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  • The date is 1272, and outside a small church in northern England, a crowd has gathered.

    日期是1272年,在英格蘭北部的一座小教堂外,聚集了一群人。

  • Masons are putting the finishing touches on a new extension to the church, and the assembled

    共濟會正在為教堂的新擴建工程做最後的修飾,而聚集在一起的人也在為教堂的新擴建工程做最後的修飾。

  • crowd peers through the final few holes left in the stone wall they are building.

    眾人從他們正在修建的石牆上留下的最後幾個洞中望去。

  • Through those holes they can see a young woman, sitting on a rough wooden bed, clasping her

    透過這些孔洞,他們可以看到一個年輕的女人,坐在一張粗糙的木床上,抱著她的。

  • hands together in prayer.

    雙手合十祈禱。

  • Finally, the masons insert the last stone into place, and the woman is sealed away,

    最後,石匠將最後一塊石頭插入到位,女人就被封存起來了。

  • never to feel the warmth of the sun on her skin or the warmth of a loved one's embrace

    從來沒有感受到陽光對她皮膚的溫暖,也沒有感受到親人懷抱的溫暖。

  • ever again.

    再也不會了。

  • She will live out her life and die in the tiny room she has just been entombed within.

    她將在剛剛被埋葬的小房間裡度過她的一生,並死去。

  • But what might be most shocking of all is the fact that this isn't a punishment, in

    但最讓人震驚的可能是,這並不是一種懲罰,在。

  • fact it's an honor.

    事實上,這是一種榮譽。

  • And it's an honor that the young woman has chosen for herself.

    而這也是這位年輕女子為自己選擇的榮譽。

  • Anchorites were a religious group that grew in popularity during the middle to late middle

    安息人是中後期逐漸流行起來的一個宗教團體。

  • ages, and while they attracted both men and women, they were predominantly female with

    齡,雖然它們吸引了男性和女性,但它們主要是女性的,其中有很多女性。

  • as many as twice as many women as men becoming anchorites.

    婦女比男子多一倍的人數成為主力軍;

  • These pious men and women dedicated their life wholeheartedly to God, and more specifically

    這些虔誠的男人和女人全心全意地把他們的生命獻給了上帝,更具體地說就是

  • to prayer for the salvation of the world- and the best way to accomplish this in their

    為拯救世界而祈禱--而實現這一目標的最佳途徑,就是在他們的身上。

  • minds was to seal themselves away, where they could not be tempted or led astray from their

    思想是把自己封存起來,在那裡他們不會受到誘惑,也不會誤入歧途。

  • path.

    路徑。

  • It's believed that John the Baptist served as inspiration for the Anchorite way of life,

    人們相信,施洗者約翰是安克雷特生活方式的靈感來源。

  • as he was a hermit monk who retreated from the world so that he may come closer to God.

    因為他是一個隱士,他從世界上撤退,以便他可以更接近上帝。

  • For his faith and devotion, God rewarded him with the privilege of preparing others for

    因著他的信心和奉獻,神賞賜給他特權,讓他預備別人去參加

  • the coming of Jesus, and ultimately with the baptism of Jesus himself as the latter began

    耶穌的到來,並最終與耶穌本人的洗禮一起,因為後者開始了

  • his earthly ministry.

    他在地上的事奉。

  • Yet while John the Baptist was a famous hermit, he wasn't a recluse by any means, and certainly

    雖然施洗約翰是個著名的隱士,但他並不是一個隱士,當然也不是一個隱士。

  • did not go to the extreme lengths that Anchorites did.

    並沒有像安丘人那樣走極端。

  • Hermitdom was also popular during the time of the Anchorites, and for much the same reasons

    隱居在安息人時代也很流行,原因也大同小異。

  • as John the Baptist's- becoming a hermit was a way of leaving the world behind and enduring

    就像施洗者約翰一樣,成為隱士是離開世界的一種方式,也是忍受的一種方式。

  • a life of hardship in a bid to become closer to God.

    艱苦的生活,以爭取更接近上帝。

  • Unlike today where we consider hermits to be creepy weirdos, hermits were largely honored

    不像今天,我們認為隱士是令人毛骨悚然的怪人,隱士在很大程度上是被尊重的。

  • during the Middle Ages, as their seclusion was seen as an act of pious devotion to God.

    在中世紀,他們的隱居被視為對上帝虔誠的奉獻行為。

  • Hermits were often sought out for their spiritual wisdom and counsel, and received some level

    隱士常常因為他們的精神智慧和建議而被尋找,並得到某種程度的

  • of honor rather than disdain.

