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  • The Bremen Drop Tower is a 140 meter high tower, containing a 120 meter high vacuum

    不來梅落塔是一座140米高的塔,裡面有一個120米高的真空塔。

  • chamber which we are using to drop experiments under conditions of nearly perfect weightlessness.

    我們正在用它來進行近乎完美的失重條件下的下降實驗。

  • The tower consists of the drop shaft, deceleration chamber, a lot of vacuum pumps, and a catapult

    該塔由下降軸、減速室、大量真空泵和彈射器組成。

  • system which allows us to shoot the experiments from the bottom of the tower to the tip, and

    系統,使我們能夠從塔底到塔尖進行實驗,並在塔底進行實驗。

  • then falling back again, doubling the microgravity time to nearly 10 seconds, which is very unique.

    然後再落回來,將微重力時間延長一倍,達到近10秒,這是非常獨特的。

  • Scientists from all over the world, in fields from astrophysics to material science to biology, come to this

    來自世界各地的天體物理學、材料科學、生物學等領域的科學家來到這裡。

  • tower to experiment with near zero gravityBecause without the effect of gravity, flames can

    塔來實驗接近零重力的情況。因為沒有了重力的影響,火焰就可以。

  • turn into spheres, strange states of matter appear, and things can just get really interesting.

    變成球體,奇怪的物質狀態出現,事情就會變得非常有趣。

  • The Bremen Drop Tower was developed and built 30 years agoProfessor Hans Rath, the founder

    不來梅落塔是30年前開發建設的。創始人漢斯-拉斯教授

  • of ZARM and Manfred Fuchs had the idea, and saw the future of Bremen in space sciences

    ZARM和Manfred Fuchs的想法,並看到了不來梅在空間科學方面的未來。

  • and industries. To build a lab that can consistently recreate the conditions of weightlessness,

    和產業。要建立一個能夠持續重現失重條件的實驗室。

  • ZARM engineers have to eliminate the effect of gravityGravity is a fundamental force

    ZARM工程師必須消除重力的影響。重力是一種基本力量

  • which is acting on all kinds of matterGravity cannot be eliminated but the effect can be

    它正在作用於各種物質。地心引力是無法消除的,但它的作用可以被消除。

  • eliminated by dropping experiments in free fallAnd freely means, without any external

    通過自由落體實驗消除。而自由的意思是,在沒有任何外部

  • force acting on the experiment while droppingWe are using a vacuum chamber to avoid air resistance

    力作用在實驗上,而下降。我們使用的是真空室,以避免空氣阻力。

  • during the freefall. And a capsule that can reach velocities up to 165 kilometers per

    在自由落體的過程中。而速度高達165公里/小時的太空艙。

  • hourMicro in microgravity means that the quality that we are achieving is 1 millionth

    小時。微重力中的 "微 "是指我們所達到的品質是100萬分之一。

  • of Earth's gravity. Everyone can experience microgravity by simply jumping off of somethingAs

    的地球引力。每個人都可以通過簡單地從某物上跳下來體驗微重力。正如...

  • long as the velocity is small and the air resistance is small, the quality of weightlessness

    只要速度小,空氣阻力小,就有失重的品質。

  • is quite high.

    是相當高的。

  • Drop Towers have several advantages compared to other microgravity facilitiesOther

    與其他微重力設施相比,落塔有幾個優勢。其他

  • facilities might be sounding rockets, satellites, space stations, and also parabola flight on

    設施可能是探空火箭、衛星、空間站,也可能是拋物線飛行。

  • planesThe big advantage of drop towers is the accessibilityAnd the repeatability.

    飛機。滴滴塔的最大優勢是可進入性。和可重複性。

  • If one experiment fails, you just try again. On other platforms, this normally is far too

    如果一次實驗失敗,你就再試一次。在其他平臺上,這通常是太

  • expensiveThe tower runs roughly 250 days a year, with up to 3 drops per dayDepending

    昂貴的。該塔一年大概運行250天,每天最多3滴。根據

  • on the experiment, scientists can choose between two different flight campaignsFirst is

    在實驗上,科學家可以在兩種不同的飛行運動中選擇。首先是

  • drop mode, a straight free fall for 4.7 seconds of microgravityHere we are at the tip of

