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  • Imagine you're in Rome,

    譯者: lisa li 審譯者: Xiaowei Dong

  • and you've made your way to the Vatican Museums.


  • And you've been shuffling down long corridors,

    而你終於來到了 梵蒂岡的博物館

  • past statues, frescoes, lots and lots of stuff.


  • You're heading towards the Sistine Chapel.

    經過了雕像 壁畫 林林種種

  • At last -- a long corridor, a stair and a door.

    你正向着西斯汀教堂 的方向前進

  • You're at the threshold of the Sistine Chapel.

    最後 —— 一條長廊 一堂樓梯 和一道門

  • So what are you expecting?

    終於來到了西斯汀教堂 的核心處

  • Soaring domes? Choirs of angels?


  • We don't really have any of that there.

    飽滿的圓頂 還是天使合唱團

  • Instead, you may ask yourself, what do we have?


  • Well, curtains up on the Sistine Chapel.

    那好 你可能會問自己 那哪裡有什麼呢

  • And I mean literally, you're surrounded by painted curtains,

    好吧 西斯汀教堂 掀起你的帳幕吧

  • the original decoration of this chapel.

    我的意思是在字面上 你確是被繪上了圖畫的帳幕包圍着

  • Churches used tapestries not just to keep out cold during long masses,


  • but as a way to represent the great theater of life.

    教堂採用了掛毯 不單只是為了 在舉行彌撒時可以保暖

  • The human drama in which each one of us plays a part is a great story,

    同時也代表著 偉大的人生舞台

  • a story that encompasses the whole world

    我們每一位都有參與的人生舞台劇 是一個偉大的故事

  • and that came to unfold in the three stages


  • of the painting in the Sistine Chapel.


  • Now, this building started out as a space for a small group


  • of wealthy, educated Christian priests.

    這座建築物當初開始的時候 是為一小部分人提供了空間

  • They prayed there. They elected their pope there.


  • Five hundred years ago,

    他們在那裡禱告 他們在那裡推選他們的教皇

  • it was the ultimate ecclesiastical man cave.


  • So, you may ask, how can it be that today it attracts and delights


  • five million people a year,

    所以你大概會問 那這個教堂 是如何做到每年能吸引

  • from all different backgrounds?


  • Because in that compressed space, there was a creative explosion,


  • ignited by the electric excitement of new geopolitical frontiers,

    因為在那壓縮了的空間裡 存在了一種創意大爆發

  • which set on fire the ancient missionary tradition of the Church

    新地緣政治的前沿變化 帶動而來的強烈刺激觸發了它

  • and produced one of the greatest works of art in history.


  • Now, this development took place as a great evolution,

    同時也創造了歷史上 最偉大的藝術品之一

  • moving from the beginning of a few elite,

    這個發展如同 是一個偉大的進化

  • and eventually able to speak to audiences of people


  • that come from all over the world.


  • This evolution took place in three stages,

    與來自全球的 所有群眾對話

  • each one linked to a historical circumstance.

    這個進化過程 歷經了三個階段

  • The first one was rather limited in scope.

    每一個階段 都關連到一個歷史場境

  • It reflected the rather parochial perspective.


  • The second one took place after worldviews were dramatically altered


  • after Columbus's historical voyage;

    第二個階段發生的時候 人類整個世界觀都已經有了戲劇性的改變

  • and the third,

    也就是在哥倫布的 歷史性旅程之後;

  • when the Age of Discovery was well under way


  • and the Church rose to the challenge


  • of going global.


  • The original decoration of this church reflected a smaller world.


  • There were busy scenes

    這座教堂原來的裝飾 反映了一個比較細小的世界

  • that told the stories of the lives of Jesus and Moses,


  • reflecting the development of the Jewish and Christian people.


  • The man who commissioned this, Pope Sixtus IV,


  • assembled a dream team of Florentine art,

    定下這個項目的人 教皇聖思道四世

  • including men like Sandro Botticelli


  • and the man who would become Michelangelo's future painting teacher,


  • Ghirlandaio.

    還有後來會成為了 米開朗基羅繪畫老師的

  • These men, they blanketed the walls with a frieze of pure color,


  • and in these stories you'll notice familiar landscapes,

    這幾位為牆壁舖上了 帶狀裝飾的純色彩

  • the artists using Roman monuments or a Tuscan landscape

    而在這些故事中 你會看到熟悉的場景

  • to render a faraway story, something much more familiar.