    的榮譽而不是蔑視。

  • For some, hermitdom was too easy a path to follow, and these people decided that they

    對一些人來說,隱居是一條太容易走的道路,這些人決定他們

  • needed a more extreme form of social isolation in order to get close to God.

    需要一種更極端的社會隔離形式,才能接近上帝。

  • To become an anchorite, an individual needed to get the cooperation of a church, as their

    要成為一個錨定者,一個人需要得到教會的合作,作為他們的。

  • cell where they would spend the rest of their life needed to be constructed on the side

    牢房,他們將在那裡度過他們的餘生,需要在邊上建造。

  • of a church where they could still be close to religious services.

    的教堂,在那裡他們仍然可以接近宗教儀式。

  • The anchorite had to prove to the Bishop of the church that they were capable of supporting

    錨定者必須向教會的主教證明他們有能力支持。

  • themselves for a number of years, and had the services of at least one servant to bring

    幾年來,他們自己,並有至少一個僕人的服務,使他們的生活更加豐富多彩。

  • them food and water as well as remove their waste.

    他們的食物和水,以及清除他們的廢物。

  • This has led modern researchers to puzzle over the practice, as it is clear that only

    這使得現代研究者對這種做法感到困惑,因為顯然只有

  • educated, financially well-to-do individuals could afford to engage in such a lifestyle,

    受過教育、經濟上富裕的人可以負擔得起這種生活方式。

  • and these aren't the type of people who's lives are so difficult that they might seek

    而這些人不是那種生活太困難,以至於他們可能會尋求

  • to escape them by any means necessary.

    不擇手段地逃避它們。

  • This is evidence then that the life of an Anchorite was not just chosen by those who

    那麼,這就證明了安可人的生活不僅僅是由那些人選擇的。

  • participated, but even desired, bizarre as that might seem to us today.

    參與,甚至是希望,雖然這在今天的我們看來很奇怪。

  • Once entombed, the Anchorite was forbidden from ever leaving their enclosure, and given

    一旦被埋葬,Anchorite就被禁止離開他們的圍牆,並被給予

  • that there was no doorway and they were surrounded in solid stone, escape was a moot point.

    他們沒有門路,而且周圍都是堅固的石頭,逃跑是沒有意義的。

  • The only openings to the outside world were two to three slits cut into the rock.

    通往外界的唯一開口是在岩石上開出的兩到三條縫隙。

  • One slit would face into the church, from where the Anchorite could see the altar and

    一條縫隙將朝向教堂,從那裡,安克雷特可以看到祭壇和。

  • could partake in mass.

    可以參加彌撒。

  • Another slit would face outwards, from where the Anchorite could receive visitors.

    另一條縫隙會朝外,從這裡可以接待來訪者。

  • Sometimes a third slit was cut for the anchorite to receive food and water and to pass their

    有時,第三條縫隙被切開,讓錨石接受食物和水,並通過他們的。

  • waste to a servant on the outside.

    浪費給外面的僕人。

  • The interior of the cell contained only sparse and very rough wooden furnishings, typically

    牢房內部只有稀稀拉拉、非常粗糙的木製傢俱,典型的就是 "大鍋飯"。

  • just a rough cot to sleep on, a desk, and possibly a chest or set of drawers.

    只是一張睡覺用的粗糙的小床,一張桌子,可能還有一個箱子或一套抽屜。

  • Fresh hay may have been shoved through the slits for the Anchorite to make a bed with,

    新鮮的乾草可能被從縫隙裡塞進去,讓碇人與之做床。

  • but that was the extent of comfort for the imprisoned.

    但這是對被囚禁者的安慰程度。

  • In fact, the more difficult the living conditions the more holy the experience was considered,

    事實上,生活條件越是艱苦,越是被認為是神聖的經歷。

  • and Anchorites often actively strove for discomfort in order to bring themselves closer to God.

    和安哥利人為了使自己更接近神,常常主動爭取不舒服。

  • The interior of the cell was typically about twelve square feet, or the size of a small

    牢房的內部面積通常約為12平方英尺,或相當於一個小房間的大小。

  • bedroom.

    臥室。

  • There was no bathroom, largely because this was the middle ages, and the anchorite would

    沒有衛生間,主要是因為這裡是中世紀,而錨定者會...

