friends of an Anchorite was encouraged to consider their loved one to 鼓勵Anchorite的家人和朋友考慮他們的親人，以。 be dead, and in fact they were legally considered as such. 是死人，事實上，他們在法律上被視為死人。 As the final stones were laid into place in an Anchorite's cell, the priest would deliver 當最後一塊石頭被安放在安克雷特的牢房裡時，祭司會在安克雷特的牢房裡宣講。 final rites, the prayers which were said at a person's funeral. 最後的儀式，在一個人的葬禮上說的祈禱。 Their earthly lives were over, and now were given over for prayer to God until the day 他們在地上的生命已經結束，現在已經交給神禱告，直到那一天。 they died. 他們死了。 With so few visitors though, an Anchorite might die without anyone noticing except for 不過由於訪客太少，一個碇人可能會在沒有人注意到的情況下死去，除了 their assigned servant, and last rites seems a bit practical as well as ceremonial. 他們指定的僕人，和最後的儀式似乎有點實用以及儀式。 It's not known what Anchorites felt about their way of life, if they had any regrets 不知道安可人對自己的生活方式有何感想，是否有遺憾 over their entombing or if they gladly accepted such an extreme lifestyle. 為他們的入土為安，或者他們是否樂意接受這種極端的生活方式。 The only surviving text from an Anchoress is that of Julian of Norwich, an Anchorite 現存的唯一一篇來自安可麗斯的文字是諾維奇的朱利安的文字，他是安可麗斯人 that lived in the late 1300s. 生活在1300年代末的。 The only reference to her personal feelings on her lifestyle is a small comment which 唯一提到她個人對生活方式的感受的是一句小評論，這句話是 reads, 'this place is a prison, this life is penance'. 念道：'此地是監獄，此生是懺悔'。 Whether Julian was referring to the earth as a prison, and our earthly lives as penance, 朱利安是否指的是地球是一個監獄，而我們在世的生活是懺悔。 or her actual life entombed next to a church is unknown. 或她的實際生活被埋葬在教堂旁邊，不得而知。 Anchorites were nothing if not stoic. 安克雷特人如果不是堅忍不拔，那也沒什麼。 It wouldn't matter much if an Anchorite did experience a change of heart anyways, as the 反正就算安克雷特真的發生了變故，也不會有太大的影響，因為。 church would never allow them to be freed. 教會絕不會允許他們獲得自由。 Anchorism was a deadly serious commitment, and there was no option to fail. 錨定主義是一種致命的嚴肅承諾，沒有失敗的選擇。 That being said, some Anchorites did eventually attempt to escape with the help of outsiders. 話說回來，一些安丘人最終確實是在外人的幫助下試圖逃跑。 Yet for some, Anchorism was not extreme enough, and a group known as the Stylites had for 然而對於一些人來說，安克雷主義還不夠極端，一個被稱為風格派的團體曾為。 a long time been engaging in an even more extreme lifestyle choice. 長期以來一直在從事一種更加極端的生活方式選擇。 Stylities get their name from the world stylos, which means pillar, and from their habit of 斯蒂爾斯的名字來自於世界上的stylos，意思是柱子，也來自於他們的習慣。 living out their lives entirely sitting atop stone pillars. 完全坐在石柱上過日子。 Exposed to the elements on a tiny platform, Stylites vowed to spend their entire lives 在一個小小的平臺上暴露在風雨中，Stylites發誓要用一生的時間來完成。 perched atop stone pillars and endure extreme hardship for the sake of closeness to God. 棲息在石柱上，為了親近上帝，忍受著極度的艱辛。 Much like Anchorites, Stylites were also greatly honored, and one in particular- St. Daniel 和安科利特人一樣，斯德利特人也受到了極大的尊重，特別是一位聖但以理。 the Stylite- even received royal visitors who sought out his wisdom. 斯蒂利特甚至接待了尋求他智慧的皇室訪客。 Perched atop a pillar built specially for him outside Constantinople by Emperor Leo 棲息在君士坦丁堡城外利奧皇帝專門為他建造的一根柱子上。 I, St. Daniel gave counsel to Emperors Leo and Zeno of Constantinople, as well as the 一、聖但以理給君士坦丁堡的利奧和芝諾皇帝以及 city's patriarch. 市的元老。 He regularly held sermons and counseled the faithful, partaking in the Eucharist and even, 他經常舉行佈道會，為信徒提供諮詢，參加聖體儀式，甚至。 it's claimed, healing the sick. 據稱，治病。 It's said that he came down from his pillar only once in thirty three years, to turn Emperor 據說他三十三年才從柱子上下來一次，是為了翻身皇帝 Baliscus away from Monophysitism, a blasphemous belief that Jesus Christ was not God in human 巴利斯庫斯遠離基督一性一主義，這是一種褻瀆性的信仰，認為耶穌基督不是人中的上帝 flesh, but was entirely God and had no human nature. 肉體，但完全是神，沒有人性。 For Christians, the belief that Jesus was both part human and part divine is a point 對於基督徒來說，相信耶穌既是人又是神的一部分是一個要點。 of great comfort, as it inspires them to believe in a savior that endured the same hardships 是一種極大的安慰，因為它激勵他們相信一位經歷過同樣苦難的救世主。 and temptations with the same human frailty that normal people do, and yet triumphed over 和誘惑，與正常人一樣的人性弱點，卻戰勝了。 them. 他們。 Turning away to the blasphemy of Monophysitism then would likely be a good excuse for St. 轉身離去對一元論的褻瀆，那麼很可能會成為聖的一個好藉口。 Daniel to abandon his perch briefly, but we bet getting the chance to stretch his legs 丹尼爾短暫地放棄了他的棲息地，但我們打賭有機會伸展他的雙腿 must've felt amazing. 一定是覺得很神奇。 The life of an Anchorite or a Stylite couldn't have been an easy one, and while this seems 蟻人或冥人的生活並不輕鬆，雖然這看起來是 insane to us today and there is no mention in the Bible of any of these practices being 在我們今天看來是瘋狂的，而《聖經》中並沒有提到這些做法是什麼。 necessary at all, one can't help but admire the conviction and personal discipline it 必要性，但我們不得不佩服它的信念和個人修養。 must have taken to live out a life of extreme solitude, and the selflessness of dedicating 孤獨的生活，以及無私奉獻的精神。 oneself to a life of prayer for the world. 為世界祈禱的生活。 Next time you're in your room at home and the internet goes out, close your eyes for 下次你在家裡的房間裡，網絡中斷的時候，閉上你的眼睛，對於 a moment and imagine that you now have to spend the rest of your life in that room, 想象一下，你現在必須在那個房間裡度過餘生。 with no entertainment, no bathroom breaks, and no human contact. 沒有娛樂，沒有上廁所的時間，也沒有人情往來。 Want to hear more stories about religion? 想聽更多關於宗教的故事嗎？ Check out our video, Where could the ark of the covenant be? 請看我們的視頻，約櫃會在哪裡？ Or check out this other video instead! 或者看看這個其他的視頻吧!