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  • Just for a moment,

    譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • focus on your breath.

    只是停一停

  • In slowly.

    專注於你的呼吸

  • Out slowly.

    慢慢吸氣

  • In slowly.

    慢慢呼氣

  • Out.

    慢慢吸氣

  • The same pattern repeats within every one of us

    呼氣

  • and consider your pulse.

    我們每一個人重覆這相同的節奏

  • The beat is built into the very fabric of our being.

    想想你的脈搏

  • Simply put, we're creatures of rhythm and repetition.

    這節拍嵌進我們骨子裡

  • It's central to our experience,

    簡單來說, 我們是節奏和重覆的生物

  • rhythm and repetition,

    節奏和重覆對於我們的經驗非常重要

  • rhythm and repetition.

    節奏和重覆

  • On, and in,

    節奏和重覆

  • and on, and out.

    繼續,又吸入

  • And we delight in those aspects everyday,

    繼續,又呼出

  • in the rhythm of a song,

    我們每天享受著這些節奏

  • the beat of the drum,

    歌曲的節奏

  • the nod of your head,

    鼓聲的節拍

  • or in the repetition of soup cans,

    你的點點頭

  • the rows of an orchard,

    或是湯罐的重覆出現

  • the artistry of petals.

    果園內的行列

  • Pattern can be pleasure.

    花瓣片片的美

  • In language, rhythm and repetition are often used

    模式能帶來樂趣

  • as the building blocks for poetry.

    語言中,節奏和重覆

  • There's the rhythm of language,

    經常用作詩的基本構成

  • created by syllables and their emphasis,

    這是語言的節奏

  • such as, "So long as men can breathe or eyes can see."

    以音節和重音來創造

  • And there's the repetition of language at multiple levels:

    例如「 So long as men can breathe or eyes can see. 」

  • the repetition of letters,

    而這裡有不同語言層次的重覆:

  • "So long lives this and this gives life to thee,"

    字母的重覆

  • of sounds,

    「 So long lives this and this gives life to thee. 」

  • "breathe," "see," "thee,"

    語音的重覆

  • and of words.

    「 breathe 」、「 see 」、「 thee 」

  • With so many uses, repetition is one of the poet's most malleable

    還有字詞的重覆

  • and reliable tools.

    重覆的用途廣泛,是詩人最有彈性

  • It can lift or lull the listener,

    和最可靠的工具之一

  • amplify or diminish the line,

    能使情感或揚或抑

  • unify or diversify ideas.

    詩句或重或輕

  • In fact, even rhythm itself,

    意念或統一或分眾

  • a repeated pattern of stressed syllables,

    事實上,即使節奏本身

  • is a form of repetition.

    是重音節旳重覆模式

  • Yet for all its varied uses,

    是一種形式的重覆

  • too much repetition can backfire.

    雖然它用途多樣

  • Imagine writing the same sentence on the blackboard twenty times,

    但重覆太多則有反效果

  • again, and again, and again, and again,

    試想像在黑板寫出相同句子二十次

  • or imagine a young child clamoring for her mother's attention,

    重覆、重覆、重覆,又重覆

  • "Mom, mom, mommy, mom, mom."

    或試想像幼童大吵大鬧 以獲得母親的注意

  • Not exactly what we might call poetry.

    「媽、媽、媽媽、媽、媽。」

  • So what is poetic repetition, and why does it work?

    我們並不會真的稱這些為詩

  • Possibly most familiar is rhyme,

    那甚麼是詩意的重覆,為何有效?

  • the repetition of like sounds in word endings.

    可能我們最熟悉的是押韻

  • As with Shakespeare's example,

    字尾相似語音的重覆

  • we often encounter rhyme at the ends of lines.

    正如莎士比亞的例子

  • Repetition in this way creates an expectation.

    我們經常在行末遇到押韻

  • We begin to listen for the repetition of those similar sounds.

