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  • It was called the war to end all wars.

    這就是所謂的結束所有戰爭的戰爭。

  • Unfortunately, World War I didn't deliver on that promise.

    不幸的是,第一次世界大戰並沒有實現這一承諾。

  • It was however the first time in the history of planet Earth that nations from around the

    然而,這是地球歷史上第一次,來自世界各地的國家。

  • world fought in a single war.

    世界在一場戰爭中打了。

  • It started with an assassination and a series of questionable decisions.

    它始於一次暗殺和一系列可疑的決定。

  • We can point fingers and play the blame game, but really there is no single person or country

    我們可以指責和玩責備的遊戲,但實際上沒有一個人或一個國家

  • that holds all of the responsibility.

    承擔所有責任的。

  • Could the war that killed millions have been prevented?

    那場殺死數百萬人的戰爭是否可以避免?

  • Most definitely.

    絕對是這樣

  • Let's take a look at what caused the Great War, explore how it could have been prevented,

    讓我們來看看是什麼原因導致了這場大戰,探討一下如何預防這場大戰。

  • and learn how to not repeat the mistakes of the past.

    並學習如何不重複過去的錯誤。

  • World War I lasted from 1914 to 1918 and included countries in Europe, Russia, the United States,

    第一次世界大戰從1914年持續到1918年,包括歐洲、俄國、美國等國家。

  • and countries in the Middle East.

    和中東國家。

  • The two main sides of the war were the Central Powers which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary,

    戰爭的主要雙方是由德國、奧匈帝國組成的中央大國。

  • Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, who fought against the Allied Powers of France,

    意大利、奧斯曼帝國和保加利亞,他們與法國聯軍作戰。

  • Britain, Russia, Portugal and Japan.

    英國、俄羅斯、葡萄牙和日本。

  • Later in the war the United States would also join the side of the Allies.

    在戰爭後期,美國也會加入同盟國的陣營。

  • But what happened?

    但是發生了什麼?

  • Why did all of these nations get involved in one of the most disastrous wars in history?

    為什麼這些國家都捲入了歷史上最災難性的戰爭之一?

  • Let's explore the mechanisms and missteps that led to the first World War.

    讓我們來探討一下導致第一次世界大戰的機制和誤區。

  • Although there were many players in World War 1, the conflict started with Serbia and

    雖然第一次世界大戰有很多參與者,但衝突是由塞爾維亞開始的。

  • Austria-Hungary.

    奧地利-匈牙利:

  • The Serbian government was eager to claim more territory for the nation.

    塞爾維亞政府急於為國家爭取更多的領土。

  • Serbia was already in a state of aggression due to the Balkan Wars that ended just a year

    由於巴爾幹戰爭剛剛結束一年,塞爾維亞就已經處於被侵略的狀態了

  • before the start of World War I.

    第一次世界大戰開始前。

  • After the Balkan War, Serbian nationalists wanted to liberate the South Slavs of Austria-Hungary,

    巴爾幹戰爭後,塞爾維亞民族主義者希望解放奧匈帝國的南斯拉夫人。

  • thus unifying the Slavic peoples under one nation.

    從而使斯拉夫各民族統一於一個國家之下。

  • This extreme nationalism led to the assissnation of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand who was heir

    這種極端的民族主義導致了弗蘭茨-斐迪南大公的繼承。

  • to the Astro-Hungarian Empire.

    到天文匈牙利帝國。

  • At 11:15 AM on June 28, 1914 Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, duchess of Hohenberg,

    1914年6月28日上午11點15分,弗蘭茨-費迪南德和他的妻子霍恩伯格公爵夫人索菲。

  • were shot to death in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip.

    在波斯尼亞薩拉熱窩被Gavrilo Princip槍殺。

  • Princip was a Serbian extremist who had connections to a secret society called the Black Hand.

    普林西是塞爾維亞極端分子,他與一個名為 "黑手 "的祕密組織有聯繫。

  • The assaisnation was the match that ignited the first world war, however, there were many

    襲擊是點燃第一次世界大戰的火柴,然而,有許多人

  • other factors that led to the powderkeg that would explode.

    導致火藥桶爆炸的其他因素。

  • Should the assassination of Franz Ferdinand have led to an all out War?

    弗朗茨-費迪南的暗殺是否應該導致全面戰爭?

