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  • You know that feeling when you get tongue-tied, and words come out as a jumbled mess?

    你知道那種舌頭打結、 單詞雜亂地出現的感覺嗎?

  • Maybe you forget a word, or have mushy grammar, or your pronunciation is all wrong.

    也許您是忘了那個字,模糊的語法規則,或者是你根本發錯音了。

  • There are a lot of things to keep track of!

    有很多是需要持續了解的。

  • It seems like learning one language would be hard enough for babies, who already have trouble eating and not spitting up everywhere.

    似乎,對嬰兒而言,學一個語言已經夠難了。

  • But research has shown that infants are a lot more capable than you might think, especially when it comes to language.

    畢竟嬰兒還有其它事情要忙, 像是如何吃東西的時候不把食物搞得一團糟!

  • In fact, a lot of babies from bilingual families grow up fluent in both languages.

    但是研究表明,嬰兒 比您想像的要強大得多,

  • Many psychologists think language is what's called an innate ability, or something we're born knowing how to do, like grasping objects and sucking on things.

    尤其是在語言方面。

  • Classic cute baby stuff!

    實際上,很多來自雙語家庭的嬰兒 兩種語言都很流利。

  • So right from the start, babies are primed to learn a language --any language.

    許多心理學家認為語言 被稱為天生的能力,

  • Most of us adults have trouble hearing subtle inflections in foreign languages.

    就像嬰兒天生知道如何做的事情一樣, 像抓物體和吸吮東西。

  • Like, if you only speak English, it might be hard for you to hear the difference between certain sounds in Thai or Russian.

    都是寶寶會做的事情!

  • But in their first few months of being alive, babies can tell really similar sounds apart.

    所以從一開始, 嬰兒就已經準備好要學習任何一種語言。

  • To figure this out, lots of researchers have done studies where they pick a sound from a foreign language and play it on loop for babies around four months old.

    我們大多數成年人在學習外語時, 聽不出細微的發音差異。

  • When the babies lose interest, the researchers switch to a new, similar sound.

    例如,如果您只會說英語,您可能 很難聽得出

  • Usually, these really young infants notice the difference and perk up somehow, like by looking around or sucking harder on a pacifier.

    泰語或俄語中的某些聲音。

  • But if scientists repeat this experiment around eight months later, one-year-old babies typically ignore the second sound because they don't notice a difference.

    但是在嬰兒剛出生後的幾個月, 嬰兒可以分辨出這些差異。

  • That's probably because as they get older, their brain cells make connections that help them focus on the sounds of their native language, and they get rid of unused connections related to recognizing other sounds.

    為了弄清楚這一點,許多研究人員 做研究,他們從外語當中挑選聲音

  • So, by the time an infant is one year old, its brain is already focusing on learning whatever language it's been exposed to most.

    並循環播放給四個月大的嬰兒。

  • And, surprisingly, babies don't need any special training to be bilingual!

    當嬰兒失去興趣時,研究人員 切換到類似的新聲音。

  • But they need equal exposure to both languages.

    通常,這些真正的年幼嬰兒會注意到 差異並以某種方式表現起來,例如:

  • Now, you might have heard that bilingual kids develop more slowly than their monolingual counterparts, or are more likely to have speech delays.

    環顧四周或用力的吮吸奶嘴。

  • But, according to the research, that's just not true!

    但是如果科學家們重複進行這個實驗 至嬰兒八個月後,通常一歲的嬰兒就會忽略第二個聲音,

  • That even applies to babies who grow up with one spoken and one signed languagelike English and American Sign Language.

    因為他們無法發覺差異。

  • As they get older, these kids keep their languages separate thanks to their awesome perception skills.

    那可能是因為隨著年齡的增長, 他們的腦細胞建立了聯繫,

  • Just by watching faces and listening to verbal patterns, they're able to figure out when they should be speaking which language by around the time they're three years old.

    有助於讓他們專注於母語的聲音, 排除了未使用的相關連接,

  • And when they intentionally switch from speaking one language to another, like talking to their friends in English but to their mom in Cantonese, that's called code-switching.

