字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 On January 17, 1920, six armed men robbed a Chicago freight train. 譯者: Pui-Ching Siu 審譯者: Helen Chang But it wasn't money they were after. 1920 年 1 月 17 日， Less than one hour after spirits had become illegal 六個武裝男性搶劫芝加哥貨運火車。 throughout the United States, 但他們的目標不是金錢。 the robbers made off with thousands of dollars worth of whiskey. 美國烈酒被禁止一個小時之內， It was a first taste of the unintended consequences of Prohibition. 這些強盜劫走了 價值上千美金的威士忌。 The nationwide ban on the production and sale of alcohol in the United States 這是禁酒令後第一個 意料之外的後果。 came on the heels of a similar ban in Russia 美國對全國酒類生產與販售的禁止 that started as a wartime measure during World War I. 是緊接著俄羅斯在第一次世界大戰 But the view in the Western world of alcohol 作為戰時措施的類似禁令。 as a primary cause of social ills was much older. 但在西方世界裡， It first gained traction during the Industrial Revolution 酒精早已被視為社會弊病。 as new populations of workers poured into cities 它在工業革命時期開始受歡迎， and men gathered in saloons to drink. 成群的工人湧入城市， By the 19th century, anti-drinking groups called temperance movements 人們在酒吧聚集喝酒。 began to appear in the United States and parts of Europe. 直到 19 世紀， 反酒精組織的禁酒運動 Temperance groups believed that alcohol was the fundamental driver 開始出現在美國和歐洲部分地區。 behind problems like poverty and domestic violence, 禁酒組織深信 and set out to convince governments of this. 酒精是貧窮和家庭暴力等問題 背後的主要成因， While some simply advocated moderate drinking, 並因此致力說服政府。 many believed alcohol should be banned entirely. 雖然有些人只推廣適量飲酒， These movements drew support from broad sectors of society. 大部分人相信酒精必須被徹底禁止。 Women's organizations were active participants from the beginning, 這些運動得到社會各界的支持。 arguing that alcohol made men neglect their families and abuse their wives. 女性組織從一開始就活躍地參與， Religious authorities, especially Protestants, 表示酒精導致男人 忽視家庭並虐待妻子。 denounced alcohol as leading to temptation and sin. 宗教領袖，特別是新教教徒， Progressive labor activists believed alcohol consumption 指責酒精為誘惑和罪惡之源。 harmed workers' ability to organize. 進步勞工主義活動分子相信 Governments weren't strangers to the idea of prohibition, either. 飲酒會降低工人的組織能力。 In the United States and Canada, white settlers introduced hard liquors 政府對禁酒令也不陌生。 like rum to Native communities, 在美國與加拿大， 白人定居者把朗姆酒等烈酒 then blamed alcohol for disrupting these communities— 引入原居民社區， though there were many other destructive aspects of their interactions. 然後責怪酒精干擾了這些社區—— The American and Canadian governments banned the sale of alcohol 即使他們的交流 有許多其他破壞性的方面。 to Native populations and on reservation land. 美國與加拿大政府禁止 American temperance movements gained their first victories 對原居民與保留地販售酒精。 at the state and local levels, 美國禁酒運動在各州與各個社區 with Maine and several other states banning the sale and production of liquor 取得第一次的勝利， in the 1850s. 緬因與其他數個州 In 1919 the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution 在 1850 年代禁止酒精販售與生產。 banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation 1919 年，美國憲法第 18 修正案 of all alcoholic beverages. 禁止了所有酒類飲品的 The amendment took effect a year later under the Volstead Act. 生產、販售與運輸。 Since the act did not ban personal consumption, 一年後，修正案的 沃爾斯泰德法正式生效。 wealthy people took the opportunity to stock up while restaurants and bars 因為法例沒有禁止個人飲酒， rushed to sell their remaining supply. 富人藉此機會大量購買 Workers lost their jobs as distilleries, breweries, and wineries closed down. 餐廳與酒吧急著出售的存貨。 Meanwhile, organized crime groups rushed to meet the demand for alcohol, 釀酒廠、啤酒廠與紅酒廠的 倒閉導致工人失業。 establishing a lucrative black market in producing, smuggling, 同時，犯罪組織為了滿足酒精需求 and selling illicit liquor. 而創立了生產、走私 和販售非法烈酒的黑市， Often they worked side-by side with corrupt policemen 以獲取暴利。 and government officials, 他們通常與腐敗的 警察與政府官員合作， even bombing the 1928 primary election for Illinois state attorney 甚至在 1928 年伊利諾伊州 總檢察長選舉投炸彈， in support of a particular political faction. 為了支持特定的政治派系。 Tens of thousands of illegal bars, known as "speakeasies," 成千上萬俗稱為 「地下酒吧」的非法酒吧 began serving alcohol. 開始販售酒精。 They ranged from dingy basement bars to elaborate dance-halls. 它們出現在骯髒的地下室， 也出現在精美的舞廳。 People could also make alcohol at home for their own consumption, 人們也可以在家釀酒以供飲用， or obtain it legally with a doctor's prescription or for religious purposes. 也可以透過醫生處方 或宗教原因合法獲取。 To prevent industrial alcohol from being consumed, 為了避免人們飲用工業用酒精， the government required manufacturers to add harmful chemicals, 政府要求產商添加有害化學物質， leading to thousands of poisoning deaths. 導致上千人中毒死亡。 We don't know exactly how much people were drinking during Prohibition 我們不知道具體有多少人 在禁酒令期間喝酒， because illegal alcohol wasn't regulated or taxed. 因為非法酒精沒被規管或徵稅。 But by the late 1920s, 但在 1920 年代末期， it was clear that Prohibition had not brought the social improvements 我們清晰可見禁酒令 沒有帶來所保證的社會進步， it had promised. 反而是政治腐敗與 組織性犯罪的原因之一， Instead it contributed to political corruption and organized crime 被上百萬的市民藐視。 and was flouted by millions of citizens. 在一次底特律啤酒廳的突擊搜查， 當地郡長、市長和國會議員 At one raid on an Detroit beer hall, the local sheriff, mayor and a congressman 因為喝酒被逮捕。 were arrested for drinking. 隨著 1929 年 經濟大蕭條的開始， With the start of the Great Depression in 1929, 政府亟需酒精交易的稅收， the government sorely needed the tax revenue from alcohol sales, 相信解除禁酒令能刺激經濟發展。 and believed that lifting Prohibition would stimulate the economy. 1933 年，國會通過第 21 條修正案， 以廢除第 18 條修正案—— In 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment repealing the 18th— 唯一被完全撤銷的修正案。 the only amendment to be fully repealed. 禁酒運動的成員 Members of the temperance movements 相信酒精是社會問題的根源， believed that alcohol was the root of society's problems, 但是現實更為複雜。 but the reality is more complicated. 雖然徹底禁止酒精行不通， And while banning it completely didn't work, 酒精對健康與社會的影響 現今依然持續著。 the health and social impacts of alcohol remain concerns today.