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  • The A-Z of isms... vampirism.

    A 到 Z 開頭的「主義單元」… 吸血鬼迷信。

  • What is vampirism?

    什麼是吸血鬼迷信?

  • The dictionary definition is that it refers to the habits and characteristics of vampires.

    吸血鬼迷信在字典裡的定義是指吸血鬼的習慣和特徵。

  • We might think that that means rising from the dead to prowl through the night while wrapped in a voluminous black cloak, and possessing long, sharp canine teeth with which to bite the necks of victims and suck their blood.

    我們可能會認為這意味著半夜里從墳墓爬出來、披著黑色厚重斗篷、擁有又長又尖可以咬穿脖子的獠牙並吸取人血。

  • But modern vampires are less likely to be found in graveyards than in books and films such as the Twilight series, or in Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

    但就現代而言,吸血鬼不太能在墓園裡被找到了,而是經常出沒在小說或電影,如《暮光之城》系列或《吸血鬼獵人巴菲》。

  • When the term first emerged, though, things were rather different.

    但這個詞初次出現時,情況可大不相同。

  • Vampires were first discovered in the early 18th Century at the borders of Austria-Hungary.

    吸血鬼初次被發現時是在 18 世紀的奧地利和匈牙利邊界。

  • Reports of witches, ghosts, and various demons sucking human blood go back to earliest times, but it was not until 1725 that vampires first appeared, in a report written by an army medical officer on the activities of Serbian soldiers.

    關於女巫、鬼魂和各種嗜血惡魔的報導可以追溯回很早以前,但是直到 1725 年,在由陸軍軍醫撰寫的關於塞爾維亞士兵活動的報告中,吸血鬼才首次出現。

  • Over the course of eight days in that year in the village of Kisilova, nine people had been strangled and then had their blood sucked.

    那年在 Kisilova 村八天的時間裡,有九個人被勒死且被吸血。

  • The man believed responsible had been dead and buried for ten weeks, but he had apparently risen from the grave to do so.

    被認為是兇手的人其實是已經死亡且埋葬十週的人,但很顯然他是從墳墓中爬出並下了毒手。

  • The soldiers dug up his corpse and found it to be quite fresh with blood in its mouth.

    士兵們將他的屍體挖出來並發現屍體狀態還算新鮮且嘴裡有鮮血。

  • They drove a stake through his heart, and cremated the body.

    他們在他的心臟上釘上木樁並焚燒了屍體。

  • It was the first reported case of vampirism.

    這是第一起關於吸血鬼的報導。

  • A newspaper in Vienna carried the report, and the phenomenon spread.

    一家維也納的報社報導了這件事,這個事件從此身名遠播。

  • Within a few years, vampirism seemed to be rife in Eastern Europe.

    在幾年內,吸血鬼似乎在東歐開始盛行。

  • The Emperor sent teams of military surgeons to investigate and perform autopsies, and they found that the cases were remarkably consistent.

    皇帝派遣軍事外科醫生團隊進行調查並進行驗屍,而他們發現這些案件非常一致。

  • Dozens of articles and books were published on the subject by medical researchers, and vampires became a hot topic of debate in the Enlightenment.

    醫學研究人員發表了數十篇關於吸血鬼主題的文章和書籍,而此主題也成為啟蒙運動中辯論的熱門話題。

  • Vampirism was a recognised condition attested by large numbers of witnesses and had characteristic signs and symptoms, such as corpses having fresh blood running through their veins.

    吸血鬼被大量目擊證人證實了其存在,並有著象徵性的跡象和症狀,例如屍體血管內留有新鮮血液。

  • Some researchers put the appearances down to mass trauma and delusion.

    一些研究人員將這種現象歸結為大規模的創傷和妄想。

  • Some to diet or accidental drug use causing hallucinations.

    有些是歸因於節食或意外攝取毒品而產生幻覺。

  • Some to unusual chemicals in the earth affecting decomposition.

    有些是因土壤裡不正常的化學物質導致影響了腐敗過程。

  • Some to highly contagious diseases.

    有些認為這是具有高度傳染性的疾病。

  • Others, however, argued that the phenomenon really was rampant and needed to be dealt with by the authorities.

    然而有些人認為這真的是相當普遍的現象,需要由當局加以處理。

  • Theologians joined the fray, arguing that vampires were physical beings that proved the existence of an afterlife.

    連神學家都加入了戰局,認為吸血鬼證明了死後世界的存在。

  • Philosophers meanwhile were concerned as the widespread evidence supporting the existence of vampires cast the whole value of testimony and eyewitness verification into doubt.

    而同時哲學家關注的點在於,支持吸血鬼存在的證據都讓證詞和目擊證據有些站不住腳。

  • Having begun among Serbian villagers, vampirism now spread through European society as a way to describe politicians, landlords, businessman, and even theatre critics--it was as if vampires were moving up the social scale.

    吸血鬼一說起源於塞爾維亞的村民,如今卻在整個歐洲社會裡廣泛流傳並用於形容政客、地主、商人甚至是劇評家,吸血鬼似乎上升到了社會的層面。

  • It was not until a century had passed that the aspiring writer Dr. John Polidori wrote the first vampire tale in English.

    直到一個世紀之後,一位心懷抱負的作家 John Polidori 博士才寫下第一個英文吸血鬼故事。

  • He made the vampire an aristocrat, and paved the way for Bram Stoker's classic novel Dracula, published 78 years later.

    他將吸血鬼設定成一位貴族,並為 78 年之後 Bram Stoker 所發表的經典小說《德古拉》鋪路。

  • It is to Polidori and Stoker, and dozens of Victorian vampire tales, that we owe the fanged and stylish creature familiar to us today.

    我們要歸功於 Polidori 和 Stoker 以及數十個在維多利雅時期發表的吸血鬼故事,我們才得以熟悉這種長著獠牙又優雅的生物。

  • But remember that vampirism was first investigated by doctors, government officials, and philosophers.

    但請記得,吸血鬼最初可是被醫生、政府單位和哲學家們所調查呢!

  • It therefore has much to teach us about what it is--and is not--to be human.

    因此它也教了我們很多關於什麼是人類,而什麼又不是人類。

  • About how far we are simply flesh and bone and blood.

    而我們再怎麼樣也只是由血肉和骨頭所組成的存在。

  • About exploitation and bleeding others dry.

    關於剝削以及將別人榨乾。

  • And how we should treat those who, despite appearances, may be not like us at all

    還有我們該如何對待那些外表跟我們不盡相同的人…

The A-Z of isms... vampirism.

A 到 Z 開頭的「主義單元」… 吸血鬼迷信。

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吸血鬼真的存在嗎?揭曉人類與吸血鬼的歷史淵源! (Why do we have vampires? | A-Z of ISMs Episode 22 - BBC Ideas)

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    Seraya 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 20 日
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