  • Probably not.

    可能不會

  • There is more to the story here.

    這裡還有更多的故事。

  • In the shadows lurked Kaiser Wilhelm II, who may be as much to blame as Gavrilo Princip

    在陰影中潛伏著德皇威廉二世,他可能和加夫裡洛-普林斯一樣,都要受到譴責

  • in starting World War I. Wilhelm II was the leader of Germany and he was diabolical.

    威廉二世是德國的領袖,他是個惡魔。

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted a strong Germany that dominated Europe both economically and

    德皇威廉二世希望有一個強大的德國,在經濟上和經濟上都能主導歐洲。

  • militarily in strength.

    在軍事上的實力。

  • He did not want Russia or Great Britain to have more influence and power than he did.

    他不希望俄國或英國擁有比他更大的影響力和權力。

  • Therefore, Wilhelm II allied himself, and Germany, with Austria-Hungary.

    因 此 ﹐ 威 爾 海 姆 二 世 和 德 國 與 奧 匈 帝 國 結 盟 。

  • He knew that if Austria-Hungary went to war with Serbia, then Russia would come to Serbia's

    他知道,如果奧匈帝國與塞爾維亞開戰,那麼俄羅斯就會來找塞爾維亞。

  • aid.

    援助。

  • This would drag Russia's ally France into the conflict.

    這將把俄羅斯的盟友法國拖入衝突。

  • We will examine later why Wilhelm wanted this war to happen so badly.

    我們將在後面研究為什麼威廉如此希望這場戰爭發生。

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II secretly funded Austria-Hungary in their endeavor to suppress Serbia.

    德皇威廉二世祕密資助奧匈帝國鎮壓塞爾維亞。

  • He allowed Germany to give Austria-Hungary a carte blanche, orblank check.”

    他允許德國給奧匈帝國一個全權委託,或者說是 "空白支票"。

  • Basically Germany would fund the war effort using their wealthy economy to ensure Austria-Hungary

    基本上,德國會用他們富裕的經濟為戰爭提供資金,以確保奧匈帝國

  • came out on top.

    拔得頭籌。

  • With the assassination of their heir, and the backing of Germany, Austria-Hungary felt

    隨著他們的繼承人被暗殺,以及德國的支持,奧匈帝國感到了。

  • empowered to start their war with Serbia.

    有權與塞爾維亞開戰。

  • They sent Serbia an ultimatum with such harsh terms that it was impossible to accept.

    他們向塞爾維亞發出了最後通牒,條件非常苛刻,使塞爾維亞無法接受。

  • There was only one alternative.

    只有一個選擇。

  • War.

    戰爭。

  • But there was more to the story.

    但還有更多的故事。

  • The decisions of Austria-Hungary and Germany were clearly geared towards war.

    奧匈帝國和德國的決定顯然是為了戰爭。

  • It is undeniable that World War I started because of these aggressive decisions.

    不可否認,第一次世界大戰就是因為這些侵略性的決定而開始的。

  • But could the whole conflict have been avoided if other countries had made better decisions?

    但是,如果其他國家作出更好的決定,整個衝突是否可以避免?

  • Were there strings being pulled behind the scenes by the countries on both sides of the

    是否有兩岸國家在幕後拉攏。

  • war?

    戰爭?

  • Let's find out.

    讓我們來看看。

  • First let's take a look at the Triple Entente nations, which consisted of a secret pact

    首先讓我們來看看三國協約國,它由一個祕密條約組成。

  • between Great Britain, France, and Russia.

    英、法、俄三國之間。

  • Could any of these nations have secretly wanted a world war to heighten their power?

    難道這些國家有誰會暗中想要發動一場世界大戰來提升自己的實力?

  • Could there have been a secret plot by the Allies to set up a war they would eventually

    會不會是盟軍暗中策劃了一場他們最終會發動的戰爭?

  • win?

    贏?

  • Russia is, and always has been, a large, powerful nation.

    俄羅斯是,而且一直是一個大國、強國。

  • What could Russia gain from a war against the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary,

    俄國能從與德國、奧匈帝國三國聯盟的戰爭中獲得什麼。

  • and Italy?

    和意大利?

