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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Bruce Sung

  • Now, I know it might be easy to think

    我知道或許很容易視微生物為有害,

  • that microbes are bad,

    尤其是對嬰兒有害,

  • especially for infants,

    但研究證明事實恰恰相反。

  • but research has in fact proven the opposite.

    事實可能更複雜、更有趣。

  • And the truth might be a little bit more complex,

    我們似乎需要微生物 讓我們的健康狀態良好,

  • but it's actually way more interesting.

    不是任何微生物都行,

  • It seems that we need microbes

    而是需要有適切的微生物組合。

  • to be programmed for good health,

    若與我們共同進化的微生物在一起

  • but not just any microbes,

    就最成功了。

  • we need the right combination.

    得知我們一出生就具有 適切的微生物組合

  • We succeed best with the little microbial bodies

    應該不會令你驚訝。

  • we have adapted to coexist with during evolution.

    至少我們當中有些人不會驚訝。

  • And I guess it won't surprise you

    剖腹產和自然產的嬰兒

  • to learn that we start acquiring that right combination right at birth.

    出生時擁有的微生物並不相同,

  • Well, at least some of us do.

    出生後還有無數不同的 早期生命事件和環境

  • Babies born by C-section and babies born vaginally

    會進一步調節腸道菌群的發育方式,

  • aren't the same

    例如為嬰兒或母親開的藥物,

  • when it comes to microbial start to life,

    家庭裡寵物和兄弟姐妹的數目,

  • and after birth there are countless different early life events

    以及家裡衛生水平;

  • and circumstances

    以衛生水平而言,

  • that further modulate the way the gut microbiota is developing,

    如果家裡不是一直都 一塵不染實際上會更好。

  • such as the medications that might be prescribed for the infant or the mother,

    還有母親和嬰兒的營養。

  • number of pets and siblings in the family,

    所有這些事件和環境

  • as well as level of hygiene at home,

    在腸道微生物的發展中起巨大作用,

  • and, in this case, it's actually better

    並對嬰兒的終生健康 產生了巨大影響。

  • if it's not that perfectly clean all the time.

    我可不是談論對健康的小影響,

  • And also nutrition, both mothers and infants.

    而是大影響。

  • All of these events and circumstances play a huge role

    我們獲得或未得的微生物

  • in the gut microbial development

    會影響我們患上肥胖、糖尿病

  • and that has a huge impact on the lifelong health of that baby.

    甚至某些癌症等疾病的可能性。

  • And I'm not talking about small health implications here.

    由於我們無法掌握

  • I'm talking about the big stuff.

    許多我剛列出的此類早期生命事件,

  • Microbes we acquire or do not acquire

    不可避免,

  • affect our likelihood of developing diseases like obesity, diabetes

    例如,為挽救生命而發明了剖腹產,

  • and even some cancers.

    剖腹產的確天天挽救性命;

  • Since many of these early life events I just listed

    還有特別是對嬰兒

  • are such that we cannot affect them,

    基於正當理由而開的大多數藥物等。

  • they are inevitable,

    這就是為什麼我們必須知道

  • for example C-sections have been invented to save lives,

    在發生此類生命早期事件後

  • and they do that daily,

    如何保護這些嬰兒的健康,

  • and most medications are prescribed for a valid reason,

    因為這些事件可能會破壞 嬰兒腸道菌群的發育。

  • especially for infants, and so on.

    我是嬰兒保健平台的 研究人員和技術負責人,

  • That is why we have to learn

    每天工作找尋解決問題的方案,

  • how to protect the health of these babies

    本次演講中我要回答的問題相同,

  • after the occurrence of such early life events

    是我們如何確保所有的嬰兒 此生都能獲得等值的生命,

  • that might disrupt their gut microbiota development.

    無論其出生方式為何 或遇到哪些早期生命事件。

  • I work as a researcher

    這似乎是個崇高的使命,對不對?

  • and as a technical lead of an infant health platform,

    好,讓我們弄清楚吧。

  • and the question I'm trying to find a solution to every day at work,

    首先,記得我曾說過 我們需要適當的微生物組合嗎?

  • and the same question I'm aiming to answer in this talk,

    為要使組合適當,

  • is how can we make sure

    我們需要依一定的次序 接收那些住在我們體內的微生物。

  • that all babies get the same shot at lifelong health,

    可以將其視為進行殖民。

  • no matter how they're born or what early life events they encounter.

    最早到達我們體內的微生物

  • Seems like a noble cause, right?

    會先改變嬰兒腸道中的環境,

  • Great.

    以便下一個微生物能夠進入,

  • So let's figure this out.

    就像第一個入侵者

  • To begin, remember how I said that we need the right combination of microbes?

    為後來的其他定居者打基礎一樣。

  • Well, to get that combination right,

    如果嬰兒通過剖腹產出生,

  • we need to receive those microbes that inhabit our bodies

    那麼他早期的定殖階段就大大變了,

  • in a certain order.

    因為不是自然產,母親的 產道、糞便和皮膚細菌

  • You can think of it like a colonization march.

