Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Whitney Pennington Rodgers: Before we really dive in

  • to talking specifically about Google's work

  • in the contact tracing space,

  • let's first set up the relationship between public health and tech.

  • You know, I think a lot of people,

  • they hear "Google," and they think of this big tech company.

  • They think of a search engine.

  • And there may be questions about

  • why does Google have a chief health officer?

  • So could you talk a little bit about your work

  • and the work your team does?

  • Karen DeSalvo: Yeah. Well, maybe I'm the embodiment

  • of public health and tech coming together.

  • My background is, I practiced medicine for 20 years,

  • though a part of my work has always been in public health.

  • In fact, my first job, putting myself through college,

  • was working at the state laboratory in Massachusetts.

  • As the story will go with Joia [Mukherjee] we're reconnected again,

  • a Massachusetts theme.

  • And I, across the journey of the work that I was doing

  • for my patients

  • to provide them information

  • and the right care and meet them where they were medically,

  • translated into the work

  • that I did when I was the Health Commissioner in New Orleans

  • and later when I had other roles in public health practice,

  • that really is about thinking of people and community

  • in the context in which they live and how we provide the best information,

  • the best resources,

  • the best services that are culturally and linguistically appropriate,

  • meet them where they are.

  • And when the opportunity arose to join the team at Google,

  • I was really thrilled,

  • because one of the things that I have learned across my journey

  • is that having the right information at the right time

  • can make all the difference in the world.

  • It can literally save lives.

  • And billions of people come to Google every day

  • asking for information,

  • and so it is a tremendous opportunity to have that right information

  • and those resources to people

  • so that they can make good choices,

  • so that they can have the right information,

  • so that they can participate in their own health,

  • but also, in the context of this historic pandemic,

  • be a part of the broader health of the community,

  • whether it's to flatten the curve or keep the curve flat as we go forward.

  • WPR: And so it sounds like that there is this connection, then,

  • between public health and what Google's work is

  • in thinking about public education and providing information.

  • And so could you talk a little bit about that link

  • between public health and public education and Google?

  • KD: Definitely.

  • You know, the essential public health services

  • include communication and data,

  • and these are two areas where tech in general, but certainly Google,

  • has an opportunity to partner with the public health system

  • and with the public for their health more broadly.

  • You know, going back to the earlier days of this pandemic,

  • towards the end of January,

  • Google first leaned in to start to put information out to the public

  • about how to find resources in their local community,

  • from the CDC or from other authoritative resources.

  • So on the search page, we put up "knowledge panels,"

  • is the way that we describe it,

  • and we did develop an SOS alert,

  • which is something we've done for other crises,

  • and in this particular historic crisis,

  • we wanted to be certain that when people went on to search,

  • that there was authoritative information,

  • which is always there but certainly very prominently displayed,

  • and do that in partnership with public health authorities.

  • So we began our journey really very much in an information way

  • of making certain that people knew how to get the right information

  • at the right time to save lives.

  • I think the journey for us over the course of the last few months

  • has been to continue to lean in on how we provide information

  • in partnership with public health authorities in local areas,

  • directing people in a certain state to their state's health department,

  • helping people get information about testing.

  • There's also been, though,

  • a suite of resources that we wanted to provide to the health care community,

  • whether that was for health care providers that may not have access to PPE,

  • for example,

  • we did a partnership with the CDC Foundation.

  • Though the scale of the company

  • and the opportunity for us to partner with public health

  • around things like helping public health understand if their blunt policies

  • around social distancing to flatten the curve

  • were actually having an impact on behavior in the community.

  • That's our community mobility reports.

  • We were asked by public health agencies all across the world,

  • including some of my colleagues here in the US,

  • could we help them have a better evidence-based way to understand

  • the policies around social distancing or shelter in place?

  • Which I think we'll talk about more later.

  • In addition to that sort of work, also been working to support public health

  • in this really essential work they're doing for contact tracing,

  • which is very human-resource intensive,

  • very complex,

  • incredibly important to keep the curve flat

  • and prevent future outbreaks,

  • and give time and space for health care and, importantly, science

  • to do the work they need to do to create treatments

  • and, very importantly, a vaccine.

  • So that work around providing an additional set of digital tools,

  • exposure notification for the contact tracing community,

  • is one of the other areas where we've been supporting the public health.

  • So we think, as we've thought about this pandemic,

  • it's support the users, which is the consumer.

  • There's also a health care system and a scientific community

  • where we've been partnering.

  • And then, of course, public health.

  • And for me, I mean, Whitney, this is just a wonderful opportunity

  • for Big Tech to come together with the public health infrastructure.

  • Public health, as Joia was sort of articulating before,

  • is often an unsung hero.

  • It saves your life every day, but you didn't know it.

  • And it is also a pretty under-resourced part of our health infrastructure,

  • globally, but especially in the US.

