字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 When we think of what might have been lost on the way to becoming modern, we're liable to think about mealtimes: how seldom they now take place communally, how rare it is for whole families to gather, how much technology can intrude. In paintings of communal meals that reflect the older way of doing things, we can appreciate how all ages used to come together around a table and how welcoming the atmosphere seems to have been. Even the family horse might have been invited to join in. The modern condition appears so bleak by comparison. Rather than a family around the hearth, the emblematic image is of a single person with a tray on their trees in front of the television. It was the Swanson Corporation, originally a poultry producer in Omaha, Nebraska, that launched the frozen TV dinner in 1954, the same year colour television was introduced in the United States. It is a short distance in time, but a long way in spirit, from Norman Rockwell's laughter-filled family Thanksgiving celebration to Swanson's industrially produced turkey meal for one ('Just heat and serve'). Modernity is surely a lonelier place than the world that preceded it. The question is why. It isn't ultimately technology (cities, cars or screens) that have made us lonely; it's an identifiable set of ideas. We have rendered ourselves lonely first and foremost because of certain stories we have started to tell about what loneliness means. Most eras before our own knew that solitude did not - per se - have to be a sign of wretchedness or deficiency. In the fourth century, the greatest saint of early Christianity, Saint Anthony, was said to have spent more than forty years by himself in Egypt's Western desert, not saying a word, eating only bread and salt, communing with God. So impressed were some with St Anthony's life, they came to join him in the desert, and became collectively known as the Desert Fathers, and their philosophy of solitary piety would go on to have a decisive influence on the founding of monasteries. At the height of monasticism in the Middle Ages, a million people across Europe and north Africa had chosen to forego the bustle of family and commerce in order to dwell, in some of the most rugged and remote terrain in the world, in silent contemplation of God However, in the wake of the Reformation and the destruction of the monasteries that accompanied it, solitary piety began to lose its prestige and recede as a practical option. Those who had previously lived alone at the tops of mountains were now encouraged to serve God by remaining in the community, finding a suitable spouse - and starting a family. To this newly social religious impetus was added the influence of Romanticism, a movement of ideas that - with different ends in view - similarly encouraged people to give up on thorough commitments to their own company and questioned the honour of solitude. For the Romantics, happiness lay in identifying one exceptional soulmate to whom one could surrender one's independence and with whom one might fuse mind and body. In the process, the Romantic movement turned solitude from a respectable choice, to evidence of pathology. When the Beatles released Eleanor Rigby in 1966, the song that more than any other defined what loneliness meant for the modern age, it was at once clear why Eleanor was a lamentable figure. The famous face that she kept in a jar by the door had been intended for the enchanting partner that, like all single people, she must have longed to find. Only with romantic love could there be a decent life, so ran the philosophy of the song, of all the Beatles' works and in fact, of every modern pop song every written. Fail to fall completely in love and, Romanticism warned, one would soon enough be picking up rice in the church where a wedding had been - or rivalling for strangeness the comparably odd Father Mackenzie, around whom there seemed so little of the glamour that had once attended the Desert Fathers. The modern world not only made it mandatory to have a partner. It made it feel essential to have a vibrant gang of friends - and to enjoy seeing them regularly at parties. An empty diary became an emblem of deformity. But there was not the slightest admission that it might, all things considered, be a distinctly curious thing to stand in a crowded room full of status-panicked, socially-anxious people, every one of them terrified of honesty or failure. In 1921, Carl Jung - in his book Psychological Types - introduced the terms 'extraverted' and 'introverted' to divide humanity. The former referred to a sort of person who could best realise their potential in the company of others; the latter were those who needed to move away from crowds and idle chatter in order to regain their integrity. 'Everyone possesses both mechanisms,' wrote Jung - but it was evident where the spirit of the age resided. It's been the achievement of a few, often at the time ignored artists of the modern period to make a case for introversion, to try to coat solitude in glamour. In a painting by Caspar David Friedrich, we are invited to trust that the lonely figure in the landscape is privy to insights that would be lost in the crowd down in the lowlands, he has needed to travel up to the mountains in order to put the bluster and envy of humans into perspective; We should dare to follow him in his trajectory. Separated by many decades, Gwen John's young woman doesn't seem to belong to any official religion. But if there were one dedicated to the appreciation of solitude, she would be one of its saintly and legendary figures. Her expression - kind, gentle, melancholy and lost in profundity - is an advertisement for all that modernity has neglected in its promotion of active, cheery lives. Isolation isn't a particular malediction; it's where good people tend to end up. We should dare to believe that we are in solitude not because we are ill but because we are noble of spirit. We don't hate company; it's just that we would prefer to stay home rather than accept the counterfeit tokens of community presently on offer. The way to make people feel less alone isn't to pull them out of their musings in the forest or in the diner, in the library or the desert - and force them to go bowling. It's to reassure them that being alone is no sign of failure. To lessen modernity's crisis of loneliness, we need for solitude to be rehabilitated and for singlehood to regain its dignity. There is nothing catastrophic about eating dinner, many dinners, on our own. The Swanson TV dinners might have been capable of improvement, but it is ultimately far better to be eating a basic meal in peace than to be in a ballroom surrounded by false smiles and oppressive judgements. When we do so, we aren't in fact on our own at all. We are - as modernity has failed to remind us - dining with some of the finest, most elevated spirits who have ever lived. We are, though ostensibly by ourselves, in the very best company. One of the trickiest tasks we ever have to face is that of working out who we really are. This book is designed to help us create a psychological portrait of ourselves with the help of some unusual, oblique, entertaining, and playful prompts. Click the link on screen now to find out more.