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  • The brain is the sexiest organ in the entire human body.

    大腦是整個人體中最性感的器官。

  • But for all it's amazing intricacies and complexities, its beautiful nature is too

    但儘管它有驚人的錯綜複雜,但其美麗的本質太

  • commonly misunderstood and oversimplified.

    通常被誤解和過於簡單化。

  • We'll cut the fact from fiction, and show you how to actually optimize your brain's

    我們將從虛構的事實中解脫出來,告訴你如何真正優化你的大腦。

  • performance.

    績。

  • Dr. Jubbal, MedSchoolInsiders.com.

    朱波醫生,醫派內參網。

  • I was inspired to make this video after seeing countless productivity gurus, bloggers, course

    在看到無數的生產力大師、博主、課程後,我有了製作這個視頻的靈感。

  • course creators, and even highly esteemed authors get the science wrong as it relates to the

    課程創建者,甚至是備受推崇的作者都會把科學弄錯,因為它涉及到的是一個新的問題。

  • brain.

    腦子。

  • For those of you who are new here, my name is Dr. Kevin Jubbal.

    對於那些新來的人,我的名字是凱文-朱波博士。

  • Prior to earning my MD, I earned my degree in Neuroscience, which is where my obsession

    在獲得醫學博士學位之前,我獲得了神經科學的學位,這也是我痴迷的地方。

  • with the human brain began.

    與人腦開始。

  • It's first critical to understand that neuroscience is still a very nascent field, particularly

    首先要明白神經科學還是一個非常新興的領域,尤其是至關重要的是

  • when it comes to applying neuroscience to education and brain optimization.

    在將神經科學應用於教育和大腦優化時。

  • While we've learned a great deal in the past few decades, we've also debunked many

    雖然我們在過去幾十年裡學到了很多東西,但我們也揭穿了許多

  • previous beliefs.

    以前的信念。

  • Yet these myths are still commonly thrown around today.

    然而這些神話至今仍被普遍拋出。

  • If you believe people only use 10% of their brain, chances are you are one of those people.

    如果你相信人們只用了10%的大腦,那麼你有可能就是其中之一。

  • In all seriousness, healthy individuals use the entirety of their brain, not just 10%

    嚴肅地說,健康的人用的是他們大腦的全部,而不是隻有10%。

  • of it.

    的。

  • A big reason this myth hasn't died is that it makes us feel good.

    這個神話沒有死的一個重要原因是它讓我們感覺很好。

  • We're comforted by the prospect that our shortcomings and unfulfilled dreams lie in

    我們為自己的缺點和未實現的夢想而感到欣慰。

  • The fact that we just haven't utilized the huge reservoir of cerebral power within our heads.

    事實上,我們還沒有利用我們腦袋巨大的腦力庫。

  • The origins of this myth can be traced back to William James in the late 19th and early

    這個神話的起源可以追溯到19世紀末和19世紀初的威廉-詹姆斯。

  • 20th centuries.

    20世紀。

  • He was a firm believer that the average person rarely achieves anywhere near their full potential.

    他堅信,一般人很少能發揮出接近他們全部的潛能。

  • The self-help gurus that followed were not so careful with their word choice, and “10

    之後的自助大師們在用詞上就沒有那麼講究了,"十

  • percent of our capacitybecame “10 percent of our brain.”

    我們能力的百分之 "變成了 "我們大腦的百分之十"。

  • Journalist Lowell Thomas then attributed this 10 percent myth to William James in the preface

    記者洛厄爾-托馬斯就在序言中把這個10%的神話歸功於威廉-詹姆斯。

  • to Dale Carenegie's How to Win Friends and Influence People.

    到戴爾-卡耐基的《如何贏得朋友和影響別人》。

  • And the rest is history.

    剩下的就是歷史了。

  • Since then, early neuroscience studies have noted that a large percentage of the cortex

    此後,早期的神經科學研究指出,很大一部分皮層

  • is less active.

    是不太活躍的。

  • Thissilent cortexhas since been renamed theassociation cortex”, which was likely

    這個 "無聲皮層 "後來被改名為 "聯想皮層",很可能是

  • misconstrued and misrepresented to the public through the questionable work of journalists

    通過記者的可疑工作對公眾進行誤解和歪曲。

  • who have no business summarizing scientific research.

    誰也沒有資格總結科研成果。

  • And just because damage to the association cortex doesn't lead to sensory or motor

    而僅僅因為聯想皮層的損傷,並不會導致感覺或運動

  • deficits doesn't mean these areas are not important.

