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  • - Today's video is going to be a little bit different

    - 今天的視頻會有一點不同

  • 'cause it's pretty rare for us to sort of sit down

    "因為它是相當罕見的我們排序坐下來

  • and talk a little more candidly but Greg was looking up

    聊得更坦誠一些,但格雷格卻抬頭看了看。

  • something in the day we wanted to share.

    我們想和大家分享一下今天的事情。

  • - Yeah, I looked up the top 25 science YouTubers.

    - 是啊,我查了一下前25名的科學YouTubers。

  • This is based on subscribers.

    這是以用戶為基礎的。

  • Putting the list together was kind of striking.

    把這個名單放在一起,有點引人注目。

  • - You have Vsauce, The Slow Mo Guys, Mark Rober,

    - 你有Vsauce, The Slow Mo Guys, Mark Rober。

  • In a Nutshell, The King of Random, Crazy Russian Hacker,

    總而言之,《隨機之王》、《瘋狂的俄羅斯黑客》。

  • Crash Course, AsapScience.

    速成班,AsapScience。

  • - [Mitch And Greg] That's us.

    - 就是我們了

  • - If you couldn't tell from the photo.

    - 如果你從照片上看不出來。

  • - [Mitch] Smarter Every Day, Veritasium, Sci Show,

    - 每天更聰明,Veritasium,Sci Show,

  • Doctor Mike, Minute Physics, CGP Grey Vsauce2,

    邁克博士、明德物理、CGP灰Vsauce2。

  • Backyard Scientist, Vsauce3, Numberphile,

    後院科學家,Vsauce3,Numberphile。

  • It's Okay to be Smart, 3Blue1Brown, Tom Scott,

    It's Okay to be smart, 3Blue1Brown, Tom Scott,

  • Real Engineering, Minute Earth, Simone Giertz,

    真正的工程,分鐘的地球,西蒙娜-吉爾茨。

  • and PBS Space Time.

    和PBS空間時間。

  • - There's a lot to talk about here

    - 這裡有很多話要講

  • when it comes to gender, gender non-binary people.

    談到性別,性別非二元的人。

  • - The first woman on the list, solo woman at least,

    - 榜單上的第一個女人,至少是獨行女。

  • is number 24.

    是24號。

  • There are no Black people.

    沒有黑人。

  • There are no Indigenous people.

    沒有土著人。

  • There are no people with disabilities.

    沒有殘障人士。

  • - The fact that this list is all white, I was surprised,

    - 事實上,這份榜單都是白色的,我很驚訝。

  • but I also then wasn't surprised.

    但我也就不奇怪了。

  • This is an issue that we wanna talk about today

    這是我們今天要討論的問題

  • in the STEM community.

    在科學、技術、工程和數學界。

  • - And specifically in science and in science communication

    - 而具體到科學和科學傳播方面

  • on YouTube because that's the bubble

    在YouTube上,因為那是保麗龍

  • that we all kind of live and work in

    我們都生活和工作在

  • and engage with every day.

    並每天與之接觸。

  • - And what we wanna talk about today is race

    - 我們今天要談的是種族問題

  • in regards to the very significant shift

    關於非常重大的轉變

  • in I think a lot of, especially white people's ability

    在我認為很多,尤其是白人的能力。

  • to talk about institutional racism.

    談論體制性的種族主義。

  • We wanna talk about it with some science today,

    我們今天想用科學的方法來討論這個問題。

  • but also give a tangible goal that we can all do

    但也給出了一個我們都能做到的具體目標。

  • to change the institution of science.

    來改變科學的體制。

  • - If you took science courses,

    - 如果你上了科學課。

  • think about the history you learned.

    想想自己所學的歷史。

  • Whose faces were represented?

    代表了誰的面孔?

  • Who was even allowed to participate in science?

    誰還能參與科學?

  • Were women allowed?

    婦女可以嗎?

  • Were people of color allowed?

    有色人種被允許嗎?

  • - Did queer people exist?

    - 同性戀者存在嗎?

