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  • (Zombie noises) Doctor 1: So, here we are again.

    (殭屍聲) 博士 1:我們又來到這了。

  • You know, I've been thinking. Why is this thing so angry?

    你知道的,我一直在想這件事。 為什麼這隻東西這麼生氣?

  • Doctor 2: Maybe he's just hungry.

    博士 2:可能它只是餓了。

  • D1: (Laughs) I'm not going in there to feed it.

    博士 1:(笑)我可不想進去餵它。

  • No, this seems like something very primal.


  • D2: This is kind of a hard one,

    博士 2:這是個困難的問題,

  • because we don't really have any biological definitions for emotions like anger.

    因為我們並非真的對生氣 這類情緒有生物學上的定義。

  • Sure, brain imaging studies have shown that some brain regions are more active when people are angry,

    當然,腦部掃描的研究顯示 部份區域在人生氣時較為活化。

  • but these are almost always correlational.


  • When it's warmer outside, people wear less clothing,

    當外面比較溫暖時, 人會穿比較少的衣服,

  • but if I strip down to my birthday suit, it doesn't make it sunny.

    但是如果我脫個精光, 不一定表示陽光普照。

  • D1: (Laughs) It's like having someone run on a treadmill and saying

    博士 1:(大笑)這就像讓人在跑步機上邊跑步,然後說:

  • "Look at how much more his arms move when he runs faster!


  • The arms must be where running happens."


  • D2: That's why working with people with brain lesions is so important to neuroscience.

    博士 2:這就是為什麼大腦受創的人 在神經學研究上極為重要。

  • It adds some causal evidence that a brain area might be required for a behavior.

    它提供了行為和所需腦部區塊 因果關係的證據。

  • Same with brain simulation studies.


  • If stimulating a brain area causes a behavior,


  • then that's good evidence that the brain region is involved in that behavior.

    那這就是說明腦部區域和 特定行為有關的最好證據。

  • So like studies with cats in the 1950s

    所以,像是 1950 年代在貓上進行的實驗

  • showed that stimulating a small almond-shaped area deep in the brain called the amygdala

    顯示刺激一個形似杏仁、 且被稱為杏仁核的區域

  • leads to aggressive or predatory behaviors.


  • These things look pretty aggressive to me.


  • D1: Right. But other studies have shown that stimulating different parts of the amygdala

    博士 1:對啊,但其他研究顯示刺激杏仁核的其他部份

  • can actually suppress predatory behaviors.


  • So it's kind of a complicated little brain structure.


  • D2: Yeah. And fMRI studies have found that the amygdala is active in violent criminals.

    博士 2:對,不過 fMRI 顯示杏仁體在暴力犯罪時被活化。(fMRI:功能型核磁共振)

  • D1: Whoa, whoa, whoa. Careful there.

    博士 1:噢、噢、噢。小心點。

  • Just because criminals have the same active brain regions as people who are angry,

    不要只因為人類犯罪和生氣 都活化相同的腦部區域,

  • doesn't mean that they're inherently aggressive.


  • That's like saying because I kiss with the same face hole that I use to burp,


  • then these two things are related.


  • It's a false equivalence.

    這是錯誤的等價關係。 (錯誤的等價關係:因忽略兩者間的差異,而以為彼此相等)

  • D2: Huh! Never thought of it like that. That's a good point.

    博士 2:哈!從沒這樣想過。這是個好論點。

  • D1: You know, the amygdala is part of the Papez circuit.

    博士 1:你知道杏仁核是巴貝茲迴路的一部份。 (巴貝茲迴路:和情緒、記憶形成有關的腦組織)

  • This system was discovered by James Papez, who used the rabies virus to lesion different areas in the cat's brain.

    這是由詹姆斯.巴貝茲所發現。 他用狂犬病毒讓貓腦部不同的區域受損。

  • He found that the amygdala was physically connected to another region called the hippocampus --

    他發現杏仁體和 一個被稱為海馬迴的區域有連接,

  • a little seahorse-shaped area that is needed to turn short-term memories into long-term memories.

    這一小塊狀似海馬區域和 將短期記憶轉換成長期記憶有關。

  • It's thought that this connection between the amygdala and hippocampus


  • links emotion and memory together,


  • so that you remember really emotional stuff better than boring everyday things.

    所以你對情緒性事件會比 日常作息有更深的印象。

  • D2: Yeah, like Patient H.M. In the 1950s, surgeons removed both his left and right hippocampuses

    博士 2:對,就像病患 H.M. 的例子一樣。 在1950年代,外科醫師

  • to treat his epilepsy.


  • But after the surgery, he couldn't remember any new information for longer than a few minutes.

    但在手術之後, 他無法記住數分鐘前所獲得的新訊息。

  • Zombies appear to be pretty forgetful, wouldn't you agree?


  • D1: (Laughs) Absolutely. Between the amygdala-related aggression,

    博士1:(大笑)這是當然。 關於和杏仁體有關的攻擊性,

  • and memory deficits from the hippocampus,


  • Papez may have actually accidentally created the first zombie cat.


  • D2: Aw, come on now, let's not get carried away.

    博士 2:噢,拜託,別偏離主題。

  • But now we do have some testable hypotheses.


  • I'd put money on its aggression and memory problems being linked to abnormalities

    我打賭侵略性和記憶障礙 分別和它

  • in its amygdala and hippocampus, respectively.


  • D1: Great! So all we need to do now is figure out how to experimentally test this.

    博士 1:太好了!現在我們只需要 想怎麼用實驗來證實它了。

  • Do you think it'll let us examine its brain to verify our hypothesis?

    你認為它會讓我們 用它的腦袋來證實這假說嗎?

  • D2: Uh, you know, I think I might be more comfortable not knowing the answer to this one.

    博士 2:嗯,你知道嗎? 我實在不想當面問它這個問題。

  • D1: Hmm. Maybe we could get a graduate student to do it for us?

    博士 1:嗯,或許我們可以找個研究生來替我們做?

(Zombie noises) Doctor 1: So, here we are again.

(殭屍聲) 博士 1:我們又來到這了。


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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 博士 海馬迴 腦部 區域 記憶

TED-Ed】診斷殭屍:大腦和行為--Tim Verstynen & Bradley Voytek。 (【TED-Ed】Diagnosing a zombie: Brain and behavior - Tim Verstynen & Bradley Voytek)

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    劉淑萍 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日