  • At first glance Russia's role in World War I seems to be based around supporting their

    乍一看,俄國在第一次世界大戰中的作用似乎是圍繞著支持他們的國家而展開的。

  • ally of Serbia.

    塞爾維亞的盟友。

  • But as we look closer it seems that Russia's alliance only played a superficial role in

    但我們仔細觀察,俄羅斯的聯盟似乎只在以下方面發揮了表面作用。

  • their decisions to go to war.

    他們決定參戰。

  • In fact Russia barely even tried to find a diplomatic solution to prevent this conflict.

    事實上,俄羅斯甚至幾乎沒有試圖找到一個外交解決方案來防止這場衝突。

  • Instead, they immediately started to deploy troops and ramp up military production once

    而是立即開始部署軍隊,加緊軍工生產,一旦

  • Austria-Hungary showed aggression towards Serbia.

    奧匈帝國對塞爾維亞進行了侵略。

  • It would seem Russia had no intentions on working out the conflict diplomatically.

    看來,俄羅斯並沒有打算通過外交途徑解決衝突。

  • History shows it was Russia, not Germany, that mobilized its military first.

    歷史表明,首先動員軍隊的是俄國,而不是德國。

  • Russia may have wanted war to claim more territory and power for the nation.

    俄國可能希望通過戰爭為國家爭取更多的領土和權力。

  • But there was another player on the Triple Entente side who may have played a behind

    但三國聯軍方面還有一名球員,他可能在後面扮演了一個。

  • the scenes role of starting World War I. France did not make any outwardly aggressive moves

    法國沒有采取任何對外侵略的行動。

  • in the months that led to the outbreak of war, but they were making secret strategic

    在戰爭爆發前的幾個月裡,但他們卻在進行祕密的戰略部署。

  • moves.

    動。

  • France may be the only reason that Russia prepared for war in the first place.

    法國可能是俄羅斯當初備戰的唯一原因。

  • During talks of what was to be done about the Central Powers, France offered Russia

    在談及如何對待中央大國時,法國向俄國提出了

  • its own blank cheque.

    自己的空白支票。

  • The stipulation was that Russia would help Europeanise the Austrian-Hungry Empire.

    規定是俄國將幫助奧匈帝國歐洲化。

  • France had an idea of what this part of the world should look like, and rather than entering

    法國對世界上的這一地區應該是什麼樣子有一個想法,而不是進入

  • directly into conflict, they funded the Russian military to start a war that they could benefit

    他們資助俄羅斯軍隊發動一場他們可以受益的戰爭。

  • from.

    從:

  • France encouraged Russia's aggression towards Austria-Hungary and Germany.

    法國鼓勵俄國對奧匈帝國和德國的侵略。

  • French leaders seemed not to like the idea of having the powerful nation of Germany right

    法國領導人似乎不喜歡德國這個強大的國家。

  • next door.

    旁邊的。

  • If Germany was focused on fighting Russia on the Eastern front, it would provide France

    如果德國專注於在東線與俄國作戰,它將為法國提供: 1.

  • with the opportunity to either protect itself, or launch an uncontested invasion into Germany

    有機會保護自己,或者對德國發動無爭議的入侵。

  • from the western front.

    從西線。

  • It would seem that things did not play out exactly as France predicted because of Germany's

    看來,事情並沒有像法國預測的那樣發展,因為德國的

  • deployment of troops to fight on both the Russian and French fronts simultaneously.

    部署部隊同時在俄法兩線作戰。

  • If the shady actions of France leading up to the start of World War I surprised you

    如果法國在第一次世界大戰開始前的陰暗行動讓你感到驚訝的話。

  • then what Great Britain did may shock you even more.

    那麼英國的所作所為可能會讓你更加震驚。

  • Britain was a dominant force in colonization and had control of the seas with their powerful

    英國是殖民的主導力量,憑藉強大的實力控制了海洋。

  • Navy.

    海軍。

  • Would they benefit from an all out war in Europe?

    他們會從歐洲的全面戰爭中獲益嗎?

  • Germany was becoming powerful, both economically and militarily.

    德 國 在 經 濟 和 軍 事 上 都 變 得 強 大 。

  • Britain knew that this was a threat to their empire.

    英國知道這是對他們帝國的威脅。

  • In the eyes of Great Britain's leaders the world wasn't big enough for both a German

    在英國領導人的眼裡,世界還不夠大,不能同時容納一個德國人。

  • empire and British empire.