  • They did, they did. (indistinct)

    他們做到了,他們做到了。(緲)

  • - But there's that conversation if you think

    - 但是,如果你認為,有這樣的對話

  • the foundation of science was kind of born out of whiteness

    科學的基礎是由白種人誕生的。

  • and born out of this sort of Eurocentric view

    並誕生於這種歐洲中心主義的觀點。

  • of how people lived there.

    的人如何生活在那裡。

  • - Early science and taxonomy led by Carl Linnaeus

    - 林奈上司的早期科學和分類學。

  • incorrectly posited that humans fell

    錯把人類掉落

  • into four distinct subspecies:

    分為四個不同的亞種。

  • homo sapiens europaeus, the people of Europe who were white,

    歐羅巴人,歐洲的白種人。

  • serious, and strong;

    認真,和強。

  • homo sapiens asiaticus, the people of Asia who were yellow,

    亞洲人,即亞洲的黃種人。

  • melancholy, and greedy;

    憂鬱、貪婪。

  • homo sapiens americanus, the people of America who were red,

    美洲智人,美國人誰是紅色的。

  • ill-tempered, and subjugated;

    脾氣不好,又被征服。

  • and homo sapiens afer, the people of Africa who were black,

    和智人,非洲人誰是黑人。

  • and passive, and lazy.

    和被動的、懶惰的。

  • And Carla Linnaeus even speculated privately

    而卡拉-林奈甚至私下裡猜測說

  • that they might not even be human at all.

    他們甚至可能根本不是人類。

  • There was a historic moment when science started

    有一個歷史性的時刻,科學開始

  • to distance itself from religion and hold its own power,

    以與宗教保持距離,掌握自己的權力。

  • and the power was incorrect and racist.

    和權力是不正確的和種族主義的。

  • The king of France at the time ordered this taxonomy

    當時的法國國王下令進行這樣的分類法

  • to be adopted as the correct classification system

    擬作為正確的分類系統

  • of humans, and as recent as 1921,

    的人類,而最近在1921年。

  • the American Museum of Natural History held an exhibition

    美國自然歷史博物館舉辦的展覽

  • on eugenics which falsely claimed that Black people's brains

    謊稱黑人的大腦是優生學的一部分

  • were smaller than white peoples.

    比白種人小。

  • Charles Darwin's son attended the event

    查爾斯-達爾文的兒子參加了此次活動

  • and adopted the idea of racist eugenics.

    並採用了種族主義的優生學思想。

  • The proliferation of this false science

    這種虛假科學的泛濫

  • led to the U.S. borders closing to people from Asia, Africa,

    導致美國邊境對來自亞洲、非洲的人關閉。

  • Southern and Eastern Europe

    南歐和東歐

  • because ill-informed and racist scientists of the time

    因為當時的科學家都是愚昧的種族主義者。

  • thought people from these countries were mentally defective

    認為這些國家的人都是弱智的

  • and biologically undesirable.

    且在生物學上不可取。

  • People really do have a fundamental belief

    人們真的有一個基本的信念

  • that science isn't biased.

    科學是沒有偏見的。

  • We just have to say we disagree with that.

    我們只能說我們不同意這個說法。

  • - Even if the idea of science in and of itself

    - 即使科學本身的理念

  • is this pure form,

    就是這種純粹的形式。

  • the second you introduce humans into that

    當你把人類引入其中的時候

  • you introduce bias.

    你引入了偏見。

  • - Look at the question, look at the discussion

    - 看問題,看討論

  • at the end of every study,

    在每次研究結束時。

  • that's when people start to fling around their feelings.

    這時人們開始調侃自己的感情。

  • - The way that we study science

    - 我們研究科學的方式

  • and the things that we learn about,

    以及我們瞭解到的事情。

  • if they're led by a homogenous group,

    如果他們是由一個同質化的群體上司的。

  • we're really only learning about one lens of life.

    我們真的只是在學習生活的一個鏡頭。

  • - A good scientist takes in information

    - 一個好的科學家會接受資訊

  • and changes their worldview.

    並改變了他們的世界觀。

  • So they are adaptable.