    藝術家們會用上 羅馬紀念碑或是托斯卡尼的街景

  • With the addition of images of the Pope's friends and family,

    把一個久遠的故事 聯繫到 比較熟悉的一些東西

  • this was a perfect decoration for a small court

    再加上一些圖像比如 教宗的朋友們和家庭

  • limited to the European continent.


  • But in 1492, the New World was discovered,


  • horizons were expanding,

    但是在1492年 人們發現了新大陸

  • and this little 133 by 46-foot microcosm had to expand as well.


  • And it did,

    所以這個133乘以46呎的 微觀宇宙也得跟著拓展

  • thanks to a creative genius,


  • a visionary and an awesome story.


  • Now, the creative genius was Michelangelo Buonarroti,


  • 33 years old when he was tapped to decorate 12,000 square feet of ceiling,

    那位創作天才是 米開朗基羅波納羅蒂

  • and the deck was stacked against him --

    當他被邀約去裝飾12,000平方呎的天花時 正值33歲

  • he had trained in painting but had left to pursue sculpture.


  • There were angry patrons in Florence because he had left a stack

    他受訓於繪畫 但卻跑去了鑽研雕塑

  • of incomplete commissions,

    在佛羅倫斯有許多客戶對他很不滿意 因為他留下了一批

  • lured to Rome by the prospect of a great sculptural project,


  • and that project had fallen through.

    為着一個偉大的雕塑項目 而去到羅馬

  • And he had been left with a commission to paint 12 apostles


  • against a decorative background in the Sistine Chapel ceiling,

    剩下的一個定製項目 就是去畫12位門徒

  • which would look like every other ceiling in Italy.

    就在西斯汀教堂 那個有裝飾的背景天花

  • But genius rose to the challenge.

    那個在意大利 到哪裡 看起來都一樣的天花板

  • In an age when a man dared to sail across the Atlantic Ocean,


  • Michelangelo dared to chart new artistic waters.

    在那個年代 有人敢於橫越大西洋

  • He, too, would tell a story --

    米開朗基羅就敢於 藝壇上開天闢地

  • no Apostles -- but a story of great beginnings,

    他 同樣的 也會訴說一個故事

  • the story of Genesis.

    沒有門徒 但一個偉大的 磐古初開故事

  • Not really an easy sell, stories on a ceiling.


  • How would you be able to read a busy scene from 62 feet below?

    要想把故事畫到天花板上 並非易事

  • The painting technique that had been handed on for 200 years

    在距離天花壁62呎的地面, 有如何讓人能夠細閱這樣擁擠的畫面?

  • in Florentine studios was not equipped for this kind of a narrative.

    佛羅倫斯畫室 傳授了二百年的繪畫技巧

  • But Michelangelo wasn't really a painter,


  • and so he played to his strengths.

    但米開朗基羅 其實並不真的是一位畫家

  • Instead of being accustomed to filling space with busyness,


  • he took a hammer and chisel and hacked away at a piece of marble


  • to reveal the figure within.

    他反而拿起了鎚子和鏨刀 雕琢一塊大理石

  • Michelangelo was an essentialist;


  • he would tell his story in massive, dynamic bodies.


  • This plan was embraced by the larger-than-life Pope Julius II,


  • a man who was unafraid of Michelangelo's brazen genius.

    這個計劃得到了 教皇尤利烏斯二世的支持

  • He was nephew to Pope Sixtus IV,

    他是一位傳奇人物 無懼於米開朗基羅這樣自負的天才

  • and he had been steeped in art for 30 years and he knew its power.


  • And history has handed down the moniker of the Warrior Pope,

    而他亦沉醉於藝術達三十年 明瞭其中的力量

  • but this man's legacy to the Vatican -- it wasn't fortresses and artillery,

    這位人物在歷史上 留下的名號是 戰鬥教皇

  • it was art.

    但對於梵諦岡來說 這位人物所留芳的 不是堡壘和大砲

  • He left us the Raphael Rooms, the Sistine Chapel.


  • He left St. Peter's Basilica

    他遺留給我們的是拉裴爾房間 是西斯汀教堂

  • as well as an extraordinary collection of Greco-Roman sculptures --


  • decidedly un-Christian works that would become the seedbed


  • of the world's first modern museum, the Vatican Museums.

    這些非基督教的作品 很明確地孕育了

  • Julius was a man

    全球首間現代博物館 梵諦岡博物館

  • who envisioned a Vatican that would be eternally relevant


  • through grandeur and through beauty,


  • and he was right.


  • The encounter between these two giants, Michelangelo and Julius II,


  • that's what gave us the Sistine Chapel.

