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  • Hi.

  • Welcome to www.engvid.com.

  • I'm Adam.

  • In today's video I'm going to give you a bit of an anatomy lesson.

  • Now, first of all, we have to understand a few things.

  • One, this is very scientific things and it's not necessarily important for everybody, but

  • it's good to know.

  • You never know when you might have to talk to your doctor about some of these things,

  • some of these issues, and explain to them what's going on.

  • Or if the doctor needs to explain to you what is going on in your body, you can at least

  • have a basic idea of what he or she is speaking about.

  • Another thing to remember is: I'm not a doctor so if I'm not saying it exactly correct, let

  • it go.

  • It's all about English, not about medicine.

  • So, don't sue me for malpractice later.

  • Okay?

  • So we're going to start with anatomy.

  • What is "anatomy"?

  • This is basically the structure of the body, all the parts of the body, inside, outside,

  • and all around.

  • And we're going to look today at the five vital organs.

  • "Organs" are basically pieces of equipment inside your body.

  • "Vital" means crucial, very, very important, very necessary.

  • So we're going to talk about the five vital organs, meaning that if anything happens to

  • these particular organs, you could die.

  • Okay?

  • So you have to be a little bit careful when it comes to taking care of them.

  • And we're also going to look at the systems that they are parts of.

  • Your body has lots of different systems that control and regulate what happens to your

  • body, and we're going to look at how some of these work.

  • Okay?

  • Now, there are a lot more than five organs, there are more than five systems, but we're

  • only going to look at the vital five today.

  • We're going to start with your "heart".

  • So everybody knows more or less where your heart is, it's about middle of your chest,

  • left or right, depending on the person.

  • What the heart does is it pumps...

  • Basically it pumps blood...

  • It is a pump and it pumps blood throughout your system.

  • Right?

  • It gets the blood flowing in and out.

  • That's why we call it part of the "circulatory system".

  • It circulates the blood throughout your body.

  • The blood goes into the heart, fills up with oxygen, goes to the body, comes back to the

  • heart without oxygen, fills up again, and again, and again.

  • The system is basically made up of the heart, of course.

  • The "blood vessels", these are the small, little lines of blood that reach all over

  • your body.

  • The "arteries", these are the big, the main blood vessels, the main pipelines, if you

  • want to call them, that leave the heart full of oxygen and travel all around the body,

  • and spreading the oxygen all around.

  • And then the veins, that's the blue ones that you might see on your arms, they're going

  • back to the heart without oxygen to get refilled.

  • And then you have a "spleen", which is another organ we're not going to get into right now.

  • So very important, take care of your heart.

  • Now, as a side note, the most...

  • The thing you need to be most worried about are your arteries.

  • If you're going to eat a lot of fatty foods, these things can get clogged.

  • "Clogged" means they get full and the blood can't pass through, and that's when you have

  • a heart attack or even a stroke, so very, very important to make sure that this doesn't

  • happen.

  • Don't eat too many hamburgers, and pizzas, and chips, and French fries, and all of that

  • other delicious, but unhealthy stuff.

  • Next we're going to look at your "brain", the biggest muscle in your body they say,

  • so make sure you exercise, because muscles need exercise to grow.

  • The brain is, again, in your "skull".

  • Okay?

  • It is part of the "central nervous system".

  • Okay?

  • So your brain controls all the voluntary and involuntary actions of your body.

  • "Voluntary", I want to lift my hand up so I do.

  • My brain sends a message, my hand goes up, my hand goes down, side, all around.

  • "Involuntary", breathing.

  • If I held my breath, eventually, even if I want to hold it, my brain will force my lungs

  • to work and I will be able to breathe again.

  • It's involuntary.

  • I don't have much of a choice about it.

  • Okay?

  • The central nervous system consists of the brain, again.

  • The "spinal cord", that's the line in your back-okay?-that it's connected all the way

  • up, keeps your skeleton all together.

  • And the "nerves".

  • The "nerve endings" on all parts of your body, so if you go like this, you feel it here,

  • but you understand it here.

  • Okay?

  • And then we have the "lungs".

  • The lungs are the two very delicate, very fragile pieces inside your chest that fill

  • with air, push out air, fill with air, push out air.

  • They're part of the "respiratory system".

  • "Respiratory" basically means breathing, so the lungs take in the air that we breathe

  • into them, they absorb the oxygen, they release the carbon dioxide and push that back outside.

  • Right?

  • So, CO2, you know, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  • Oxygen in, carbon dioxide out.

  • Made up of the lungs, the "trachea" is in here, and the "diaphragm", basically underneath,

  • pushes up and down to help the lungs expand or contract.

  • I hope you can see that.

  • Expand, contract, expand, contract.

  • So these are your lungs.

  • So these are three of the five.

  • Let's look at the other two that some people don't necessarily think about regularly.

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at the other two organs, and we're going to start with

  • the "kidneys".