    只剩皮膚細菌進入嬰兒的腸道了。

  • The very early microbes that inhabit our bodies first

    這就使定殖行軍 進入了完全不同的基調,

  • change the environment in the infant's gut

    僅因這與我們在進化過程中 所適應的情況不同,

  • so that the next microbes are able to move in,

    就可能以後對剖腹產的嬰兒 造成一些不利於健康的影響。

  • kind of like the first invaders

    這裡我們以體重為例。

  • come in first and set up the infrastructure

    已經有些研究表明

  • for the other settlers to build upon.

    腸道菌群的組成與體重,

  • Now, if babies are born via C-section,

    以及患上糖尿病或心血管疾病等 疾病的可能性有關。

  • that early phase of colonization is greatly altered,

    但現在已有跡象顯示,

  • because instead of vaginal, fecal and skin bacteria of the mother,

    成長後肥胖或超重的人,

  • mainly only skin bacteria enter the infant gut.

    在嬰兒期就已經能從 嬰兒的糞便樣本中

  • And that sets that colonization march to a totally different tone,

    看到缺失一些微生物。

  • and simply because that's different to what we've adapted to during evolution,

    研究還表明

  • that might cause some health disadvantages for C-section-born babies later on.

    剖腹產或在生命早期 接受大量抗生素的嬰兒

  • We can take weight development as an example here.

    可能會缺少相同的微生物。

  • It has been already shown in several studies

    為了獲得結果,

  • that gut microbiota composition

    一些研究還表明,

  • is associated to weight

    剖腹產

  • as well as the likelihood of developing diseases

    或生命早期接受大量 抗生素處方的許多嬰兒

  • like diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.

    更可能肥胖或超重,

  • But now there are some indications

    甚至超重 50%,非常的多。

  • that you could already at infancy

    此刻你可能會想,哦,糟糕,

  • see from a fecal sample of a baby

    我剛做剖腹產,

  • some microbes missing from those individuals

    或者我是通過剖腹產出生的,

  • who will later on develop to be obese or overweight.

    或者我的孩子接受了抗生素治療。

  • It has also been shown that those same microbes

    但我希望你不要擔心。

  • might be missing from babies who are born by C-section

    由於任何原因失去這些微生物,

  • or who are predisposed to heavy loads of antibiotics in early life.

    還可以在以後獲得它們,

  • And to kind of close this loop,

    對此嬰兒只需要一點幫助。

  • it has also been shown in some research

    一段時間以來,眾所周知的 一件事就是母乳餵養。

  • that babies born by C-section

    母乳是個奇蹟:

  • or are prescribed with many, many antibiotics early in life

    除了為嬰兒提供營養外,

  • are more likely to be obese or overweight, even by 50 percent,

    母乳也包含有益微生物的食物。

  • which is a lot.

    這對母乳餵養的嬰兒來說很棒,

  • Now, I know you might be thinking at this point

    但人人皆知

  • that, oh no, I just had a C-section or I was born via C-section

    並非所有的嬰兒都以母乳餵養。

  • or my child had the antibiotics.

    那麼,我們如何確保 那些沒有母乳餵養的嬰兒

  • But I want you to not worry.

    在生命早期遇到

  • If these microbes are missing

    可能破壞腸道菌群發育的 破壞性事件後,

  • or are lost for any reason,

    也能恢復其菌群發育呢?

  • they can be acquired later,

    現在我們進入本演講 實際解決方案的部分。

  • but the baby just needs a little help with that.

    最近該領域的研究已邁出巨步。

  • One thing that has already for some time been known to help is breastfeeding.

    首先,據了解,

  • Breast milk is kind of miraculous:

    如果缺少某些微生物,

  • in addition to containing nutrients for the baby,

    可以將其攝入。

  • it seems to contain food for the good microbes as well.

    我們稱被攝入的好菌為益生菌。

  • That's great for a breastfed baby,

    多年來,這些益生菌

  • but we all know that all babies are not breastfed.

    已在數項臨床試驗中被測試過,

  • So what could we do to ensure that also those babies who are not breastfed

    在嬰兒中也有很好的效果,

  • could restore their microbiota development

    例如降低了以後患濕疹的風險。

  • after encountering those disruptive early life events

    當研究人員將目光轉向母乳時, 第二次革命就實現了。

  • that might disrupt their gut microbiota development?

    正如我所提到的那樣合乎邏輯,

  • And now we get to the actual solution part of this talk.

    因為眾所周知

  • The research in this field has been taking giant steps lately.

    餵母乳能支持腸道菌群的健康發展。

  • First, it was understood that if there are some microbes missing,

    早在 1930 年代就已發現 母乳中的這些顆粒,

  • they can be ingested.

    稱之為人乳寡糖,

  • We call the good microbes, when they are ingested, probiotics,

    但在其最初發現後數十年之久, 其功能仍是一個謎。

  • and probiotics have been tested

    它們真讓研究人員感到困惑,

  • in several clinical trials during the years,

    因為它們在母乳裡的量非常豐富。

  • also in infants, with great effects,

    它們實際上是第三大類的固體,

  • such as reducing their risk of eczema later in life.