  • have to make use of a bucket, living with their waste until it was collected by a servant

    桶,與垃圾為伴,直到有僕人來收集

  • on the outside.

    在外面。

  • In summer months with sweltering heat, the cell provided little to no relief from breezes,

    在悶熱的夏季,小區裡的微風幾乎沒有緩解。

  • as the slits cut into the chamber were far too small to allow much air flow.

    因為在艙內開的縫隙太小,無法讓空氣流通。

  • The insufferable heat must have only been worsened by the stench from the anchorite's

    令人難以忍受的炎熱一定是由於錨人的臭味而加劇的。

  • waste, and their own body as Anchorites would be unable to bathe.

    廢物,而自己的身體作為安可人將無法沐浴。

  • Some Anchorites did include additional furnishings so that they could pursue a trade craft while

    一些安科利人確實包括了額外的傢俱,以便他們可以在從事貿易手藝的同時

  • entombed.

    窀穸。

  • One famous anchorite was a renowned goldsmith, and worked with raw ore brought to him, crafting

    有一位著名的錨石匠是一位著名的金匠,他用帶來的原礦進行加工,製作出了

  • it into jewelry and holy symbols.

    變成首飾和聖物。

  • These would have been the time's version of a Louis Vuitton bag today, as Anchorites were

    這些應該是當時的路易威登包包的今天的版本,因為Anchorites是。

  • that highly renowned and wearing an item crafted by one would have been a great honor.

    享有極高的聲譽,穿上一件由一個人製作的物品,那將是一種極大的榮耀。

  • For this reason, Anchorite 'guidebooks' encouraged them to limit their crafting or sewing to

    是以,Anchorite的 "指南 "鼓勵他們限制自己的手工藝或縫製工作。

  • simple, modest items, as the celebrity of these figures was well known.

    簡單、簡陋的物品,因為這些人物的名氣是眾所周知的。

  • Celebrity was itself a bit of a problem for the anchorite, and despite being able to receive

    名人本身對主播來說就是一個小問題,儘管能夠接受

  • visitors through the slit in their cell, they were expressly discouraged from doing so.

    牢房的縫隙中,明確勸阻訪客不要這樣做。

  • Anchorite guide books warned that anchorites were to limit their time spent with visitors

    碇人導遊書警告說,碇人要限制與遊客相處的時間。

  • to a minimum, and churches were instructed to forbid the gathering of large groups of

    儘量減少,並訓示教會禁止大群人聚集在一起。

  • visitors.

    訪客。

  • While Anchorites were highly sought after for spiritual guidance and religious advice,

    雖然安可利人因精神指導和宗教建議而備受追捧。

  • they were discouraged from spending their time chatting away as they were supposed to

    他們不願意把時間花在閒聊上。

  • focus on prayer and religious study instead.

    專注於祈禱和宗教學習,而不是。

  • Celebrities though, they were, and despite being extreme recluses, Anchorites were highly

    名人雖然是,他們是,儘管是極端的隱居者,但安克雷特人是高度。

  • honored within the Church.

    在教會內受到尊敬。

  • In a society where women held little to no power, women Anchorites- who outnumbered men

    在一個婦女幾乎沒有權力的社會里,女安人--她們的數量超過了男人。

  • by as much as two to one- were seen as the highest spiritual authority within their church,

    以二比一的比例被視為教會內最高的屬靈權威。

  • even higher than the Bishop himself.

    甚至比主教本人還要高。

  • Their wisdom was even sought after by nobles, and even kings and queens.

    他們的智慧甚至受到貴族,甚至國王和皇后的追捧。

  • Some modern researchers postulate that women chose to become Anchorites so that they could

    一些現代研究者推測,女性選擇成為安丘人,是為了能夠。

  • escape the social oppression of their day, and receive prestige and honor in a world

    脫離了當時的社會壓迫,在這個世界上獲得了聲望和榮譽。

  • where they would have otherwise been nothing much more than a wife, expected to rear and

    否則,他們將只是一個妻子,期待著養育和保護他們。

  • raise children.

    撫養孩子;

  • Some in fact believe that the life of an anchorite was so popular with women because they sought

    其實有些人認為,碇人的生活之所以如此受女性歡迎,是因為她們追求的是

  • it as a means of escaping forced marriages.

    作為逃避強迫婚姻的一種手段。

  • The term anchorite is believed to have originated from the prestige afforded to these solitaires,

    錨石一詞被認為是源於這些獨石所具有的威望。

  • as their wisdom and piety was believed to be the literal anchor of a church.

