Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • This is one of the most popular plants in the world.

    這是最受歡迎的植物之一。

  • It takes about 3-4 years to grow before producing berries

    大約需要3-4年的時間才能長出漿果。

  • which are picked, washed, pulped, dried, and roasted to make coffee.

    採摘、洗淨、打漿、乾燥、烘烤後製成咖啡。

  • The world consumes about 500 billion cups of it every year.

    全世界每年消耗約5000億杯。

  • It's grown by millions of farmers across Latin America, Africa and Asia.

    拉美、非洲和亞洲的數百萬農民都在種植它。

  • But there's a crisis on the horizon.

    但有一個危機的地平線上。

  • This is the only area where the coffee plant can grow.

    這是咖啡植物唯一可以生長的區域。

  • And as man-made climate change warms the planet, it's shrinking.

    而隨著人為的氣候變化使地球變暖,地球正在縮小。

  • Here in Colombia, one of the biggest coffee producers in the world, the impact of that crisis can already be felt.

    在哥倫比亞這個世界上最大的咖啡生產國之一,已經可以感受到這場危機的影響。

  • There are over a hundred species of the coffee plant.

    咖啡植物的種類有一百多種。

  • The vast majority occur in the wild while a few are cultivated on a farm.

    絕大多數出現在野外,少數在農場栽培。

  • Two of which are by far the most common.

    其中有兩種是目前最常見的。

  • Robusta coffee has a bitter taste, and is used to make espresso and most instant-coffee.

    羅布斯塔咖啡味道苦澀,被用來製作濃縮咖啡和大多數速溶咖啡。

  • Arabica coffee is the good stuff. It has a smooth and mild taste and is used for high-quality coffee.

    阿拉比卡咖啡是好東西。它的口感順滑溫和,是用來製作高品質咖啡的。

  • Both species require specific conditions to grow, but arabica is particularly sensitive.

    這兩個品種都需要特定的生長條件,但阿拉比卡特別敏感。

  • The plant needs temperatures between 18–21°C.

    植物需要的溫度在18-21℃之間。

  • Too hot and the berries won't grow correctly. Too cold and it can freeze.

    太熱,漿果不能正常生長。太冷了,會凍壞。

  • It also needs a specific amount of rain, preferably with a 3 month dry season to flower.

    它還需要特定的雨量,最好有3個月的旱季才能開花。

  • And crucially, it needs warm days and cool nights. So it grows best at a certain elevation.

    最關鍵的是,它需要日暖夜涼。所以它在一定的海拔高度生長的最好。

  • Altogether, that means Arabica grows best between these latitudes.

    總的來說,這意味著阿拉比卡在這些緯度之間生長得最好。

  • And if you were to create a perfect place for it, it would look a lot like Colombia.

    如果你要為它創造一個完美的地方,它會看起來很像哥倫比亞。

  • Specifically, the Zona Cafetera, Colombia's coffee region.

    具體來說,就是哥倫比亞的咖啡區Zona Cafetera。

  • The coffee farmers grow and process it all by hand here

    咖啡農戶在這裡的種植和加工都是手工完成的。

  • which is why Colombian coffee has been considered the best in the world for over a century.

    這就是為什麼一個多世紀以來,哥倫比亞咖啡一直被認為是世界上最好的咖啡。

  • But the zona cafetera is also where climate change is already taking a toll.

    但是,咖啡館也是氣候變化已經造成損失的地方。

  • Greenhouse gas emissions have warmed the region by 1.2 degrees (C) since 1980.

    自1980年以來,溫室氣體排放使該地區升溫了1.2度(C)。

  • That's enough to push the optimal elevation for coffee higher up the mountain

    這足以將咖啡的最佳海拔高度推到更高的山峰上

  • leaving the plants down here to overheat and produce lower-quality beans.

    讓這裡的植物過熱,生產出低質量的豆子。

  • That's what's happened here on the Villa Gloria farm, which sits at a low elevation.

    這就是位於低海拔的格洛里亞別墅農場的情況。

  • The warmer climate is also ideal for pests and fungi.

    溫暖的氣候也非常適合病蟲害和真菌的生長。

  • Up the slope, some coffee plants at the Santa Fe farm are afflicted with a fungus called coffee rust.

    在山坡上,聖菲農場的一些咖啡植株被一種叫做咖啡鏽的真菌所困擾。

  • And here, at the El Oasis farm, changing weather patterns have made it hard to predict the lifecycle of the coffee plant.

    而在這裡,在El Oasis農場,不斷變化的天氣模式使得咖啡植物的生命週期很難預測。

  • Since 2013, the amount of land used to grow coffee in Colombia has fallen by more than 7%.