    但不被人類甚至嬰兒消化。

  • Now, a second revolution was realized

    那麼,為什麼母親會耗費資源

  • when the eyes of researchers were turned to breast milk.

    在母乳中合成一些 嬰兒無法利用的東西呢?

  • That was logical, as, like I mentioned,

    通常那不是大自然的運作方式。

  • it was already known that breastfeeding is able to support the healthy development

    對吧?

  • of gut microbiota.

    因此,當最終了解這些顆粒的作用

  • There were these particles in breast milk

    是為選擇性地餵給 最適合嬰兒的微生物

  • that were found already in the 1930s

    和影響嬰兒健康的方式時,

  • called human milk oligosaccharides,

    這真是一個大啟示。

  • but their function remained a mystery

    目前有超過一百種 不同的人乳寡糖結構,

  • for decades and decades after their initial discovery.

    其中一些可在實驗室中被合成,

  • They were really puzzling for researchers,

    使我們能夠將其與 益生菌包裝在一起,

  • as they are really abundant in human milk.

    供給無法自母乳吸收的 兒童和嬰兒使用,

  • They are actually the third-largest group of solids,

    讓他們在生命早期 遇到破壞性的事件後

  • but they are not digestible by humans, not even infants.

    能夠恢復微生物群。

  • So why would mothers synthesize something to breast milk,

    這就是解決方案。

  • use their resources to put something there

    作為研究者,我現在必須說,

  • that is not utilizable by the infant?

    這領域的研究仍在進行,

  • Usually nature does not work that way.

    還有許多工作要做。

  • Right?

    這是我們科學家最喜歡的一句話。

  • So it was quite a revelation when it was finally understood

    但是我們正採取措施

  • what's the role of these particles,

    以更了解各種情況下 哪些是缺少的關鍵微生物,

  • and that it is to selectively feed the microbes that are best for infants,

    和該與哪些益生菌 包裝哪些人乳寡糖,

  • and that way to affect the infant health.

    提供特定的微生物 幫助特定情況下的嬰兒恢復。

  • There are over a hundred of different HMO structures,

    我希望你從這次談話中記住的是

  • and nowadays we are able to synthesize some of them also in the lab,

    自然產、母乳餵養的嬰兒

  • and that enables us to package them up

    已具有我們已經適應的微生物群落,

  • with probiotics for children and infants

    但在不可能自然生產 或餵養母乳的情況下,

  • who are not able to receive them from breast milk

    仍有辦法減少對健康的負面影響。

  • to restore their microbiota

    最後,我希望您能想像一個世界,

  • after encountering disruptive early life events.

    在這個世界上有這樣一個 醫療保健系統,

  • And that is the solution.

    在為嬰兒健康檢查時

  • As a researcher, I must say at this point

    會例行監視嬰兒的腸道菌群發育,

  • that research in this field is still ongoing

    如果如果發現任何破壞,

  • and a lot of work remains to be done.

    將為他開立客製的產品 以恢復其微生物群。

  • That's a favorite sentence of us scientists.

    如果用這種先發制人的衛生保健系統

  • But we are taking steps towards understanding better and better

    致使以後鮮少發生慢性疾病,

  • which are the key missing microbes in various situations

    那將是多麼美妙?

  • and what HMOs we should package with which probiotics

    能想像這樣的世界嗎?

  • to help restore the microbiota of that particular baby in that particular case.

    相信能有這樣的未來嗎?

  • What I wish you to remember from this talk

    我相信。

  • is that, yes, vaginally born breastfed baby has the microbiota

    我相信那個未來,

  • we have evolved to adapt to,

    也希望貢獻於發展這個未來——

  • but in cases where that is not possible,

    每個嬰兒都有平等起點的未來,

  • there are means to reduce the negative health consequences.

    能夠訂製終身的健康。

  • Lastly, I wish you to imagine a world for a while,

    謝謝。

  • a world where there would be such a health care system

    (掌聲)

  • that when you take your baby to a health care check,

  • they would routinely monitor the gut microbiota development of that baby,

  • and if any disruptions would be noted,

  • a tailor-made product to restore the microbiota

  • would be prescribed.

  • I mean, how wonderful would that be,

  • if the onset of any chronic diseases would be extremely rare

  • because of this preemptive health care system?

  • Can you imagine such a world?

  • Do you believe that that kind of future would be possible?

  • I do.

  • I believe in that future and I want to contribute

  • in the unfolding of that future,

  • a future in which each baby has an equal starting point for life

  • to be programmed for lifelong health.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Bruce Sung

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B1 中級 中文 TED 嬰兒 微生物 母乳 剖腹產 腸道

天生的腸道微生物如何影響你的終身健康|Henna-Maria Uusitupa (How the gut microbes you're born with affect your lifelong health | Henna-Maria Uusitupa)

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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