    帝國和大英帝國。

  • If Germany continued on the path it was headed, Britain's global dominance of the seas and

    如果德國繼續沿著它的道路走下去,英國在全球的海洋主導權和。

  • financial system would be threatened, and perhaps lost.

    金融體系將受到威脅,也許會失去。

  • This was unacceptable to the leaders of Great Britain.

    這是大不列顛的領導人所不能接受的。

  • These notions of loss of dominance may have driven Great Britain to stay out of diplomatic

    這些失去主導權的觀念可能促使英國不參與外交活動。

  • talks, and instead encourage Russian aggression.

    談,反而鼓勵俄羅斯的侵略。

  • It would seem that at the time Great Britain had an inferiority complex when it came to

    看來,當時英國在談到這個問題時,有一種自卑感。

  • Germany.

    德國:

  • They had failed to meditate during the Balkan Wars and they refused to meditate during the

    他們在巴爾幹戰爭中未能靜心,他們在巴爾幹戰爭中拒絕靜心。

  • lead up to World War I.

    導致第一次世界大戰。

  • The thought process may have been that the more conflicts Germany was a part of, the

    其思想過程可能是,德國參與的衝突越多,就越容易發生。

  • more likely they were to be weakened.

    越有可能被削弱。

  • Great Britain had clearly won the naval arm race by 1910, it just seemed that it wasn't

    英國在1910年時已經明顯地贏得了海軍軍備競賽,只是似乎還不是

  • enough.

    足夠。

  • They were still living in fear of Germany's threats.

    他們仍然生活在對德國威脅的恐懼中。

  • And it would appear rightfully so as history showed over the next several decades.

    而在接下來的幾十年裡,歷史表明,這似乎是理所當然的。

  • It needs to be said that if Great Britain wanted to prevent war, they should have contributed

    需要說的是,如果英國想防止戰爭,他們就應該做出貢獻。

  • to the mediation discussions.

    調解討論。

  • The fact that they actively avoided the mediations shows Britain may have had other motives.

    他們主動迴避調解的事實表明,英國可能有其他動機。

  • Especially if war meant a weakened Germany.

    尤其是當戰爭意味著一個被削弱的德國。

  • History is written by the victors.

    歷史是由勝利者書寫的。

  • Therefore, history textbooks tend to attribute most of, if not all of, the blame for World

    是以,歷史教科書傾向於將世界末日的大部分(如果不是全部)責任歸咎於中國。

  • War I to Austria-Hungary and Germany.

    第一次世界大戰對奧匈帝國和德國。

  • You have to wonder who would be blamed if the outcome of the war was reversed.

    你要知道,如果戰爭的結果發生逆轉,誰會受到責備?

  • We discussed how the nations of the Triple Entente were by no means free of blame for

    我們討論了三國協約的國家如何在以下方面受到指責

  • the start of this conflict.

    這場衝突的開始。

  • But let's take a closer look at the motives and actions of the Triple Alliance, which

    但是,讓我們來仔細看看三國聯盟的動機和行動,其中

  • was the secret pact between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

    是德國、奧匈帝國和意大利之間的祕密條約。

  • Let's find out if they really are to blame like so many textbooks say.

    讓我們來看看他們是否真的像很多教科書上說的那樣是咎由自取。

  • Other than retaliation, what was Austria-Hungary after?

    除了報復,奧匈帝國還在追求什麼?

  • In a word, territory.

    一句話,領土。

  • Austria-Hungary wanted to add more land and people to its already large empire.

    奧匈帝國希望在其已經龐大的帝國中增加更多的土地和人口。

  • More land equals more resources, and more men for their military.

    更多的土地等於更多的資源,更多的兵力。

  • Austria-Hungary had its sights set on Serbia for a while.

    奧匈帝國曾一度盯上塞爾維亞。

  • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand allowed them the perfect opportunity to make

    弗朗茨-費迪南大公的暗殺讓他們有了一個絕佳的機會,讓他們可以進行

  • their dreams of taking over Serbian lands a reality.

    他們佔領塞爾維亞土地的夢想成為現實。

  • Austria-Hungary's desires were made clear when they offered an obscene ultimatum to

    奧匈帝國的願望很明顯,他們向德國提出了一個淫穢的最後通牒。

  • Serbia.