    缺陷並不意味著這些領域不重要。

  • In fact, these regions of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes of your brain

    事實上,你的大腦額葉、頂葉、顳葉和枕葉的這些區域。

  • are foundational to making us humanthey allow for communication, reasoning, planning,

    是使我們成為人類的基礎--它們允許溝通、推理、計劃。

  • adapting, visual integration, and many other crucial functions.

    適應、視覺整合等諸多關鍵功能。

  • Even though the adult human brain weighs only 2% of the body's mass, it consumes 20% of

    儘管成年人類的大腦重量僅佔人體品質的2%,但它卻消耗了20%的能量。

  • our daily energy expenditure.

    我們每天的能量消耗。

  • On a per weight basis, human brains pack the most neurons compared to any other species.

    按重量計算,與其他任何物種相比,人類大腦中的神經元數量最多。

  • This is what makes us so smart.

    這就是我們的聰明之處。

  • The downside to having so many neurons is that it's incredibly expensive from an energy

    擁有這麼多神經元的缺點是,從能源角度看,它的成本非常高。

  • perspective.

    觀點。

  • The cooking hypothesis states that a major reason why humans evolved to spend so much

    烹飪假說指出,人類之所以進化出如此多的花費,一個重要的原因是。

  • energy on their brains is because of cooking, which is using external energy to partially

    在他們的大腦上的能量是由於烹飪,這是利用外部能量來部分

  • digest food, thereby allowing our digestive tracts to process food more efficiently.

    消化食物,從而讓我們的消化道更有效地處理食物。

  • Less energy spent digesting food means more energy can go to our noggins.

    花在消化食物上的能量更少,意味著更多的能量可以進入我們的腦海。

  • Because the brain is incredibly costly from an energy perspective, our brains have evolved

    因為從能量的角度來看,大腦的成本非常高,所以我們的大腦已經進化出了

  • to employ a signaling mechanism known as sparse coding.

    以採用一種稱為稀疏編碼的信令機制。

  • Sparse coding evolved as it optimizes the energy to information balance, using the least

    稀疏編碼的發展,是因為它優化了能量與資訊的平衡,用最少的。

  • amount of energy while carrying the most amount of information.

    攜帶最多信息量的同時,還能獲得大量的能量。

  • For this reason, only 1-16% of the neurons in your brain are active at any single moment.

    由於這個原因,在任何時刻,你的大腦中只有1-16%的神經元是活躍的。

  • However, if these neurons never fired, evolution would have selected to get rid of them long

    然而,如果這些神經元從來沒有發射過,進化就會選擇長期擺脫它們。

  • ago, as even maintaining these neurons is incredibly expensive from an energy standpoint.

    前,因為從能源的角度來看,即使是維持這些神經元也是非常昂貴的。

  • Which brings us to the next mythmultitasking.

    這就引出了下一個迷思--多任務處理。

  • Because of the brain's high energy cost, we simply cannot multitask effectivelyit's

    由於大腦的高能量成本,我們根本無法有效地進行多任務處理--它是

  • too costly from an energy perspective.

    從能源的角度來看,成本太高。

  • The brain doesn't allow us to allocate enough energy and resources to do multiple tasks

    大腦不允許我們分配足夠的能量和資源來完成多項任務。

  • at full capacity.

    滿載而歸。

  • That's why if you try to do 2 or 3 things at once, you end up doing each task worse

    這就是為什麼如果你想同時做兩三件事,最後會把每件事情都做得更糟糕的原因

  • than if you just gave it your full attention.

    比如果你只是給它你的全神貫注。

  • Now you may be thinking, “I've got you trapped Dr. Jubbal!

    現在你可能會想:"我已經把你困住了,朱波博士!

  • How is it that I'm able to walk and talk on the phone at the same time?”

    我怎麼能一邊走路一邊打電話呢?"

  • It's important to note that the multitasking myth applies to attention-rich stimuli and

    需要注意的是,多任務的神話適用於注意力豐富的刺激和

  • tasks that cannot be done on autopilot.

    不能在自動駕駛上完成的任務。

  • Breathing, walking, sitting, and even stretching aren't tasks in the same way that speaking

    呼吸,走路,坐著,甚至是伸展,都不是任務,就像說話一樣。

  • to someone, reading a book, or solving a problem are.

    對人、看書或解決問題是。

  • There are three memory stages - first you encode information, then you store it, and

    記憶有三個階段--首先是對資訊進行編碼,然後是存儲資訊,然後是。

  • finally you retrieve it.