    下降模式,直接自由落體4.7秒的微重力。這裡是我們的尖端

  • the tower in 120 meters heightWhile the experiment is still hanging every motion of

    在120米高的塔上。當實驗還在懸掛時,每一個運動的

  • the drop tube is leading to a rotational motion of the drop capsule, which again would lead

    滴管導致滴管膠囊的旋轉運動,這又會導致...。

  • to centrifugal forces during flight time, which you want to avoidSo if you watch

    到離心力在飛行時間,你想避免。所以如果你看

  • closelyWhat you can see here is the effect of mechanical decoupling. The outer structure

    密切。這裡可以看到的是機械解耦的效果。外部結構

  • is moving, but the inner structure of the vacuum chamber is almost stillThe mechanical

    正在移動,但真空室的內部結構幾乎是靜止的。機械

  • decoupling of the drop tube allows us to drop experiments even as high wind loads as we have today.

    滴管的解耦使我們即使像今天這樣高風荷載也可以進行滴管實驗。

  • The second drop style at the tower utilizes a special catapult system. We are

    塔臺的第二種下降方式採用了特殊的彈射系統。我們是

  • just entering the catapult cellar, 12 meters below the vacuum chamberThe catapult mainly

    剛進入彈射器地窖,在真空室下方12米處。彈射器主要

  • consists of the tube and the piston, the pressure tanks and the hydraulics below. The great

    由管子和活塞、壓力罐和下面的液壓裝置組成。巨大的

  • advantage is we can double the microgravity time to nearly ten seconds.

    優勢是我們可以將微重力時間延長一倍,達到近十秒。

  • Without the catapult, a normal drop tower would have to be 500 meters high to

    如果沒有彈射器,一般的投擲塔要有500米高才行。

  • achieve the same timeBefore each catapult flight, the experiment capsule is lowered

    達到相同的時間。在每次彈射飛行前,實驗艙都會被降下

  • to this point. Here it is standing for a while, and then when shot. These six valves are opened

    到這一點。在這裡,它是站了一會兒,然後當射。這六個閥門是打開的

  • in zero point two seconds and a several hundred liters of oil are rushing through these tubesIt

    在零點兩秒的時間裡,幾百升的油正從這些管子裡衝出來。它

  • is accelerated with 30 gs, 30 times Earth's gravity to fly it's vertical parabolaAnd

    用30個重力加速度,30倍地球引力,飛出它的垂直拋物線。而

  • believe or not... The whole catapult system is not standing on the ground but hanging

    不管你信不信...整個彈射系統並不是站在地面上的 而是懸掛在空中的

  • on the ceiling. This was necessary to be able to fine adjust the catapult to optimize the

    在天花板上。這是必要的,以便能夠對彈射器進行微調,以使其達到最佳效果。

  • flight path of the drop capsule.

    墜落艙的飛行路線。

  • Experiments range from fundamental physics like quantum

    實驗範圍從基礎物理學,如量子學、物理學、物理學等。

  • mechanics, up to more applied sciences like fire safety devices on space stationsToday

    機械學,直至更多的應用科學,如空間站的消防安全裝置。今天

  • we have a very interesting experiment in our drop tube. I'm working now in granular

    我們有一個非常有趣的實驗在我們的滴管。我現在的工作是在顆粒狀

  • metasciences. And, my position is a researcher at the German center for aerospace research

    元科學。我的職位是德國航空航天研究中心的研究員

  • in Cologne. We would like to develop new measurement methods to analyze sand remotely on moon or

    在科隆。我們想開發新的測量方法,以遠程分析月球上的沙子或。

  • asteroids. Because we cannot just take a sample, bring it here and investigate itRight now,

    小行星。因為我們不能只取一個樣本,把它帶到這裡來研究。現在。

  • we are refurbishing the experiment. We circulate water through a sample and measure light scattering

    我們正在翻新實驗。我們通過樣品循環水,測量光散射。

  • propertiesLight scattering is exactly what it sounds like; shining a light on a sample

    特性。光散射就是它聽起來的樣子;在樣品上照射一束光,就會發現它的特性。

  • and measuring how fast it fluctuates to reveal a material's inner structureDr. Born