    塞爾維亞:

  • The ultimatum itself was delivered on July 23, 1914.

    最後通牒本身是在1914年7月23日發出的。

  • It required Serbia to accept an Austro-Hungarian inquiry into the assassination of Archduke

    它要求塞爾維亞接受奧匈帝國對大公遇刺事件的調查。

  • Ferdinand.

    斐迪南

  • The inquiry would be conducted solely by Austria-Hungarian investigators.

    調查將完全由奧匈帝國的調查人員進行。

  • Serbia also needed to suppress all anti-Austrian propaganda and eliminate any terrorist or

    塞爾維亞還需要鎮壓所有反奧地利的宣傳,並消除任何恐怖主義分子或恐怖分子。

  • extremist organizations within its borders.

    境內的極端主義組織。

  • The leaders of Austria-Hungary demanded that an answer to the ultimatum be sent within

    奧匈帝國的領導人要求在最後通牒發出後的一個月內作出答覆。

  • 48 hours.

    48小時

  • However, the ambassador to Serbia delivered the ultimatum and immediately left the country

    然而,駐塞爾維亞大使發出最後通牒,並立即離開該國。

  • to return back to Austria-Hungary.

    返回奧匈帝國。

  • He already knew what was going to happen next.

    他已經知道接下來會發生什麼了。

  • There was no way that Serbia would accept the ultimatum.

    塞爾維亞不可能接受最後通牒。

  • This meant war.

    這意味著戰爭。

  • The ultimatum served one purpose.

    最後通牒的目的只有一個。

  • Austria-Hungary knew Serbia would never accept their terms, but they also knew if they attacked

    奧匈知道塞爾維亞不會接受他們的條件,但他們也知道如果他們攻擊...

  • without warning it would make Serbia look like the victim.

    在沒有警告的情況下,這將使塞爾維亞看起來像受害者。

  • By sending the ultimatum it pushed the burden of avoiding war onto the Serbian government.

    通過發出最後通牒,它把避免戰爭的責任推給了塞爾維亞政府。

  • This way Austria-Hungary created the illusion of giving Serbia a chance to stop the war.

    奧匈帝國用這種方式製造了一種假象,讓塞爾維亞有機會停止戰爭。

  • When they didn't, Serbia would look like the bad guy.

    如果他們不這樣做,塞爾維亞就會看起來像個壞傢伙。

  • But the ridiculous ultimatum did not stand up to the test of history, and Austria-Hungary

    但荒唐的最後通牒並沒有經受住歷史的考驗,奧匈帝國的

  • is still seen as the aggressors.

    仍被視為侵略者。

  • Really what it came down to was that Austria-Hungary wanted to control more territory in the Balkan

    其實歸根結底是奧匈帝國想在巴爾幹地區控制更多的領土。

  • region.

    區域:

  • They needed a reason to go to war with Serbia to secure that land and they found it in the

    他們需要一個與塞爾維亞開戰的理由來確保那片土地,他們在塞爾維亞找到了這個理由。

  • assassination of their Archduke.

    刺殺他們的大公。

  • Was the assassination a reason to conduct an all out war?

    暗殺是進行全面戰爭的理由嗎?

  • Probably not, but it was sufficient enough reason for the Austria-Hungary government

    也許不是,但這足以成為奧匈帝國政府的理由

  • at the time.

    當時的。

  • However, none of this would have been possible without one key player.

    然而,如果沒有一位關鍵人物,這一切都不可能實現。

  • I am sure you can guess what is coming next.

    我相信你能猜到接下來會發生什麼。

  • Germany.

    德國:

  • In the eyes of many historians Germany is to blame for the first world war.

    在很多歷史學家眼中,德國是第一次世界大戰的罪魁禍首。

  • Why was Germany considered the most responsible in a conflict that they did not directly start?

    為什麼德國被認為在一場不是他們直接挑起的衝突中責任最大?

  • It is mostly because they alone had the power to stop the war between Austria-Hungary and

    這主要是因為只有他們才有能力阻止奧匈帝國與的戰爭。

  • Serbia.

    塞爾維亞:

  • All they needed to do was withdraw their blank cheque, and Austria-Hungary would not have

    他們只需要收回他們的空頭支票,奧匈帝國就不需要...