    最後你把它找回來。

  • Naveh-Benjamin in 2000 found that information encoding requires more attention than retrieval.

    Naveh-Benjamin在2000年發現,資訊編碼比檢索需要更多的注意力。

  • Additionally, divided attention during the encoding phase of learning significantly impairs

    此外,在學習的編碼階段,分化的注意力會顯著地損害

  • memory.

    記憶。

  • There are dozens of additional studies with supporting evidence that multitasking is neither

    有幾十項額外的研究支持證據表明,多任務處理既不是

  • efficient nor effective.

    效率也不高。

  • In the interest of time, you should deliberately commit yourself to only one challenging task at a

    為了節省時間,你應該刻意地讓自己每次只完成一項具有挑戰性的任務。

  • time to maximize efficiency, productivity, and balance in your life.

    時間,以最大限度地提高效率、生產力和生活平衡。

  • I go over how to apply this in your daily life in my Superhuman Efficiency and Productivity

    我在我的《超人的效率和生產力》中詳細介紹瞭如何在日常生活中應用這一點。

  • video. Link in the description below.

    視頻。鏈接在下面的描述中。

  • Arguably the most commonly believed myth is that some of us areright-brained”, and

    可以說,最普遍相信的神話是,我們中的一些人是 "右腦",而。

  • some of us areleft-brained”, corresponding to being more artistic and creative or more

    我們中的一些人是 "左腦",對應的是更多的藝術和創意,或者更多的是

  • logical and analytical, respectively.

    分別是邏輯性和分析性。

  • First, a brief neuroanatomy lesson.

    首先,簡單的神經解剖課。

  • When speaking of the brain, most people are referring to the neocortex, the large wrinkly

    說到大腦,大多數人指的是新皮層,即大皺紋的

  • portions that are most superficial, meaning on top.

    最表面的部分,也就是上面的部分。

  • These ridges and grooves, called gyri and sulci, respectively, increase the surface

    這些山脊和溝槽,分別被稱為回紋和溝槽,增加了表面積。

  • area of our brain.

    我們大腦的區域。

  • This is the key part of our brain that is responsible for the higher level functions

    這是我們大腦的關鍵部分,負責更高級別的功能。

  • that make humans unique from other organisms.

    使得人類不同於其他生物的獨特之處。

  • These two separate halves each contain multiple regions within them, and each of those regions

    這兩個獨立的半邊分別含有多個區域,其中每個區域都有

  • have specialized functions.

    有專門的功能。

  • It is important to note, however, that these two hemispheres are connected by a mass of

    然而,重要的是要注意到,這兩個半球由大量的

  • white matter, which is made up of nerve fibers, called the corpus callous.

    白質,是由神經纖維組成的,稱為胼胝體。

  • This myth originates from oversimplification and misunderstanding of the scientific research

    這種迷思源於對科學研究的過度簡單化和誤解

  • starting seeing a theme here?

    - 開始看到一個主題在這裡?

  • Specifically, the split-brain experiments by Roger Sperry revealed fascinating insights

    具體來說,羅傑-斯佩裡的分腦實驗揭示了引人入勝的見解。

  • of how the brain works, but it's important to note the subjects had the corpus callosum

    大腦是如何工作的,但重要的是要注意到受試者的胼胝體有。

  • severed.

    斬斷。

  • That means the right and left hemispheres were unable to communicate as they normally

    這意味著左右半球無法像往常一樣進行交流。

  • would.

    會。

  • So while it is true that each hemisphere has specialized functions, the communication between

    所以,雖然每個半球確實都有專門的功能,但是,每個半球之間的交流卻不一樣。

  • the two hemispheres is essential to adequately carry out these functions.

    兩大半球是充分執行這些功能的關鍵。

  • Severing this connection, the corpus callosum, leads to a fascinating host of issues.

    切斷這種聯繫,胼胝體,會導致一系列迷人的問題。

  • Regardless, there is no evidence that people's personality or even learning styles differ

    無論如何,沒有證據表明人們的性格甚至學習風格不同

  • from one hemisphere being more dominant than the other.

    從一個半球比另一個半球更佔優勢。

  • Speaking of different learning styles, the idea that some individuals are more kinesthetic

    說到不同的學習方式,有人認為有些人的動覺比較強。

  • versus visual versus auditory learners is also based in fiction.

    與視覺與聽覺學習者的對比,也是基於虛構的。

  • While people may have a clear preference as to the way in which they want to learn, there

    雖然人們可能對自己的學習方式有明確的偏好,但也有

  • is no evidence suggesting that aligning a teaching method with a preferred style will

    沒有證據表明,將教學方法與偏好的風格統一起來就能實現

  • improve learning.