  • It's something I worked on a lot before I came to Google.

  • And so the opportunity to partner

  • and do everything that we can as a company

  • and, in this case, with contact tracing in partnership with Apple

  • to create a very privacy-promoting, useful, helpful product

  • that is going to be a part of the bigger contact tracing

  • is something that we feel really proud of

  • and look forward to continuing to work with public health.

  • In fact, we were on the phone this morning with a suite of public health groups

  • from across the country,

  • listening again to what would be helpful questions that they have.

  • And as we think about rolling out the system,

  • this is the way that we've been for the last many months at Google,

  • and I'm just really ...

  • I landed at a place just a few months ago -- I just started at Google --

  • where we can have an impact on what people know

  • all across the world.

  • And I'll tell you, as a public health professional and as a doc,

  • that is one of the most critical things.

  • People need to have the right information

  • so they can help navigate their health journey,

  • but also especially in this pandemic because it's going to save lives.

  • WPR: That's great. Thank you.

  • So, to talk more about this contact tracing system

  • and the exposure notification app,

  • we've read so much about this.

  • Could you describe this, a little bit about how the app works,

  • what exactly are users seeing,

  • what information is being collected?

  • Just give us sort of a broad sense of what this app does.

  • KD: Yeah.

  • Let me just start by explaining what it is,

  • and it's actually not even an app,

  • it's just an API.

  • It's a system that allows a public health agency

  • to create an app,

  • and only the API, this doorway to the phone system,

  • is available to public health.

  • So it's not designed for any other purpose

  • than to support public health and the work that they're doing

  • in COVID-19 in contact tracing.

  • The second piece of this is that we wanted to build a system

  • that was privacy-promoting,

  • that really put the user first,

  • gave them the opportunity to opt into the system

  • and opt out whenever they wanted to do that,

  • so they also have some control over how they're engaging

  • and using their phone, basically,

  • as a part of keeping the curve flat around the world.

  • The system was developed in response to requests that we were getting

  • about how could technology, particularly smartphones,

  • be useful in contact tracing?

  • And as we thought this through and talked with public health experts

  • and academics and privacy experts,

  • it was pretty clear that obviously contract tracing is a complex endeavor

  • that does require human resources,

  • because there's a lot of very particular things

  • that you need to do in having conversations with people

  • as part of contact tracing.

  • On the other hand,

  • there's some opportunity to better inform the contact investigators

  • with things like, particularly, an exposure log.

  • So one of the things that happens when the contact tracer calls you

  • or visits you is they ask,

  • "Hey, in the last certain number of days,"

  • and in the case of COVID, it would be a couple days before symptoms developed,

  • "Hey, tell us the story of what you've been involved in doing

  • so that we can begin to think through where you might have been,

  • to the grocery or to church or what other activities

  • and with whom you might have been into contact."

  • There's some amount of recall bias in that for all us,

  • like we forget where we might have been,

  • and there's also an amount of anonymous contact.

  • So there are times when we're out in the world,

  • on a bus or in a store,

  • and we may have come into prolonged and close contact with someone

  • and wouldn't know who they were.

  • And so the augmentation

  • that the exposure notification system provides

  • is designed to fill in those gaps

  • and to expedite the notification to public health

  • of who has a positive test,

  • because the person would have notified,

  • they trigger something that notifies public health,

  • and then to fill in some of those gaps in the prior exposure.

  • What it does not do is it does not use GPS or location to track people.

  • So the system actually uses something different

  • called Bluetooth Low Energy,

  • which is privacy-preserving,

  • it doesn't drain the battery

  • and it makes it more also interoperable

  • between both Apple and the Android system

  • so it's more useful, not only in the US context,

  • but globally.

  • So we built this system in response to some requests

  • to help augment the contact-tracing systems.

  • We wanted to do it in a way that was user-controlled

  • and privacy-preserving

  • and had technological features

  • that would allow public health to augment the exposure log

  • in a way that would accelerate the work that they needed to get done

  • to interrupt transmission -- keep the R naught less than one --

  • and do that in a way that we would also be able to partner with public health

  • to think about risk scoring.

  • We could talk more about any of these areas that you want,

  • but I think maybe

  • one of the most important things that I want to say, Whitney,

  • is how grateful Apple and Google are --

  • I'll take a moment to speak for my colleagues at Apple --

  • to the great partnership from public health across the world

  • and to academics and to others

  • who have helped us think through how this can be,

  • how the exposure notification system

  • fits into the broader contact tracing portfolio,

  • and how it does it in a way that really respects and protects privacy

  • and also is useful to public health.

  • We're still on this journey with them,

  • and I really believe that we're going to be able to help,

  • and I'm looking forward to being a part of the great work

  • that public health's got to do on the front lines every day,

  • been doing, frankly,

  • but needs to be able to step up.