    進而排除了那些用不到的聲音。

  • Now, even though monolingual and bilingual babies develop at the same rate, one study from the University of Washington suggests that their brains process language a little differently.

    所以,當嬰兒一歲的時候, 它的大腦已經準備要專注地

  • Psychologists used electroencephalograms, also known as EEGs, to detect electric brain activity in some six-month-old monolingual and bilingual babies as they played recordings of speech sounds in English and Spanish.

    學習他/她曝露在最多的語言。

  • Babies in EEG caps?

    而且,令人驚訝的是,嬰兒不需要任何特殊培訓來擁有雙語能力!

  • Super adorable.

    但是只需要平等地曝露在兩種語言之中。

  • They found that monolingual babies caused a spike on the EEG whenever a mismatched sound popped up, like a Spanish sound thrown in among a bunch of English sounds or vice versa, which means they noticed a difference.

    或許,您可能聽說過雙語的孩子 比單語小孩發展得慢

  • But bilingual baby brains didn't notice when the languages switched.

    ,或者更有可能有語言延遲。

  • When the same babies were 10 to 12 months old, though, the results changed.

    但是根據研究,這不是真的!

  • The monolingual baby brains only responded when a sound in their native language interrupted a string of foreign sounds.

    這甚至適用於嬰兒學習 一種口語和一種手語的狀況上–

  • But not the other way around.

    例如:英文和美國手語。

  • And the bilingual babies went from not noticing a difference, to hearing both kinds of mismatches.

    隨著年齡的增長,這些孩子會保持他們的語言能力, 分別歸功於他們的真知灼見的技能。

  • According to the researchers, this means that monolingual baby brains seem to solidify connections faster, to get ready to speak their primary language.

    只是看臉部表情, 聽口語表達模式,

  • But the bilingual baby brains stayed more flexible and didn't develop that wiring until later on.

    他們三歲的時候就能 判斷何時應該說哪種語言。

  • Turns out that this flexibility can have some developmental perks, too.

    當他們有意從一種語言切換到另一種語言的時候, 例如和朋友用英文交流,

  • One study published in the journal Science found that bilingual babies may be better at learning rules and switching between them than monolingual babies.

    但對媽媽說廣東話, 這就是所謂的代碼切換。

  • In the study, one-year-old infants were taught that, when they heard a certain pattern of sounds, they should look at a specific spot on a screen to see a fun toy.

    現在,即使是單語和雙語 一項研究表明嬰兒的成長速度相同

  • When the psychologists changed the pattern and moved the toy picture, the bilingual babies were better at figuring out the new rules and looking for the toy in the right places.

    華盛頓大學的研究指出 他們的大腦處理語言的方式有點不一樣。

  • Multiple studies suggest that bilingual adults have similar benefits, like better focus and ability to switch between tasks, and even less cognitive decline when they get older.

    心理學家使用腦電圖 也稱為EEG,用於檢測嬰兒的腦部活動,

  • But this doesn't mean all hope is lost if you're not bilingualit's just one path a human brain can take.

    對著大約六個月大的單語寶寶 和雙語寶寶播放英語和西班牙的聲音。

  • Our brains are really powerful, and even when you were a tiny, adorable baby, you were a lot smarter than you might think!

    嬰兒戴著腦電圖的帽子!

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!

    超級可愛。

  • And special thanks to our patrons on Patreon who are helping us explain the human mind!

    他們發現單語嬰兒的反應, 每當聲音不匹配時,腦電圖就會出現尖峰

  • If you'd like to support the show, just go to patreon.com/scishow.

    彈出來,就像西班牙的聲音 在一系列英語聲音中,反之亦然,

  • And to be the first to see new episodes like this, be sure to visit youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe!

    這意味著他們注意到了差異。

You know that feeling when you get tongue-tied, and words come out as a jumbled mess?

你知道那種舌頭打結、 單詞雜亂地出現的感覺嗎?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 嬰兒 雙語 語言 聲音 研究 大腦

寶寶如何變成雙語? (How Do Babies Become Bilingual?)

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    Seina   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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