  • had the financial ability to support a war with Serbia.

    有財政能力支持與塞爾維亞的戰爭。

  • This would have kept Austria-Hungary in check and they would never have issued their ultimatum.

    這將使奧匈帝國受到牽制,他們絕不會發出最後通牒。

  • Germany also knew that if Austria-Hungary went to war with Serbia, Russia and France

    德國也知道,如果奧匈帝國與塞爾維亞、俄國和法國開戰。

  • would both get pulled in.

    都會被拉進來。

  • It was almost as if Germany needed to find a way to declare war on their competitors

    這幾乎就像德國需要找到一種方法來向他們的競爭對手宣戰一樣。

  • in the region without doing it themselves.

    在區域內,而自己不做。

  • Germany could never just outright declare war on the other nations or they would risk

    德國永遠不可能直接向其他國家宣戰,否則他們會冒著風險。

  • unifying the entire continent of Europe against them.

    統一整個歐洲大陸對抗他們。

  • But by strategically destabilizing the Balkans they could gode Russia, and therefore France,

    但是,通過在戰略上破壞巴爾幹地區的穩定,他們可以去俄羅斯,從而法國。

  • into a war with their ally, thus allowing Germany to start a war to suit their needs.

    陷入與盟友的戰爭中,從而讓德國發動一場符合他們需要的戰爭。

  • The other reason that Germany wanted war was because it had peaked as a nation.

    德國想要戰爭的另一個原因是它作為一個國家已經達到了頂峰。

  • If Germany allowed the rest of Europe to catch up they would lose power and prestige.

    如果德國允許歐洲其他國家追趕,他們將失去權力和威望。

  • This upset no one more than Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was an angry militaristic autocrat.

    這讓人最不爽的莫過於德皇威廉二世,他是一個憤怒的軍國主義獨裁者。

  • He believed that he was predestined by God to lead his country to greatness.

    他相信,他是上帝註定要帶領他的國家走向偉大。

  • He hated diplomats and maintained that the only way to ensure Germany's spot of power

    他憎恨外交官,認為確保德國實力的唯一途徑是

  • was through war.

    是通過戰爭。

  • He knew it was now or never if Germany was going to become the predominant world power.

    他知道,如果德國要成為世界上最主要的強國,是現在還是永遠。

  • When a power hungry autocrat is in charge of one of the world's most wealthy and armed

    當一個權力慾極強的獨裁者掌管著世界上最富有和最武裝的國家之一的時候

  • nations there is only one outcome.

    國家只有一個結果。

  • War.

    戰爭。

  • In the end World War I was caused by many different factors and countries.

    最後第一次世界大戰是由很多不同的因素和國家造成的。

  • There is not just one person or nation to blame.

    不僅僅是一個人或一個國家的責任。

  • However, some are more responsible than others.

    然而,有些人比其他人更負責任。

  • If the leaders of Europe were less hungry for power, and more willing to sit down and

    如果歐洲的領導人不那麼渴望權力,而更願意坐下來和

  • negotiate, the war could have been avoided.

    談判,戰爭本可以避免。

  • Make no mistake, World War I was not unavoidable.

    別搞錯了,第一次世界大戰不是不可避免的。

  • But the leaders in charge saw war as a desirable outcome, or were forced into it by allies.

    但是,負責的領導人認為戰爭是一個理想的結果,或者是被盟友強迫捲入戰爭。

  • A situation that would repeat itself again 21 years later.

    21年後,這種情況又會重演。

  • If you are interested in more World War I information check out 50 Insane World War

    如果你對更多的一戰資訊感興趣,請查看《50次瘋狂的世界大戰》。

  • 1 Facts That Will Shock You!

    1個讓你震驚的事實!

  • Or if you want to know how World War I and World War II stack up watch World War 1 VS

    或者,如果你想知道第一次世界大戰和第二次世界大戰是如何疊加的,請看第一次世界大戰VS第二次世界大戰。

  • World War 2 - How Do They Compare?

    第二次世界大戰--它們如何比較?

It was called the war to end all wars.

這就是所謂的結束所有戰爭的戰爭。

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第一次世界大戰是如何開始的? (How Did World War 1 Start?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 07 日
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