    所以他們的適應性很強。

  • So I do think that as a science community, we can, you know,

    所以我認為作為一個科學界,我們可以,你知道的。

  • fight institutionalized racism potentially more easily,

    更容易打擊制度化的種族主義;

  • 'cause we are willing to take in the facts

    "因為我們願意接受事實

  • and to make changes based on them.

    並在此基礎上進行修改。

  • - Here are some examples of research

    - 以下是一些研究的例子

  • on anti-Black racism and STEM.

    關於反黑人種族主義和科學、技術、工程和數學。

  • - Studies have found that white doctors are less likely

    - 研究發現,白人醫生不太可能

  • to prescribe Black patients medication for blood clots.

    給黑人患者開治療血栓的藥。

  • They believe racist myths about Black people.

    他們相信關於黑人的種族主義神話。

  • For example, that they have higher pain tolerance

    例如,他們有更高的疼痛耐受性

  • and thicker skin.

    和較厚的皮膚。

  • They themselves don't feel like they're being racist,

    他們自己也不覺得自己是種族主義者。

  • but within their institutions,

    但在其機構內部。

  • they are acting with institutionalized racism.

    他們的行為帶有制度化的種族主義。

  • - There are even infamous scientific experiments

    - 甚至還有臭名昭著的科學實驗

  • that have used Black bodies without their consent

    擅自使用黑人身體的行為

  • for the benefit of science.

    為了科學的利益。

  • So the Tuskegee Experiment is a famous example

    所以塔斯基吉實驗是一個著名的例子。

  • where they use around 600 Black men with syphilis

    在那裡,他們使用了大約600名患有梅毒的黑人男子。

  • and told them they were getting treated,

    並告訴他們正在接受治療。

  • but they actually weren't so that they could study

    但實際上他們並不是為了讓他們研究

  • what happens when syphilis goes untreated for 40 years.

    梅毒40年不治會怎樣。

  • And this was without consent.

    而這是未經同意的。

  • - The most recent "Nature" magazine,

    - 最近的《自然》雜誌。

  • and there's a study about how they're conglomerating

    有一項研究是關於他們是如何集團化的

  • a bunch of genomic research, fascinating research

    一堆基因組研究,引人入勝的研究。

  • to understand humans and to understand diseases in humans.

    來了解人類,瞭解人類的疾病。

  • And at the end they say there were very few Black people,

    而在最後他們說,黑人很少。

  • very few South Asian people.

    很少有南亞人。

  • That's an example of today

    這就是今天的一個例子

  • an institution finding breakthroughs and research

    突破性研究機構

  • and very important genomic information to help

    和非常重要的基因組資訊,以幫助

  • our health that is ignoring a whole population of people

    我們的健康,忽視了整個人口的健康。

  • due to a system.

    由於一個系統。

  • - There's also a lot of research on research.

    - 在研究上也有很多研究。

  • So minorities are less likely

    所以,少數民族不太可能

  • to have their research published.

    發表他們的研究成果。

  • They're less likely to be given raises or rewards,

    他們不太可能得到加薪或獎勵。

  • even when they're at the same level

    同級

  • as their white colleagues.

    作為他們的白人同事。

  • There's also something really interesting

    還有一些非常有趣的事情

  • called the Diversity Paradox.

    稱為多樣性悖論。

  • So they found that minorities are more likely

    所以他們發現,少數民族更有可能

  • to have innovative ideas,

    要有創新的想法。

  • they're bringing in new perspectives for science,

    他們為科學帶來了新的視角。

  • but they're less likely to be given academic positions.

    但他們獲得學術職位的可能性較小。

  • Studies have shown that white people get

    研究表明,白人得到

  • 53% more callbacks than minorities,

    比少數民族多53%的回電。

  • and then even in those callbacks,

    然後即使在這些回調中。

  • they've started to do studies of, okay,

    他們已經開始做研究的,好吧,

  • who actually gets the job when they're equally equipped

    一衣帶水,誰主沉浮

  • or equally qualified for the job.

    或同等條件下的工作。

  • White people end up getting the job

    白人最終得到了這份工作

  • 143% more often than minorities.