    這兩位偉人的相遇相知 米開朗基羅和尤利烏斯二世

  • Michelangelo was so committed to this project,


  • that he succeeded in getting the job done in three and a half years,

    米開朗基羅 非常投入於這個項目

  • using a skeleton crew and spending most of the time, hours on end,

    在三年半以內 他已經成功地完成了任務

  • reaching up above his head to paint the stories on the ceiling.

    採用節流的隊伍 投進大量時間

  • So let's look at this ceiling


  • and see storytelling gone global.


  • No more familiar artistic references to the world around you.


  • There's just space and structure and energy;

    身邊再沒有熟悉 的藝術資料可供參考

  • a monumental painted framework which opens onto nine panels,


  • more driven by sculptural form than painterly color.

    一幅不朽的繪畫架構 橫亙九個板塊

  • And we stand in the far end by the entrance,

    更多由雕塑形式所主導 而不只是繪畫顏色

  • far from the altar and from the gated enclosure intended for the clergy


  • and we peer into the distance, looking for a beginning.

    遠離神壇及遠離只留給神職人員的 大門緊鎖的密室

  • And whether in scientific inquiry or in biblical tradition,

    而我們縱目看進去 尋覓一個開始

  • we think in terms of a primal spark.

    不管是從科學的查考 或是從聖經上的傳統

  • Michelangelo gave us an initial energy


  • when he gave us the separation of light and dark,

    米開朗基羅給予我們 一種初始的能量

  • a churning figure blurry in the distance,


  • compressed into a tight space.

    一位翻騰的人物 在距離中顯得糢糊

  • The next figure looms larger,


  • and you see a figure hurtling from one side to the next.


  • He leaves in his wake the sun, the moon, vegetation.

    而你會看到一位人物 從一處飛馳往下一處

  • Michelangelo didn't focus on the stuff that was being created,

    祂在醒著的時候 創造了太陽 月亮 植物

  • unlike all the other artists.

    米開朗基羅的重點 並不在於被創造的事物

  • He focused on the act of creation.


  • And then the movement stops, like a caesura in poetry


  • and the creator hovers.

    然後所有的動態都戛然而止 如同在詩歌裡的休止

  • So what's he doing?


  • Is he creating land? Is he creating sea?


  • Or is he looking back over his handiwork, the universe and his treasures,

    祂在創造大地 祂在創造大海

  • just like Michelangelo must have,

    還是祂在顧盼著自己的創作 整個宇宙和他的珍寶

  • looking back over his work in the ceiling


  • and proclaiming, "It is good."


  • So now the scene is set,

    並且宣稱 幹得好

  • and you get to the culmination of creation, which is man.


  • Adam leaps to the eye, a light figure against a dark background.

    然後你來到了創造的高潮部分 創造人類

  • But looking closer,

    亞當躍進了眼裏 在深暗的背景上 跳入一個輕巧的身軀

  • that leg is pretty languid on the ground,


  • the arm is heavy on the knee.


  • Adam lacks that interior spark


  • that will impel him to greatness.


  • That spark is about to be conferred by the creator in that finger,

    那種會促使他偉大 由內綻放出來的靈光

  • which is one millimeter from the hand of Adam.

    那靈光將會從創造者 的那手指授賜

  • It puts us at the edge of our seats,


  • because we're one moment from that contact,


  • through which that man will discover his purpose,

    因為我們就在 那接觸的頃刻之間

  • leap up and take his place at the pinnacle of creation.

    在那一刻 人類會發現自己的意義

  • And then Michelangelo threw a curveball.

    躍升到一個地位 成為了創造之顛

  • Who is in that other arm?


  • Eve, first woman.


  • No, she's not an afterthought. She's part of the plan.

    夏娃 第一位女性

  • She's always been in his mind.

    不 她不是事後想出來的 她是創造計畫的一部份

  • Look at her, so intimate with God that her hand curls around his arm.


  • And for me, an American art historian from the 21st century,

    看看她 和上帝很親厚 她的手繞著祂的手臂

  • this was the moment that the painting spoke to me.

    對我來說 作為來自21世紀 美國的藝術歷史學者

  • Because I realized that this representation of the human drama

    這一刻 這幅圖畫最感動我

  • was always about men and women --

    因為我體會到 在這個具代表性的人生戲劇

  • so much so, that the dead center, the heart of the ceiling,


  • is the creation of woman, not Adam.