    因為他們的智慧和虔誠被認為是教會的文字支柱。

  • Dedicating their life wholeheartedly to prayer, these men and women were thought to be immune

    這些人全心全意地將自己的生命獻給了祈禱,他們被認為是免疫的。

  • to worldly temptations and deceits, and thus could steer a church through troublesome periods

    抵抗世俗的誘惑和欺騙,是以可以引導教會度過困難時期。

  • by being its spiritual anchor.

    通過成為其精神支柱。

  • This was a role taken extremely seriously by the Anchorite, with part of their motivation

    這是一個被安克雷特人極為重視的角色,他們的部分動機是什麼?

  • for entombment being a need to pray for the sins of the world.

    為墓葬是需要為世界的罪孽祈禱。

  • By dedicating themselves to praying for the world, the Anchorite hoped to intercede between

    獻身於為世界祈求,安居人希望在之間進行調解。

  • God's judgment and a wicked world, and the Anchorite would spend much of their time in

    神的審判和一個邪惡的世界,而安居客會花很多時間在。

  • supplication for God's mercy.

    祈求上帝的憐憫。

  • The family and friends of an Anchorite was encouraged to consider their loved one to

    鼓勵Anchorite的家人和朋友考慮他們的親人,以。

  • be dead, and in fact they were legally considered as such.

    是死人,事實上,他們在法律上被視為死人。

  • As the final stones were laid into place in an Anchorite's cell, the priest would deliver

    當最後一塊石頭被安放在安克雷特的牢房裡時,祭司會在安克雷特的牢房裡宣講。

  • final rites, the prayers which were said at a person's funeral.

    最後的儀式,在一個人的葬禮上說的祈禱。

  • Their earthly lives were over, and now were given over for prayer to God until the day

    他們在地上的生命已經結束,現在已經交給神禱告,直到那一天。

  • they died.

    他們死了。

  • With so few visitors though, an Anchorite might die without anyone noticing except for

    不過由於訪客太少,一個碇人可能會在沒有人注意到的情況下死去,除了

  • their assigned servant, and last rites seems a bit practical as well as ceremonial.

    他們指定的僕人,和最後的儀式似乎有點實用以及儀式。

  • It's not known what Anchorites felt about their way of life, if they had any regrets

    不知道安可人對自己的生活方式有何感想,是否有遺憾

  • over their entombing or if they gladly accepted such an extreme lifestyle.

    為他們的入土為安,或者他們是否樂意接受這種極端的生活方式。

  • The only surviving text from an Anchoress is that of Julian of Norwich, an Anchorite

    現存的唯一一篇來自安可麗斯的文字是諾維奇的朱利安的文字,他是安可麗斯人

  • that lived in the late 1300s.

    生活在1300年代末的。

  • The only reference to her personal feelings on her lifestyle is a small comment which

    唯一提到她個人對生活方式的感受的是一句小評論,這句話是

  • reads, 'this place is a prison, this life is penance'.

    念道:'此地是監獄,此生是懺悔'。

  • Whether Julian was referring to the earth as a prison, and our earthly lives as penance,

    朱利安是否指的是地球是一個監獄,而我們在世的生活是懺悔。

  • or her actual life entombed next to a church is unknown.

    或她的實際生活被埋葬在教堂旁邊,不得而知。

  • Anchorites were nothing if not stoic.

    安克雷特人如果不是堅忍不拔,那也沒什麼。

  • It wouldn't matter much if an Anchorite did experience a change of heart anyways, as the

    反正就算安克雷特真的發生了變故,也不會有太大的影響,因為。

  • church would never allow them to be freed.

    教會絕不會允許他們獲得自由。

  • Anchorism was a deadly serious commitment, and there was no option to fail.

    錨定主義是一種致命的嚴肅承諾,沒有失敗的選擇。

  • That being said, some Anchorites did eventually attempt to escape with the help of outsiders.

    話說回來,一些安丘人最終確實是在外人的幫助下試圖逃跑。

  • Yet for some, Anchorism was not extreme enough, and a group known as the Stylites had for

    然而對於一些人來說,安克雷主義還不夠極端,一個被稱為風格派的團體曾為。

  • a long time been engaging in an even more extreme lifestyle choice.

    長期以來一直在從事一種更加極端的生活方式選擇。

  • Stylities get their name from the world stylos, which means pillar, and from their habit of

    斯蒂爾斯的名字來自於世界上的stylos,意思是柱子,也來自於他們的習慣。

  • living out their lives entirely sitting atop stone pillars.