    改善學習。

  • In fact, this myth may do more harm than good, as those who believe they have a certain learning

    其實,這種迷思可能弊大於利,因為那些認為自己有一定學問的人。

  • style may pigeonhole themselves into thinking they cannot learn using other methods.

    風格可能會把自己劃為鴿子,認為自己不能用其他方法學習。

  • To be most effective, using a mix of the various learning styles is recommended, as the novel

    為了達到最有效的效果,建議混合使用各種學習方式,因為小說

  • stimuli and cross-connections can aid in memory consolidation.

    刺激和交叉連接可以幫助記憶的鞏固。

  • By recruiting multiple brain regions and employing a variety of neural pathways, optimal learning

    通過招募多個腦區,並採用多種神經通路,優化學習。

  • is achieved.

    是實現。

  • And this is a huge reason why I'm a strong proponent of familiarizing yourself with a

    這也是為什麼我極力主張熟悉一個人的重要原因

  • variety of study tools and techniques.

    各種學習工具和技術;

  • I have an entire Study Playlist designed to teach you how to incorporate these various

    我有一個完整的學習播放列表,旨在教你如何將這些不同的。

  • strategies in your daily studies.

    日常學習中的策略。

  • Link in the description below.

    鏈接在下面的描述中。

  • I was told this time and time again back when I was in grade school.

    早在我上小學的時候,就有人一次次地告訴我這個道理。

  • You're born with a certain number of neurons, and you slowly lose them as you get older,

    你出生時就有一定數量的神經元,隨著年齡的增長,你會慢慢失去它們。

  • without the ability to create new ones.

    而沒有能力創建新的。

  • The truth is that everyone has the capacity to develop new cells to enhance their cognitive

    事實上,每個人都有能力開發新的細胞,以提高他們的認知能力。

  • abilities, both neurons, which are the typical brain cells we think of, and glial cells,

    能力,無論是神經元,也就是我們認為的典型腦細胞,還是膠質細胞。

  • the supporting cells which help the neurons function optimally.

    支持細胞,幫助神經元發揮最佳功能。

  • This process, called neurogenesis, is how you create new neurons.

    這個過程叫做神經發生,就是你創造新神經元的過程。

  • Sustained aerobic exercise, more so than resistance training or high intensity interval training

    持續的有氧運動,比阻力訓練或高強度間歇訓練更重要

  • (HIIT), is most effective at boosting neurogenesis.

    (HIIT),對促進神經發生最為有效。

  • It's not clear why, but researchers believe aerobic exercise may cause increased release

    目前尚不清楚原因,但研究人員認為,有氧運動可能會導致釋放量增加。

  • of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which regulates neurogenesis.

    的腦源性神經營養因子,調節神經發生。

  • Stress relief, including sex, may also enhance neurogenesis, as chronic stress inhibits new

    緩解壓力,包括性,也可能會增強神經發生,因為長期的壓力會抑制新。

  • neuron formation.

    神經元訓練。

  • Interestingly, any experience that makes you focus attention, even for brief periods, can

    有趣的是,任何讓你集中注意力的經歷,哪怕是短暫的,都可以

  • stimulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which is the memory center in your brain.

    刺激海馬體的神經發生,這是大腦的記憶中心。

  • With that knowledge, it appears that using your non-dominant hand to brush your teeth

    有了這些知識,看來,用非慣用手刷牙

  • has greater utility than simply helping you prepare for your surgery clerkship.

    比起單純的幫助你準備外科實習,有更大的作用。

  • The idea that Mozart or other classical music makes you smarter is another commonly held

    莫扎特或其他古典音樂能讓你更聰明的觀點是另一種普遍認為的。

  • belief that I was told time and time again during my childhood and adolescence.

    在我的童年和青少年時期,一次又一次地被告知的信念。

  • But I always gravitated to punk, ska, electronic music, and hip hop, so I personally didn't

    但我總是傾向於朋克、斯卡、電子音樂和嘻哈,所以我個人並沒有。

  • dabble much myself, and I like to think I turned out ok.

    我自己也是涉獵甚廣,我想我的成績還不錯。

  • I've gone over the research surrounding the Mozart Effect and the science of music

    我已經介紹了圍繞莫扎特效應和音樂科學的研究情況

  • and cognitive function in a previous video Link in the description below.