    自2013年以來,哥倫比亞用於種植咖啡的土地數量減少了7%以上。

  • And scientists expect things to get worse.

    而科學家們預計事情會變得更糟。

  • The zona cafetera is projected to warm by .3 degrees per decade and see more extreme weather.

    預計該區咖啡館每十年將升溫0.3度,並出現更多極端天氣。

  • In fact, coffee growing regions everywhere are going to be affected.

    事實上,各地的咖啡種植區都會受到影響。

  • A recent study estimates that by 2050 the amount of land that can sustain coffee cultivation will be reduced by 50%.

    最近的一項研究估計,到2050年,能夠維持咖啡種植的土地將減少50%。

  • And it's not just cultivated coffee.

    而且不僅僅是栽培咖啡。

  • Another study estimates that 60% of wild coffee species could be at the risk of extinction because of climate change.

    另一項研究估計,由於氣候變化,60%的野生咖啡物種可能面臨滅絕的風險。

  • Some of these are used to breed more resistant

    其中一些用於培育抗性更強的。

  • varieties of Arabica which makes them critical to sustaining coffee production.

    阿拉比卡的品種,這使得它們對維持咖啡生產至關重要。

  • That's not only bad news for the plant, but also for those who have relied on the coffee industry for generations.

    這不僅對工廠是個壞消息,對那些世世代代依賴咖啡業的人也是個壞消息。

  • In the early 20th century, Americans and Europeans were buying more and more coffee.

    20世紀初,美國人和歐洲人購買的咖啡越來越多。

  • So prices were high, and that created a boom in coffee producing countries.

    所以價格很高,這就造成了咖啡生產國的繁榮。

  • Where does it all come from? Mostly from South AmericaLet's fly there

    這些東西都是從哪裡來的?大多來自南美,我們飛過去吧。

  • Colombia was the second biggest producer in the world at the time.

    哥倫比亞是當時世界第二大生產國。

  • It was mostly grown on large coffee plantations,

    它主要種植在大型咖啡種植園。

  • called haciendas, that dated back to when Colombia was a Spanish colony.

    稱為莊園,可追溯到哥倫比亞還是西班牙殖民地的時候。

  • And the work was done by peasants, indigenous people, and former slaves, many of whom were

    而這些工作是由農民、土著人和以前的奴隸完成的,其中許多人是

  • forced off their lands and subjected to brutal conditions.

    被迫離開他們的土地,並遭受殘酷的條件。

  • The plantations were profitable while prices were high

    種植園有利可圖,而價格卻很高。

  • but in 1929, the US economy crashed. Demand for coffee fell and so did the price bankrupting the plantations.

    但在1929年,美國經濟崩潰。咖啡需求下降,價格也下降,種植園破產。

  • Fearing that Colombia's entire coffee industry would vanish, the government stepped in.

    由於擔心哥倫比亞的整個咖啡產業會消失,政府出手了。

  • They purchased these large coffee fields from the owners

    他們從業主那裡購買了這些大型咖啡田

  • -- many had more than a thousand hectares, about the size of 1800 football fields.

    -- -- 許多人有一千多公頃的土地,大約有1800個足球場那麼大。

  • And broke them up into smaller plots of about 16 hectares each, before selling them to laborers.

    並把它們抽成每塊約16公頃的小地塊,然後再賣給勞工。

  • The idea was that these smaller farms would grow other crops along with coffee to sustain themselves through price fluctuations.

    這個想法是,這些小農場在種植咖啡的同時,也會種植其他作物,通過價格波動來維持自己的生存。

  • This not only saved one of Colombia's most important industries, but turned it into one dominated by small-holder farmers.

    這不僅挽救了哥倫比亞最重要的產業之一,而且將其變成了一個由小農戶主導的產業。

  • To support the new small farms in 1927, the government had created Fedecafe,

    1927年,為了支持新的小農場,政府成立了Fedecafe。

  • an agency that would organize and represent the farmers, by negotiating fair prices and favorable deals with other countries.

    一個組織和代表農民的機構,與其他國家談判公平的價格和有利的交易;

  • The most important one was in 1962, when Colombia signed the International Coffee Agreement

    最重要的一次是在1962年,哥倫比亞簽署了《國際咖啡協定》。

  • with 69 other countries and set a price minimum for export.

    與其他69個國家合作,並設定了出口的最低價格。

  • As coffee prices recovered, Colombia's small-holder coffee farmers started thriving.