    並測量它的波動速度,以揭示材料的內部結構。Born博士

  • and his team can leverage this technique to reveal the dynamic motion of particles on

    和他的團隊可以利用這項技術來揭示粒子在

  • planetary surfaces one dayBut to get there, they have to start with something a bit simpler,

    總有一天會出現在行星表面但要達到這個目標 他們必須從更簡單的事情開始

  • like waterThis tower is for us the only place on earth where air bubbles and sand

    像水一樣。這座塔對我們來說是世界上唯一一個有氣泡和沙子的地方。

  • particles move in the same way because they're not affected by gravity. We had the last days

    粒子以同樣的方式移動,因為它們不受重力的影響。我們有最後的日子

  • some problem with the experiment routines we checked until late night and it worked

    一些問題與實驗例程,我們檢查,直到深夜,它的工作。

  • properly, so I think we have a good chance for a good day for good experiments.

    妥妥的,所以我覺得我們有一個好的機會,今天有好的實驗。

  • The experiment capsule has a diameter of 80 centimeters and is between 1.5 and 2.5 meters long. At

    實驗艙的直徑為80釐米,長1.5至2.5米。實驗艙的直徑為80釐米,長1.5至2.5米。

  • the bottom we have a battery pack and service module which is a computer to automize the

    底部我們有一個電池組和服務模塊,它是一個計算機,以自動化的

  • experiment and to log the dataThe possibilities can range from simple temperature or pressure

    實驗並記錄數據。可能的範圍從簡單的溫度或壓力

  • sensors, up to high speed cameras with up to 1,000 frames per second. And the rest of

    傳感器,最高可達到每秒1000幀的高速攝影機。而其餘的

  • the volume and space is left for the experimentWhat you can see from here is the piston the big

    的體積和空間留給實驗。從這裡你可以看到的是活塞的大

  • black piece of carbon fiberThe experiment is placed on top of the piston, standing on

    黑色的一塊碳纖維。實驗放置在活塞的頂部,站在

  • just this small space.

    只是這個小空間。

  • Once the experiment capsule is installed, pumps switch on to suck

    實驗艙安裝好後,泵就會打開,吸

  • the air out and create a vacuumThese are our vacuum pumps. We're just starting to

    將空氣排出,形成真空。這些是我們的真空泵我們剛剛開始

  • evacuate our drop tube. This will take about 90 minutes before we can drop the experiment

    疏散我們的滴管。這將需要大約90分鐘之前,我們可以下降的實驗。

  • or shoot the catapult.

    或射出彈弓。

  • We want to create scattering from spherical air bubbles and

    我們想從球形氣泡中產生散射,並且

  • today we hope to see for the first time that they really form perfect spheres in microgravity.

    今天我們希望第一次看到它們真的在微重力下形成了完美的球體。

  • We are ready to fly, so I will ask Lisa now to set up everything in action.

    我們已經做好了飛行的準備,所以我現在就請Lisa來安排一切行動。

  • So we saw in the

    所以我們看到在

  • live video from our sample cell that we had air bubbles in the cell and they really stopped

    現場視頻從我們的樣品細胞,我們有氣泡在細胞中,他們真的停止。

  • flowingSuch that you have no buoyancy anymore basically they just stop and you can have

    流動。這樣你就沒有浮力了 基本上他們就停止了,你可以有。

  • a look at them in microgravity. And this is what we were actually aiming for so it worked,

    在微重力下看它們。而這正是我們的目標,所以它的工作。

  • and yeah, we are very excited about thatIf we have a working set-up, we can change some

    是的,我們非常興奮。如果我們有一個工作的設置, 我們可以改變一些。

  • parametersOn different planets, you have different gravity intensities. If we are able

    參數。在不同的星球上,你有不同的重力強度。如果我們能夠

  • to show how things work in microgravity, we might draw conclusions to different gravity

    為了說明事物在微重力下的工作原理,我們可能會對不同的重力得出結論。

  • regimes at some point. If you want to investigate the soil on Mars you have to have a method

    體制在某些時候。如果你想調查火星上的土壤,你必須有一個方法

  • that can remotely investigate packing density or flow behaviorAll the rovers we sent

    可以遠程調查填料密度或流動行為。我們發送的所有探測器

  • to space so far they went to a so-called stationary operation mode because they just got stuck