    比少數民族多143%。

  • Yes, we can say we just wanna hire the best person

    是的,我們可以說,我們只是想僱傭最好的人。

  • and put the most talented person in that position,

    並把最有才華的人放在那個位置上。

  • but I think we just have to acknowledge

    但我認為我們只需要承認

  • that we all have biases that are unintentional,

    我們都有無意的偏見。

  • that impact what it means to be the best candidate.

    影響到成為最佳候選人的意義。

  • And if we can't acknowledge that root problem,

    如果我們不能承認這個根本問題。

  • then we'll never even be able to address

    那我們就永遠無法解決

  • sort of the more surface problems.

    種比較表面的問題。

  • - Now we should talk about something that we can do.

    - 現在我們應該談談我們可以做的事情。

  • If we are in the sciences, when we enter rooms,

    如果我們在科學中,當我們進入房間。

  • when we enter meetings, if everyone happens to be white,

    當我們進入會議時,如果大家恰好是白人。

  • I think that's an important time to talk about anti-racism.

    我認為這是一個談論反種族主義的重要時刻。

  • I think a lot of work can be done in rooms of white people

    我認為很多工作可以在白人的房間裡完成

  • 'cause we know those meetings are happening, okay.

    因為我們知道這些會議正在發生,好嗎。

  • We are in them all the time.

    我們無時無刻不在其中。

  • A fellow science communicator and friend Dr. Esther told us,

    一位同為科學傳播者的朋友埃斯特博士告訴我們。

  • "It is not up to marginalized people to be burdened

    "被邊緣化的人不應該成為負擔。

  • "with making systemic change in institutions."

    "與使機構發生系統性變化"。

  • - I think as creators, we can all be putting in more effort

    - 我覺得作為創作者,我們都可以付出更多的努力。

  • to highlight other voices that are different from ours.

    以突出其他與我們不同的聲音。

  • How can we as a community, including us,

    我們這個社會,包括我們,怎麼能。

  • look to people that have different perspectives?

    向有不同觀點的人看齊?

  • - [Greg] Dr. Esther we'll teach you fascinating stories

    - 埃斯特博士,我們會教你迷人的故事。

  • about marginalized figures in STEM,

    關於科學、技術、工程和數學領域的邊緣化人物。

  • Jordan Harrod can teach you about

    喬丹-哈羅德可以教你

  • how AI preserves systemic racism,

    AI是如何維護系統性的種族主義的。

  • Mike Likes Science can teach you a rap about coding,

    邁克喜歡科學可以教你一個關於編碼的說唱。

  • Jabrils can show you how AI can draw

    Jabrils可以告訴你,AI如何畫畫?

  • new Pokemon with math,

    新口袋妖怪與數學。

  • Jaida Elcock on TikTok is so funny

    Jaida Elcock在TikTok上的表現是如此有趣

  • and will teach you about animal facts,

    並將教你認識動物的事實。

  • and Anna Gifty, another amazing friend on Twitter,

    和Anna Gifty,另一位Twitter上的神奇朋友。

  • will blow your mind and she actually was able to make us

    會讓你大吃一驚,她居然能讓我們。

  • even like economics.

    甚至像經濟學。

  • - But we also think we really need

    - 但我們也認為我們真的需要

  • to talk about the institutions.

    來談機構。

  • So obviously we make a lot of content on YouTube,

    所以很明顯,我們在YouTube上製作了很多內容。

  • but also Facebook and Instagram and all of these platforms

    但也有Facebook和Instagram和所有這些平臺。

  • that play a role in this.

    的作用,在這。

  • And I think as viewers and as creators,

    而我認為作為觀眾和創作者。

  • there are ways that we can influence

    我們有辦法影響

  • and impact those groups as well.

    並對這些群體也產生影響。

  • - In 2019, Google's workforce was 54.4% white,

    - 2019年,谷歌的員工中白人佔54.4%。

  • 39.8% Asian, 5.7% Latinx, 3.3% Black,

    亞裔39.8%,拉丁裔5.7%,黑人3.3%。

  • and 0.8% Native American.

    和0.8%的美國土著人。

  • So these stats are for America.

