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  • In May of 2018, something weird happened over the Arabian Peninsula.

    2018年5月,阿拉伯半島上空發生了一件怪事。

  • A large cyclone passed over the Rub' al Khali desert -

    一個大型氣旋經過Rub'al Khali沙漠--------。

  • A massive stretch of unbroken sand also calledthe empty quarter.”

    一片巨大的未被破壞的沙地,也被稱為 "空地"。

  • It usually looks like this.

    它通常是這樣的。

  • But after the cyclone, it looked like this.

    但旋風過後,就變成了這個樣子。

  • Lakes had formed between the dunes.

    沙丘之間已經形成了湖泊。

  • The desert was filled with water for the first time in twenty years.

    二十年來,沙漠裡第一次充滿了水。

  • Then, 5 months later, it happened again.

    然後,5個月後,它又發生了。

  • Another cyclone hit.

    又一個旋風襲來。

  • Over the next year, powerful cyclones kept coming out of the Arabian sea, at a frequency not seen in decades.

    在接下來的一年裡,強大的氣旋不斷地從阿拉伯海中湧出,頻率之高是幾十年來從未見過的。

  • It caused catastrophic flooding in normally dry areas across the region.

    它在整個地區通常乾燥的地區造成了災難性的洪水。

  • But especially here, in East Africa.

    但特別是在這裡,在東非。

  • Today, the flood waters have receded,

    如今,洪水已經退去。

  • but they left behind a different type of disaster:

    但他們留下了不同類型的災難。

  • "Millions of locusts..."

    "數以百萬計的蝗蟲..."

  • "A plague of biblical proportions."

    "聖經中的瘟疫" "A plague of biblical proportions."

  • "The worst in 70 years."

    "70年來最差的一次。"

  • "Their impact, devastating."

    "他們的影響,是毀滅性的。"

  • "...unprecedented threat to food security."

    "......對糧食安全的空前威脅"。

  • "There's no end in sight."

    "沒有盡頭。"

  • This is a desert locust.

    這是一隻沙漠蝗蟲。

  • It's a type of grasshopper that lives across this area,

    這是一種生活在這一帶的蚱蜢。

  • from Northwest Africa to Western Asia.

    從西北非洲到西亞。

  • Typically, desert locusts spend most of their time alone, in what's called theirsolitaryphase.

    通常情況下,沙漠蝗蟲大部分時間都是獨處,這就是所謂的 "獨處 "階段。

  • They really only meet with others to mate.

    他們真的只和別人見面交配。

  • But if the weather starts to shiftthat can lead to a transformation.

    但如果天氣開始轉變--那就會導致轉變。

  • If a normally dry area becomes unusually lush with vegetation,

    如果一個正常乾燥的地區,植被變得異常茂盛。

  • as it would after heavy rains,

    如同大雨過後一樣。

  • these insects will start to congregate.

    這些昆蟲將開始聚集。

  • That sudden crowding triggers a hormoneand the locust starts to change, both physically and mentally.

    這突如其來的擁擠引發了一種荷爾蒙--蝗蟲開始發生變化,無論是身體上還是心理上。

  • It starts with a color shift, from a muddled brown color, to a bright yellow.

    首先是顏色的轉變,從渾濁的棕色,到明亮的黃色。

  • Its body shrinks and its endurance increases, which optimizes it for flight.

    它的身體縮小,耐力增加,這優化了它的飛行能力。

  • Its brain grows, and so does its appetite.

    它的大腦在成長,胃口也在成長。

  • This is called thegregarious phase."

    這就是所謂的 "聚散相"。

  • They eat, and breedleaving their eggs in the damp soil.

    它們一邊吃,一邊繁殖--把卵留在潮溼的土壤裡。

  • When they hatch, they form what are calledhopper bands”:

    當它們孵化後,就會形成所謂的 "料斗帶"。

  • swarms of tens of thousands of non-flying but voracious insects that move together as a unit.

    成群結隊的數萬只不飛但貪婪的昆蟲,作為一個組織、部門一起行動。

  • Eventually, they develop wings.

    最終,他們發展出了翅膀。

  • And once they take flight, it's almost impossible to stop them.

    而一旦它們飛起來,幾乎不可能阻止它們。

  • Locust swarms ride the wind, which allows them to travel up to 150 km a day.

    蝗蟲群乘風而行,使它們一天的行程可達150公里。

  • A single swarm can contain up to 150 million insects per square kilometer.

    一個蟲群每平方公里可容納1.5億隻昆蟲。

  • Each one consumes its body weight in vegetation daily.

    每個人每天都要消耗自己體重的植物。

  • In 24 hours, a swarm of that size eats more food than 35,000 people.

    在24小時內,這麼大的蟲群吃掉的食物比35000人還多。

  • Since late 2019, East Africa has been experiencing its worst locust outbreak in decades.

    2019年下半年以來,東非經歷了幾十年來最嚴重的蝗蟲爆發。

  • In 2020, the area has seen swarms as large as 2,400 square kilometers.

    2020年,該地區的蜂群面積已達2400平方公里。

  • That's a swarm of insects over 3 times the size of New York City,

    那是一群超過紐約市3倍大小的昆蟲。

  • capable of eating as much food as tens of millions of people.