  • The kidneys, they're called kidneys because they're shaped a little bit like that, like

  • a kidney bean a little bit.

  • There are two of them.

  • They're sort of, like, located a little bit in the back of...

  • And lower back.

  • They are part of the "urinary system".

  • Now, if you're not sure: "urine" is the correct word for pee.

  • When you go to the washroom to pee, it's actually urine, the yellow stuff or whatever.

  • So, the kidneys are the organs that are responsible for cleaning the water in your system, and

  • the blood, etc., a little bit to a certain extent, and creating the urine.

  • So they clean out the water, and whatever is waste water comes out as pee, as urine.

  • So it consists of the kidneys; the "bladder", this is where you store the pee.

  • And when you say: "Oh, I really have to pee", that's your bladder getting full.

  • The two "ureters" that pass it along to the bladder...

  • From the kidneys, the ureters, to the bladder, and then through the "urethra" outside when

  • you go to the washroom.

  • Okay?

  • The urethra is where the pee comes out, basically, that little tube.

  • And "sphincter muscles" are basically in your anus, in your bum where...

  • For other things as well.

  • Okay?

  • So this is basically a...

  • It's like a plumbing system, if you want to call...

  • If you want to think of it like that.

  • It's your...

  • If you want to talk about your body as a...

  • Basically a machine, that's the plumbing system.

  • Now, you have two of these.

  • You can live with one, you can't live with neither of them.

  • You have to have at least one.

  • So, a lot of people get a transplant.

  • Now, you can have organ transplants, and kidneys are very common transplants.

  • You can take from a healthy person, you can take out and give it to somebody else who

  • has both of their kidneys are bad.

  • Right?

  • Because without your kidneys you're going to die, so you can have a transplant and move

  • an organ from one healthy body to another healthy body.

  • Just as a side note, when you get a driver's license...

  • I don't know if it's in every country, but in Canada, for example, when you get your

  • driver's license they will give you a little form, and you can say: "Yes" or "No", and

  • sign it, if you die you can donate your organs or body parts to medicine.

  • So, if you get into an accident and you're going to die, maybe they can take out your

  • kidney and give it to somebody who's sick.

  • That's a choice.

  • You have to put moral, religious, philosophical ideas into it, but just so you know, that's

  • where a lot of these organs come from.

  • You can also donate an organ if you match, and there's all kinds of things about that.

  • And next, let's go look at "liver".

  • So your livers are about here.

  • It...

  • Again, you're going to have to look at an actual anatomy book to figure out the map

  • of the body, but a liver is multi-functional, it does many things.

  • It cleans the blood, it means it takes out harmful toxins.

  • "Toxins" are basically poisons, it takes them out of the blood system and gets rid of them,

  • or processes them.

  • For example, people who are alcoholics, people who drink a lot of alcohol, the liver is what

  • cleans the blood after you drink all that alcohol.

  • If you drink too much alcohol, eventually you're working your liver so hard that it

  • stops working, and then you're in big trouble.

  • So don't drink too much.

  • It's also part of the "digestive system".

  • It produces bile and digestive juices.

  • So in your stomach where you're processing food in order to get the nutrients out, the

  • liver contributes part of the juices that break down the food, and it also produces

  • enzymes.

  • "Enzymes" are basically components that control chemical reactions in your body.

  • You have all different types of enzymes.

  • Other parts also create enzymes, but the liver does as well.

  • The digestive system includes the "stomach".

  • Okay?

  • The liver, the "small and large intestines", so you know the tubes that go back and forth,

  • and process the food until it comes out?

  • So you have big ones, you have small ones.

  • You have the "rectum" and the "anus".

  • This is basically where the waste comes out.

  • Now, I didn't want to say the word, but I have to say it: "poo".

  • I think all of you know the word "poo".

  • The correct word for this: "feces".

  • So, the feces comes out of the anus when you're done.

  • So, in, out, that's your digestive system.

  • Now, these are the five vital organs.

  • There are many other organs.

  • I highly recommend you look online or in a good anatomy book, and just get a basic idea

  • of what your body is made up of.

  • If you're going to medical school, obviously you're going to know all of this stuff, you're

  • going to know a lot more than this.

  • But a very interesting thing that you need to know: The biggest organ of your body is

  • your skin.

  • A very interesting, little point to know about that, so take care of your skin, a very important

  • organ.

  • So, I hope this was a little bit helpful, gives you a little bit of a start to your

  • medical careers or your medical knowledge, just good to know anyway.

  • If you have any questions about this, please go to www.engvid.com and ask in the forum

  • there.

  • There's also a quiz you can take to check your understanding of this lesson.

  • And I hope you like this lesson; please give it a like on YouTube if you did, please subscribe

  • to my channel, and come back for more interesting lessons soon.

  • Bye.

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B1 中級

學習英語詞彙。您的身體和器官 (Learn English Vocabulary: Your Body & Organs)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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