字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 The most urgent invention in the world right now is a vaccine that prevents you from getting COVID-19. What vaccines do is they teach your immune system about the pathogen. This is a coronavirus. And this shape, on its outside, is called the spike protein. It grabs on to the cells in your body that have a particular receptor and get that cell to make billions of copies of this virus. The first time that you're exposed to this virus it takes literally days for your immune system to realize that it's a bad thing. So how do we get the immune system to go faster? Well, the idea of a vaccine is to give you an exposure to something that looks like this, so you're getting your body to make a lot of antibodies that can take these viruses and actually kill them. There's over 100 different efforts, making many different types of coronavirus vaccines. So, how do you make a vaccine? Usually you're injecting at least part of the shape of the virus. Sometimes you do the whole virus, but it's attenuated so it doesn't multiply too much. Sometimes you take the virus and you kill it. You won't get sick because they're not duplicating. What's typically done is you just take either a piece of the virus or just the spike, that thing on the surface, and you put it on something else, so there's no risk at all of causing the disease. One final way that's new and is promising is called the RNA vaccine. With RNA and DNA, instead of putting that shape in, you put instructions in the code to make that shape. So, the Gates Foundation, along with a great number of partners, are looking at these different efforts. We've never created a new vaccine in less than five years, So, this is urgent and it's going to require incredible collaboration. It's going to have to go to 7 billion people. So, I am optimistic that one of the vaccine efforts will give us vaccines in the next 18 months, and we'll make sure that it's produced in volume and that it's accessible to everyone in the world. That's how we're going to end this pandemic.