    最最重要的 夏娃在教堂的中央 在天花壁上的核心位置

  • And the fact is, that when you see them together in the Garden of Eden,

    主角其實是女性 而不是亞當

  • they fall together

    事實上 當你看到他倆在伊甸園

  • and together their proud posture turns into folded shame.


  • You are at critical juncture now in the ceiling.

    他倆原來驕傲的姿勢 雙雙轉化為一種收納起的羞愧

  • You are exactly at the point where you and I can go

    你現在來到了天花壁上 最關鍵的交滙處

  • no further into the church.

    你正正處於一個位置 你和我在這座教堂裡

  • The gated enclosure keeps us out of the inner sanctum,


  • and we are cast out much like Adam and Eve.

    那關上了閘的密室 讓我們無從再走進去內裡的聖所

  • The remaining scenes in the ceiling,

    如同亞當和夏娃一樣 我們被摒開了

  • they mirror the crowded chaos of the world around us.


  • You have Noah and his Ark and the flood.


  • You have Noah. He's making a sacrifice and a covenant with God.


  • Maybe he's the savior.

    挪亞 他正在獻祭 並和上帝訂立盟約

  • Oh, but no, Noah is the one who grew grapes, invented wine,


  • got drunk and passed out naked in his barn.

    噢 但不 挪亞種植葡萄 發明了酒

  • It is a curious way to design the ceiling,

    喝醉了後還赤裸裸地 休克在自己的榖場

  • now starting out with God creating life,


  • ending up with some guy blind drunk in a barn.


  • And so, compared with Adam,


  • you might think Michelangelo is making fun of us.

    所以 如果與亞當比起來

  • But he's about to dispel the gloom


  • by using those bright colors right underneath Noah:


  • emerald, topaz, scarlet on the prophet Zechariah.

    在挪亞的下方 借用了絢爛的顏色

  • Zechariah foresees a light coming from the east,

    翠綠 黃玉 斐紅 描繪出先知撒迦利亞

  • and we are turned at this juncture to a new destination,


  • with sibyls and prophets who will lead us on a parade.

    就在這個交滙點 我們就被導往新的目的地

  • You have the heroes and heroines who make safe the way,

    女神喻者和先知們 帶領我們前往參與遊行隊伍

  • and we follow the mothers and fathers.


  • They are the motors of this great human engine, driving it forward.


  • And now we're at the keystone of the ceiling,

    他們就是人類社會的原動力 向前推進

  • the culmination of the whole thing,


  • with a figure that looks like he's about to fall out of his space


  • into our space,

    有一位人物彷彿就要 離開他自己的空間

  • encroaching our space.


  • This is the most important juncture.


  • Past meets present.


  • This figure, Jonah, who spent three days in the belly of the whale,


  • for the Christians, is the symbol of the renewal of humanity

    這位人物 約拿 在鯨魚的肚腹內三天

  • through Jesus' sacrifice,

    對於基督徒來說 象徵著人類的重生

  • but for the multitudes of visitors to that museum


  • from all faiths who visit there every day,


  • he is the moment the distant past encounters and meets immediate reality.


  • All of this brings us to the yawning archway of the altar wall,

    他就是久遠的過去 和眼前當下相遇的刹那

  • where we see Michelangelo's Last Judgment,

    所有這些把我們帶到了 神壇牆壁上的拱廊

  • painted in 1534 after the world had changed again.

    我們看到了米開朗基羅的 最後的審判

  • The Reformation had splintered the Church,

    在1534年繪畫 那時候世界又再一次改變了

  • the Ottoman Empire had made Islam a household word


  • and Magellan had found a route into the Pacific Ocean.

    因為鄂圖曼帝國 伊斯蘭成了家傳户曉

  • How is a 59-year-old artist who has never been any further than Venice


  • going to speak to this new world?

    一位59歲的藝術家 最遠也只到過威尼斯

  • Michelangelo chose to paint destiny,


  • that universal desire,


  • common to all of us,


  • to leave a legacy of excellence.


  • Told in terms of the Christian vision of the Last Judgment,


  • the end of the world,

    從基督教角度而銓釋的 最後的審判

  • Michelangelo gave you a series of figures


  • who are wearing these strikingly beautiful bodies.


  • They have no more covers, no more portraits


  • except for a couple.

    他們都沒有遮蓋物 沒有畫像

  • It's a composition only out of bodies,


  • 391, no two alike,


  • unique like each and every one of us.

    391副身軀 通通沒有一樣的

  • They start in the lower corner, breaking away from the ground,

    就像我們每一位 都是獨一無二的人一樣

  • struggling and trying to rise.

    他們從下面的角落開始 脫離地面