    能夠吃下幾千萬人一樣多的食物。

  • The swarms of bugs are so thick that airplanes have been forced to divert their course.

    蟲群密密麻麻,飛機被迫改道。

  • Billions of ravenous insects sweep through areas, decimating acres of farmland,

    數十億隻貪婪的昆蟲席捲了各個地區,毀滅了數畝農田。

  • and threatening already food-scarce regions with famine.

    並使本已缺糧的地區受到饑荒的威脅。

  • "There's nothing left to harvest. There's nothing else that I know how to do."

    "沒有什麼可以收穫的了。"我也不知道該怎麼做了。"

  • And they're spreading. In February, Pakistan declared a state of emergency.

    而且還在蔓延。2月,巴基斯坦宣佈進入緊急狀態。

  • By late May, the swarms had reached parts of Northern India for the first time since 1962.

    到5月下旬,蟲群自1962年以來首次到達印度北部部分地區。

  • And the biggest factor in all of this is the weather.

    而這一切的最大因素就是天氣。

  • Locusts reproduce exponentially when the weather is in their favor.

    蝗蟲在天氣好的時候,會成倍地繁殖。

  • With every new generation, the population increases 20-fold.

    每更新一代,人口就增加20倍。

  • So if a normally dry area stays wet for a long time,

    所以,如果一個正常乾燥的地區長期保持潮溼。

  • the population will explode.

    人口會爆炸式增長。

  • And that's what researchers think happened, starting with the 2018 cyclone.

    而這就是研究人員認為發生的事情,從2018年的氣旋開始。

  • The unusual amount of rain led to an unusual amount of vegetation,

    異常多的雨水導致了異常多的植被。

  • which led to an unusual number of new locusts.

    這導致了新蝗蟲的數量異常。

  • Swarms formed here, in the unusually wet desert, and made their way into surrounding areas,

    在這裡,在異常潮溼的沙漠中,形成了蜂群,並向周邊地區擴散。

  • including East Africa, which itself had just experienced historic flooding in late 2019,

    包括東非,而東非本身在2019年底剛剛經歷了歷史性的洪災。

  • from heavy rains caused by an unusually warm Indian Ocean.

    由於印度洋異常溫暖造成的暴雨。

  • A singleperfect stormisn't enough to bring in swarms of locusts of this size.

    一場 "完美風暴 "並不足以引來如此規模的蝗蟲群。

  • It takes a series of them;

    這需要一系列的。

  • something that used to be really rare in this area.

    以前在這個地區真的很少見的東西。

  • But unfortunately, extreme weather that used to be really rare suddenly becoming more common

    但不幸的是,以前很少見的極端天氣突然變得越來越常見了。

  • is one of the hallmarks of climate change.

    是氣候變化的標誌之一。

  • That could mean a future with more cyclones in the desert,

    這可能意味著未來沙漠中會有更多的氣旋。

  • more greenery where there once was sand,

    在曾經有沙子的地方,多了一些綠色。

  • and more breeding grounds for locusts.

    和更多的蝗蟲滋生地。

  • Do you ever notice these weirdly specific targeted ads when browsing the internet?

    在瀏覽互聯網時,你有沒有注意到這些奇怪的特定目標廣告?

  • It's a little creepy when they even pinpoint where you live.

    當他們連你住在哪裡都能準確定位時,這就有點令人毛骨悚然了。

  • That's because one of the ways advertisers target you is through your IP address.

    這是因為廣告商鎖定你的方式之一就是通過你的IP地址。

  • See, each of your devices has its own unique number.

    你看,你的每臺設備都有自己獨特的編號。

  • So while your internet may be password protected,

    所以,雖然你的互聯網可能有密碼保護。

  • your IP address is available for advertisers to look at

    您的IP地址可供廣告商查看。

  • and that is how they find your location.

    這就是他們如何找到你的位置。

  • ExpressVPN is a tool that masks your IP address.

    ExpressVPN是一個屏蔽你的IP地址的工具。

  • They let you select from over 90 different countries to reroute your connection through,

    他們讓你從90多個不同的國家選擇重新路由連接。

  • so it makes it seem like all your web activity

    是以,它使它看起來像你所有的網絡活動。

  • is coming from a different IP address somewhere else in the world.

    是來自世界其他地方的不同IP地址。

  • One click not only encrypts your data but lets you browse the web anonymously.

    一鍵不僅可以對你的數據進行加密,還可以讓你匿名瀏覽網頁。

  • ExpressVPN does not affect our editorial, but their support does make videos like this one possible.

    ExpressVPN不影響我們的編輯,但他們的支持確實使像這樣的視頻成為可能。

  • You can go to ExpressVPN.com/Vox

    你可以去ExpressVPN.com/Vox。

  • or click on the link in the description below to find out how to get three months free.

    或點擊下面描述中的鏈接,瞭解如何獲得三個月的免費。

In May of 2018, something weird happened over the Arabian Peninsula.

2018年5月,阿拉伯半島上空發生了一件怪事。

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Why locusts are descending on East Africa

  • 31 4
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 31 日
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