    所以這些數據是美國的。

  • 2019 Google's leadership was 66.6% white,

    2019年穀歌的領導層是66.6%的白人。

  • 28.9% Asian, 3.3% Latinx, 2.6% Black, 0.7% Native American.

    28.9%為亞裔,3.3%為拉丁裔,2.6%為黑人,0.7%為美洲土著。

  • And also staggering, Google's workforce is only 31.7% women

    而同樣令人咋舌的是,谷歌的員工隊伍中,女性僅佔31.7%。

  • and their leadership is only 26.1% women,

    而她們的領導層只有26.1%是女性。

  • assuming gender binaries.

    假設性別二元化。

  • They didn't have information

    他們沒有資料

  • about gender nonconforming people.

    關於不符合性別的人;

  • In 2019, Facebook's workforce was 44.2% white,

    2019年,Facebook的員工中白人佔44.2%。

  • 43% Asian, 5.2% Hispanic, 3.8% Black, 3.1% mixed,

    43%為亞裔,5.2%為西班牙裔,3.8%為黑人,3.1%為混血。

  • and 0.7% other.

    和0.7%的其他。

  • Looking at leadership, 65.4% were white,

    從領導層來看,65.4%是白人。

  • 24.9% Asian, 3.5% Hispanic, 3.1% Black, 2.9% mixed,

    24.9%為亞裔,3.5%為西班牙裔,3.1%為黑人,2.9%為混血。

  • 0.3% other.

    0.3%其他。

  • This shows you how the higher you go up

    這說明你越往上走

  • in all of these institutions, the whiter it gets.

    在所有這些機構中,它越發的白。

  • So we need to talk not only about hiring diverse people,

    所以,我們不僅要談聘用不同的人。

  • but also creating better promotion initiatives

    但也要創造更好的推廣舉措

  • to get different people to the top

    讓不同的人上位

  • creating cultures where people of diverse backgrounds

    創造不同背景的人都能參與的文化

  • actually wanna work at these companies.

    其實想在這些公司工作。

  • Like Google, Facebook, Twitter, Silicon Valley startups

    像谷歌、Facebook、Twitter、硅谷創業公司一樣

  • should have to openly disclose which universities

    哪些大學應該公開

  • they are recruiting from.

    他們正在招募來自。

  • In America, how many are they hiring

    在美國,他們有多少人被僱用

  • from predominantly white schools like Stanford or MIT

    斯坦福大學或麻省理工學院等白人學校的學生。

  • compared to HBCUs like Howard or Alabama A&M?

    與霍華德或阿拉巴馬農工大學等HBCU相比?

  • Facebook has currently been accepting

    目前,Facebook已經接受了

  • paid political advertising on their platform,

    在其平臺上投放付費政治廣告。

  • regardless of if it has false claims or hate speech.

    不管它是否有虛假的說法或仇恨言論。

  • They say they do not want to be the arbiter of truth,

    他們說他們不想成為真理的仲裁者。

  • but their algorithms already control our truth.

    但他們的算法已經控制了我們的真相。

  • They decide what we see, what goes viral,

    他們決定了我們所看到的東西,什麼是病毒。

  • and what shows up on your timeline.

    以及你的時間軸上顯示的內容。

  • And 90% of hate speech on Facebook is identified by AI.

    而Facebook上90%的仇恨言論是由人工智能識別的。

  • Who designs this technology is integral to it working.

    誰來設計這項技術是它發揮作用不可或缺的。

  • What I am asking for is public information

    我要求的是公開資訊

  • about the breakdown of race and gender representation

    關於種族和性別代表性的分類

  • in specific jobs.

    在具體工作中。

  • 'Cause I'm curious who is building these algorithms

    因為我很好奇是誰在構建這些算法 'Cause I'm curious who is building these algorithms.

  • that are controlling what we all see.

    控制著我們所看到的一切。

  • It's about arming ourselves with that information

    我們要用這些資訊來武裝自己

  • to challenge when we're in those meetings,

    當我們在這些會議上挑戰。

  • to talk to people in positions of power at Facebook

    與Facebook的掌權者交談。

  • or Instagram or Google.

    或Instagram或谷歌。

  • - At large, we also see in science