    和認知功能在以前的視頻鏈接在下面的描述。

  • Possibly the most harmful of all neuromyths is that your mental capacity is something

    最有害的神經迷信可能是,你的心理能力是什麼東西

  • you are born with and cannot change.

    你是天生的,無法改變。

  • While it is true that your cognitive abilities have a genetic component, environmental factors

    雖然你的認知能力確實有遺傳的成分,但環境因素

  • should not be underestimated.

    不應低估。

  • Our brains are incredibly malleable and adaptable throughout our liveswe describe this

    我們的大腦在我們的一生中具有驚人的可塑性和適應性--我們描述了這一點。

  • with the term neuroplasticity.

    與神經可塑性一詞。

  • That's where deliberate practice and intelligent strategy come into play.

    這就是刻意練習和智慧策略的作用。

  • And that's what we're entirely about here at Med School Insiders.

    而這也是我們在醫學院內參完全的目的。

  • If you aren't getting the results you want, you have to change the systems that influence

    如果你沒有得到你想要的結果,你必須改變影響你的系統。

  • them, both directly and indirectly.

    他們直接和間接地。

  • Start with our YouTube videos and blog posts on our website.

    從我們網站上的YouTube視頻和博客文章開始。

  • I cover not only the importance but also the implementation of active learning, spaced

    我的內容不僅包括主動學習的重要性,還包括實施主動學習、隔空

  • repetition, proper sleep, techniques to overcome procrastination, and many more.

    重複、適當的睡眠、克服拖延症的技巧等等。

  • Most students notice a significant and substantial improvement in their performance from following

    大多數學生注意到他們的成績有了顯著的、大幅度的提高,從以下幾個方面來看

  • the guidance in these videos and blog posts.

    這些視頻和博客文章中的指導。

  • But if you're still not getting the results you want, our highly talented team of physician

    但如果你還是沒有得到你想要的結果,我們的高素質醫師團隊

  • tutors can help.

    輔導老師可以幫助你。

  • They've excelled on the MCAT, USMLE, and COMLEX exams, and they can help you do the

    他們在MCAT、USMLE和COMLEX考試中表現出色,他們可以幫助您完成以下考試。

  • same.

    同樣的。

  • They love what they do, and they're the best in the industry.

    他們熱愛他們的工作,他們是行業中最好的。

  • They've passed our highly rigorous 5 step screening process and have excelled in their

    他們通過了我們嚴格的五步篩選程序,並在他們的工作中表現出色。

  • own medical careers.

    自己的醫療事業。

  • As you guys know, I'm a huge proponent of systems generating results.

    你們知道,我是系統產生結果的忠實擁護者。

  • That's why my team and I have spent months perfecting our proprietary and systematic

    這就是為什麼我和我的團隊花了幾個月的時間來完善我們專有的系統化的。

  • processes that ensure the highest quality service for each and every student.

    流程,確保為每一位學生提供最優質的服務。

  • Unlike other companies, you'll never worry about beingunluckyand not getting

    與其他公司不同的是,你永遠不會擔心自己 "倒黴 "而得不到。

  • a phenomenal tutor.

    一個了不起的導師。

  • Our team consistently delivers an excellent experience and service, and I personally stand

    我們的團隊始終如一地提供卓越的體驗和服務,我個人認為,我們的團隊是一個很好的團隊。

  • by that.

    以此。

  • Our results speak for themselves.

    我們的成果不言而喻。

  • Learn more at MedSchoolInsiders.com.

    更多內容請登錄MedSchoolInsiders.com瞭解。

  • Thank you all so much for watching.

    非常感謝大家的觀看。

  • Are there any other common beliefs about the brain that you want me to clarify for you?

    還有沒有其他關於大腦的共同信念,你想讓我為你澄清?

  • Let me know with a comment down below.

    請在下面留言告訴我。

  • If you liked the video and want to see me make more videos like this in the future,

    如果你喜歡這段視頻,想看我以後做更多這樣的視頻。

  • let me know with a thumbs up.

    讓我知道與一個大拇指。

  • If you found this video useful, it would mean a lot to me if you share it with one of your

    如果你覺得這個視頻有用,這將意味著很多,如果你分享它與您的一個

  • friends.

    朋友。

  • Thanks for watching, and I will see you guys in that next one.

    謝謝你的觀看,我們下一場再見。

The brain is the sexiest organ in the entire human body.

大腦是整個人體中最性感的器官。

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B2 中高級 中文 大腦 神經 神經元 半球 學習 能量

7個你認為是真的大腦神話 (7 Brain Myths You Thought Were True)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 08 日
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