    完全坐在石柱上過日子。

  • Exposed to the elements on a tiny platform, Stylites vowed to spend their entire lives

    在一個小小的平臺上暴露在風雨中,Stylites發誓要用一生的時間來完成。

  • perched atop stone pillars and endure extreme hardship for the sake of closeness to God.

    棲息在石柱上,為了親近上帝,忍受著極度的艱辛。

  • Much like Anchorites, Stylites were also greatly honored, and one in particular- St. Daniel

    和安科利特人一樣,斯德利特人也受到了極大的尊重,特別是一位聖但以理。

  • the Stylite- even received royal visitors who sought out his wisdom.

    斯蒂利特甚至接待了尋求他智慧的皇室訪客。

  • Perched atop a pillar built specially for him outside Constantinople by Emperor Leo

    棲息在君士坦丁堡城外利奧皇帝專門為他建造的一根柱子上。

  • I, St. Daniel gave counsel to Emperors Leo and Zeno of Constantinople, as well as the

    一、聖但以理給君士坦丁堡的利奧和芝諾皇帝以及

  • city's patriarch.

    市的元老。

  • He regularly held sermons and counseled the faithful, partaking in the Eucharist and even,

    他經常舉行佈道會,為信徒提供諮詢,參加聖體儀式,甚至。

  • it's claimed, healing the sick.

    據稱,治病。

  • It's said that he came down from his pillar only once in thirty three years, to turn Emperor

    據說他三十三年才從柱子上下來一次,是為了翻身皇帝

  • Baliscus away from Monophysitism, a blasphemous belief that Jesus Christ was not God in human

    巴利斯庫斯遠離基督一性一主義,這是一種褻瀆性的信仰,認為耶穌基督不是人中的上帝

  • flesh, but was entirely God and had no human nature.

    肉體,但完全是神,沒有人性。

  • For Christians, the belief that Jesus was both part human and part divine is a point

    對於基督徒來說,相信耶穌既是人又是神的一部分是一個要點。

  • of great comfort, as it inspires them to believe in a savior that endured the same hardships

    是一種極大的安慰,因為它激勵他們相信一位經歷過同樣苦難的救世主。

  • and temptations with the same human frailty that normal people do, and yet triumphed over

    和誘惑,與正常人一樣的人性弱點,卻戰勝了。

  • them.

    他們。

  • Turning away to the blasphemy of Monophysitism then would likely be a good excuse for St.

    轉身離去對一元論的褻瀆,那麼很可能會成為聖的一個好藉口。

  • Daniel to abandon his perch briefly, but we bet getting the chance to stretch his legs

    丹尼爾短暫地放棄了他的棲息地,但我們打賭有機會伸展他的雙腿

  • must've felt amazing.

    一定是覺得很神奇。

  • The life of an Anchorite or a Stylite couldn't have been an easy one, and while this seems

    蟻人或冥人的生活並不輕鬆,雖然這看起來是

  • insane to us today and there is no mention in the Bible of any of these practices being

    在我們今天看來是瘋狂的,而《聖經》中並沒有提到這些做法是什麼。

  • necessary at all, one can't help but admire the conviction and personal discipline it

    必要性,但我們不得不佩服它的信念和個人修養。

  • must have taken to live out a life of extreme solitude, and the selflessness of dedicating

    孤獨的生活,以及無私奉獻的精神。

  • oneself to a life of prayer for the world.

    為世界祈禱的生活。

  • Next time you're in your room at home and the internet goes out, close your eyes for

    下次你在家裡的房間裡,網絡中斷的時候,閉上你的眼睛,對於

  • a moment and imagine that you now have to spend the rest of your life in that room,

    想象一下,你現在必須在那個房間裡度過餘生。

  • with no entertainment, no bathroom breaks, and no human contact.

    沒有娛樂,沒有上廁所的時間,也沒有人情往來。

  • Want to hear more stories about religion?

    想聽更多關於宗教的故事嗎?

  • Check out our video, Where could the ark of the covenant be?

    請看我們的視頻,約櫃會在哪裡?

  • Or check out this other video instead!

    或者看看這個其他的視頻吧!

The date is 1272, and outside a small church in northern England, a crowd has gathered.

日期是1272年,在英格蘭北部的一座小教堂外,聚集了一群人。

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為什麼這些人被活埋在教堂裡? (Why Were These People Buried Alive Inside A Church)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 11 日
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