    這樣的重覆帶來期望

  • When we hear them, the found pattern is pleasurable.

    我們開始期待聽到這些相似語音的重覆

  • Like finding Waldo in the visual chaos,

    當我們聽到押韻, 感受到的模式讓人愉快

  • we hear the echo in the oral chatter.

    正如在視覺混亂中找到威利一樣

  • Yet, rhyme need not surface solely at a line's end.

    正如在嘈雜環境中聽到回音一樣

  • Notice the strong "i" sound in,

    但押韻不限於行末

  • "So long lives this and this gives life to thee."

    注意重音「 i 」在

  • This repetition of vowel sounds is called assonance

    「 So long lives this and this gives life to thee.」

  • and can also be heard in Eminem's "Lose Yourself."

    母音的重覆稱為諧音

  • Notice how the "e" and "o" sounds repeat both within in

    亦可見於 Eminem 的 「 Lose Yourself 」

  • and at the end of each line:

    注意「 e 」和「 o 」音如何在 每行中間和行末重覆:

  • "Oh, there goes gravity,

    「 Oh, there goes gravity,

  • Oh, there goes rabbit, he choked,

    Oh, there goes rabbit, he choked,

  • he so mad but he won't give up that easy,

    he so mad but he won't give up that easy,

  • no, he won't have it,

    no, he won't have it,

  • he knows his whole back's to these ropes."

    he knows his whole back's to these ropes. 」

  • The alternating assonance creates its own rhythm,

    母音交替押韻創造出節奏

  • and invites us to try our own voices in echoing it.

    邀請我們嘗試用自己的聲音來模仿

  • Similarly, consonance is the repetition of like consonant sounds,

    同樣地,子音韻是子音的重覆

  • such as the "l" and "th" in,

    例如「 l 」和「 th 」在

  • "So long lives this and this gives life to thee."

    「 So long lives this and this gives life to thee. 」

  • In fact, this type of specific consonance,

    事實上,這種發生在字首的子音韻

  • which occurs at the beginning of words

    或許你早已熟悉

  • may be familiar to you already.

    稱為頭韻

  • It's called alliteration, or front rhyme.

    例子包括繞口令

  • Great examples include tongue twisters.

    「 Betty bought some butter but the butter was bitter

  • Betty bought some butter but the butter was bitter

    so Betty bought some better butter to make the bitter butter better.」

  • so Betty bought some better butter to make the bitter butter better.

    我們明顯會從此模式中感到樂趣

  • Here, the pleasure in pattern is apparent as we trip over the consonance

    因為字首或字中子音相同而繞口

  • both within words and at their start.

    但繞口令同時反映 詩意重覆需要不同變化

  • Yet tongue twisters also reflect the need for variation in poetic repetition.

    雖然繞口令不容易講

  • While challenging to say,

    它們被一些人視為 詩的低等模仿或噱頭

  • they're seen by some as lesser imitations of poetry,

    因為它們如此著重於相同語音

  • or gimmicky because they hammer so heavily on the same sounds,

    類近於黑板式的重覆

  • closer to that blackboard-style of repetition.

    說到底,這是詩人 平衡各種技巧的工夫

  • Ultimately, this is the poet's balancing act,

    學習何時重覆

  • learning when to repeat

    何時重覆小段

  • and when to riff,

    何時滿足期望

  • when to satisfy expectations,

    何時阻撓

  • and when to thwart them,

    在這平衡中,或只需記得

  • and in that balance, it may be enough to remember

    我們都活在多姿多彩的世界中

  • we all live in a world of wild variation

    各自帶著獨有的呼吸和心跳

  • and carry with us our own breath and beat,

    各自獨有的重覆

  • our own repetition wherever we go.

    無論我們走到何方

Just for a moment,

譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: Helen Chang

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 重覆 節奏 押韻 重音 語音

詩意模式的樂趣--大衛-西爾弗斯泰因 (The pleasure of poetic pattern - David Silverstein)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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