    到目前為止,他們進入了所謂的靜止運行模式,因為他們只是卡住了。

  • in sand. So it would be really great to have a sensor in front of the rover which measures

    在沙子裡所以,如果能在漫遊車前裝一個傳感器,測量一下,那就太好了

  • the extent of the sand starting to flow. And then we can say, stop, no we cannot drive

    開始流沙的程度。然後,我們可以說,停止,不,我們不能開車。

  • on the sand, we need to drive somewhere elseWe start with something simple and then we successively

    在沙灘上,我們需要開到別的地方去。我們從一些簡單的事情開始,然後我們連續地

  • increase complexity and see if we can take the theory along.

    增加複雜度,看看能不能帶著理論。

  • After the flight, the capsule entered the deceleration container here and then we reflooded the drop

    飛行結束後,太空艙進入了這裡的減速容器,然後我們重新灌注了落水

  • tube for about 30 minutes, fished for the experiment, and now we are taking it out againEven

    管30分鐘左右,撈起實驗,現在我們又要把它拿出來。甚至

  • though the deceleration container is 8 meters in height, it takes approximately 3 meters

    雖然減速容器的高度是8米,但它需要大約3米的高度。

  • to decelerate the capsule from 140 kilometers per hour to 0. The cone shape of the capsule

    使膠囊從140公里/小時減速到0。

  • limits the deceleration to up to 40 G to shield the experiments from too hard accelerationsAnd

    將減速限制在40G以內,以屏蔽實驗中過硬的加速度。而

  • also to help break the capsule's fall. The deceleration is achieved using tiny polystyrene

    也是為了幫助打破膠囊的墜落。減速是通過使用微小的聚苯乙烯來實現的。

  • balls. The noise that you are hearing is the recycling of our polystyrene balls that were

    球。你所聽到的噪音是我們的聚苯乙烯球的回收,它們是

  • compacted due to the deceleration of the experiment. We are sucking the polystyrene balls out at

    由於實驗的減速而壓實。我們在吸出聚苯乙烯球時,在

  • the bottom and lifting it up to the top again and throw them in again.

    底部,再把它抬到頂部,再把它們扔進去。

  • Now the experiment

    現在實驗

  • is opened and the outer shell is removed which remains in the drop tube, and the experiment

    打開,取出留在滴管中的外殼,然後進行實驗。

  • is handed over to the scientists to prepare the next flight.

    是交給科學家準備下一次飛行。

  • The existing Bremen drop

    現有的不萊梅空投

  • tower is limited in repetition, mainly by the time that it takes to evacuate this 1,700

    塔的重複性是有限的,主要是疏散這1700人所需的時間。

  • cubic meters of air out of the drop shaft. We've been asking scientists what they need and

    立方米的空氣從下降井中排出。我們一直在問科學家們他們需要什麼,以及... ...

  • what they would want for future drop towers. And they've said 100x more experiments per day.

    他們希望未來的落塔是什麼。而且他們還說每天要多做100倍的實驗。

  • What I am standing on is our new Gravitower Bremen, which is actually under construction.

    我所站的地方就是我們不萊梅的新引力塔,其實它正在建設中。

  • The idea of this new kind of drop tower is that we avoid the vacuum chamber by putting a slider

    這種新型落塔的想法是,我們避開真空室,把滑塊

  • around the experiment, which allows us to repeat experiments all day longWe hope

    圍繞著實驗,這讓我們可以整天重複實驗。我們希望

  • to take it in to normal operation at the end of this year. Then it is open to scientists from

    以期在今年年底將其投入正常運行。然後,它就會向來自世界各地的科學家開放。

  • all over the worldGiving scientists an even more efficient portal to microgravity will create new

    世界各地。給予科學家一個更有效的微重力入口,將創造新的。

  • opportunities to test ambitious space hardware and speed up the pace of scientific discovery,

    機會,以測試雄心勃勃的空間硬件,加快科學發現的步伐。

  • one drop at a time.

    一次一滴。

The Bremen Drop Tower is a 140 meter high tower, containing a 120 meter high vacuum

不來梅落塔是一座140米高的塔,裡面有一個120米高的真空塔。

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The Zero Gravity Tower Preparing Us For Future Mars Missions

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 18 日
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