    隨著咖啡價格的回升,哥倫比亞的小農咖啡種植戶開始茁壯成長。

  • By the 1970s, Colombia was using the coffee farmer, or cafetero, as a marketing tool around the world.

    到了20世紀70年代,哥倫比亞將咖啡農或咖啡師作為一種營銷工具在全世界推廣。

  • It is here that they buy their coffee, coffee grown by men like Juan Valdez.

    他們就是在這裡買咖啡,像胡安-瓦爾德斯這樣的人種植的咖啡。

  • Because for Colombians, their coffee is more than just the richest in the world, it is a national heritage.

    因為對於哥倫比亞人來說,他們的咖啡不僅僅是世界上最豐富的咖啡,更是一種民族遺產。

  • Today, Colombia is the world's third largest coffee exporter

    今天,哥倫比亞是世界第三大咖啡出口國。

  • and there are about 500,000 mostly small farms that make up the industry,

    並有約50萬個大多是小農場組成的產業。

  • but just as these farmers are starting to face the climate change,

    但就在這些農民開始面對氣候變化的時候。

  • the economics that support them are disappearing.

    支持它們的經濟學正在消失。

  • There are several ways farmers can protect their coffee plants from the effects of climate change.

    農民有幾種方法可以保護咖啡植物免受氣候變化的影響。

  • Shade trees keep the plants cool and stabilize the soil.

    遮陽樹可以使植物保持涼爽,穩定土壤。

  • Farmers can move their crop uphill, where it's cooler.

    農民可以把作物搬到上坡,那裡比較涼爽。

  • They can also switch to more resistant varieties of coffee plants.

    他們也可以換成抗性更強的咖啡植物品種。

  • The problem is all these solutions cost money that many smallholder farmers don't have anymore.

    問題是所有這些解決方案都要花錢,而很多小農戶已經沒有錢了。

  • It started in the 1980s, when the coffee agreement fell apart along with the price minimum.

    它始於20世紀80年代,當時咖啡協議與最低價格一起破裂。

  • Since then, more countries, especially some in Asia, have increasingly flooded the market with cheap coffee.

    此後,越來越多的國家,尤其是亞洲的一些國家,越來越多的廉價咖啡湧入市場。

  • It sparked a crisis around 2009, when extreme weather and coffee rust decimated Colombia's crop.

    它在2009年前後引發了一場危機,當時極端天氣和咖啡鏽病使哥倫比亞的作物遭到毀滅性打擊。

  • Production fell to its lowest levels in decades.

    產量降至幾十年來的最低水平。

  • In 2013, thousands of farmers went on strike and demanded that the government provide more

    2013年,數千名農民罷工,要求政府提供更多的

  • financial support and establish a reasonable price minimum.

    資金支持,並制定合理的最低價格。

  • The government increased subsidies to coffee growers but without an ICA, a return to a price minimum was no longer possible.

    政府增加了對咖啡種植者的補貼,但如果沒有國際咖啡協會,恢復到最低價格已不可能。

  • So coffee prices continued to fluctuate. Today it's below what many farmers need to break even.

    所以咖啡價格持續波動。如今已經低於很多農戶收支平衡所需的價格。

  • That's why it's so hard for these farmers to adapt to climate change.

    這就是為什麼這些農民很難適應氣候變化的原因。

  • It's forced many farmers in the Zona Cafetera to replace coffee with other crops.

    這迫使咖啡區的許多農民用其他作物代替咖啡。

  • And it's not just a problem in Colombia.

    而且這不僅僅是哥倫比亞的問題。

  • 80% of the world's coffee is grown by 25 million smallholder farmers. Many are living in poverty.

    世界上80%的咖啡是由2 500萬小農種植的。其中許多人生活在貧困之中。

  • From central America, to Africa, to Asia, climate change is making it harder for them to grow coffee.

    從中美洲,到非洲,再到亞洲,氣候變化讓他們種植咖啡變得更加困難。

  • Unless the price of coffee rises again and

    除非咖啡的價格再次上漲,並且

  • farmers have the financial means to cope with climate change, small farms everywhere will

    農民有了應對氣候變化的經濟手段,各地的小農場就會有更大的發展空間。

  • continue to be at risk of losing their livelihoods.

    繼續面臨失去生計的風險。

  • And in the Zona Cafetera, that could spell the end of an entire culture built around coffee.

    而在Zona Cafetera,這可能意味著圍繞咖啡建立的整個文化的結束。

This is one of the most popular plants in the world.

這是最受歡迎的植物之一。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 Vox 咖啡 哥倫比亞 種植 農民 價格

全球咖啡危機來臨

  • 43 3
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 10 日
影片單字