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  • [This talk contains graphic images Viewer discretion is advised]

    譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: 品妤 劉

  • I collect objects.

    【此演講含有可能會引起不適的圖像】

  • I collect branding irons that were used to mark slaves as property.

    我收藏一些物品,

  • I collect shackles for adults

    有奴隸烙鐵,它打上奴隸身上 作為財產的標誌,

  • and restraints for adults

    我收集給當時成年人戴的手銬,

  • as well as children.

    及腳鐐,

  • I collect lynching postcards.

    還有是給孩子戴的。

  • Yes, they depict lynchings.

    也收集黑人奴隸 受私刑絞死的明信片。

  • They also depict the massive crowds that attended these lynchings,

    它們描繪了當時的私刑。

  • and they are postcards

    同時也描繪了無數圍觀死刑的人們,

  • that were also used for correspondence.

    這些是明信片,

  • I collect proslavery books that portray black people as criminals

    是被用作通信用的。

  • or as animals without souls.

    我收集的那些支持奴隸制度的書, 把黑人描繪成罪犯,

  • I brought you something today.

    或者是沒有靈魂的動物。

  • This is a ship's branding iron.

    我帶一些給你們看。

  • It was used to mark slaves.

    這是一個船上的烙鐵。

  • Well, they actually were not slaves when they were marked.

    曾被用來為奴隸標記。

  • They were in Africa.

    他們被標記的時候,還不是奴隸。

  • But they were marked with an "S"

    仍然生活在非洲。

  • to designate that they were going to be slaves

    但是他們一旦被標記了 「S」,

  • when they were brought to the US

    就認定為奴隸,

  • and when they were brought to Europe.

    他們會被帶到美國

  • Another object or image that captured my imagination when I was younger

    及歐洲。

  • was a Klan robe.

    年輕時引發了我遐想的 另一個物品或是圖像

  • Growing up in South Carolina, I would see Ku Klux Klan rallies occasionally,

    是那三 K 黨長袍。

  • actually more than occasionally,

    我在南卡羅萊納州長大, 偶然會見到三 K 黨的集會。

  • and the memories of those events never really left my mind.

    事實是,並不僅是偶然。

  • And I didn't really do anything with that imagery until 25 years later.

    那些事情烙印在我的記憶裡。

  • A few years ago, I started researching the Klan,

    直到 25 年後, 我才重新注視三 K 黨的圖像。

  • the three distinct waves of the Klan,

    幾年前,我開始研究三 K 黨,

  • the second one in particular.

    三次不尋常的三 K 黨運動浪潮,

  • The second wave of the Klan had more than five million active members,

    尤以第二次為甚。

  • which was five percent of the population at the time,

    第二次的三 K 黨興起, 使它擁有超過五百萬名活躍成員,

  • which was also the population of New York City at the time.

    是當時美國人口的百分之五,

  • The Klan robe factory in the Buckhead neighborhood of Georgia was so busy

    也等於紐約市的總人口。

  • it became a 24-hour factory to keep up with orders.

    位於喬治亞州巴克海特區的 三 K 黨長袍工廠十分忙碌,

  • They kept 20,000 robes on hand at all time to keep up with the demand.

    工廠要 24 小時運作 來滿足訂單。

  • As a collector of artifacts and as an artist,

    它們隨時庫存 2 萬 件長袍, 以應付大量的需求。

  • I really wanted a Klan robe to be part of my collection,

    作為一個手工製品的 收集者和藝術家,

  • because artifacts and objects tell stories,

    我很想收藏一件三 K 黨的長袍,

  • but I really couldn't find one that was really good quality.

    因為它們會講故事,

  • What is a black man to do in America

    但我找不到一件品質好的長袍。

  • when he can't find the quality Klan robe that he's looking for?

    身為一個美國黑人,不能找到一件 好品質的三 K 黨長袍,該怎麼辦?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So I had no other choice.

    我沒有其他選擇。

  • I decided I was going to make the best quality Klan robes in America.

    決定自己做 美國最高品質的三 K 黨長袍。

  • These are not your traditional Klan robes you would see at any KKK rally.

    這些不是在黨集會中見得到的 傳統三 K 黨長袍。

  • I used kente cloth,

    我使用肯特布、

  • I used camouflage,

    迷彩的、

  • spandex, burlap, silks, satins and different patterns.

    彈力纖維、粗麻布、絲綢、 緞子以及不同的質料。

  • I make them for different age groups; I make them for young kids

    我做給不同年齡的人 包括年幼的孩子,

  • as well as toddlers.

    及學步的幼兒,

  • I even made one for an infant.

    甚至做給一個嬰兒。

  • After making so many robes,

    在做了那麼多長袍之後,

  • I realized that the policies the Klan had in place

    我意識到三 K 黨的政策 已達到的效果,

  • or wanted to have in place a hundred years ago

    是一百年前想要達到的,

  • are in place today.

    在今天發生了。

  • We have segregated schools, neighborhoods, workplaces,

    我們有著種族隔離的學校、 社區和公共場所,

  • and it's not the people wearing hoods that are keeping these policies in place.

    然而並非三 K 黨人促成這些政策。

  • My work is about the long-term impact of slavery.

    我的工作是關注 奴隸制度的長期影響。

  • We're not just dealing with the residue of systemic racism.

    我們不僅要解決 種族主義系統的殘渣,

  • It's the basis of every single thing we do.

    而是解決處理每件事的基礎。

  • Again we have intentionally segregated neighborhoods,

    再者,存有故意促成的 種族隔離社區、

  • workplaces and schools.

    公共場所和學校;

  • We have voter suppression.

    有非裔的投票者被壓制;

  • We have disproportionate representation of minorities incarcerated.

    被監禁的非裔人數 遠高於其他少數族裔的人口比例。

  • We have environmental racism. We have police brutality.

    我們面臨種族主義當道的環境,

  • I brought you a few things today.

    遭到警察的殘暴對待。

  • The stealth aspect of racism

    我給你們帶來了幾件物件。

  • is part of its power.

    種族主義的「隠秘」

  • When you're discriminated against,

    是它力量的一部分。

  • you can't always prove you're being discriminated against.

    當你被歧視的時候,

  • Racism has the power to hide,

    你不能證明正在被歧視。

  • and when it hides, it's kept safe

    種族主義擁有的隱蔽力量,

  • because it blends in.

    是自身可以安全的地藏起來,

  • I created this robe to illustrate that.

    因為它融入其中。

  • The basis of capitalism in America is slavery.

    用我製作的長袍來表明

  • Slaves were the capital in capitalism.

    美國資本主義的基礎就是奴隸制度。

  • The first Grand Wizard in 1868, Nathan Bedford Forrest,

    奴隸是資本主義的資本。

  • was a Confederate soldier and a millionaire slave trader.

    1868 年三 K 黨第一大巫師 內森‧貝弗‧福雷斯

  • The wealth that was created from chattel slavery --

    是一個美利堅聯邦士兵, 也是一個經營奴隸貿易的百萬富翁。

  • that's slaves as property -- would boggle the mind.

    他的財富是從奴隸貿易創造出來——

  • Cotton sales alone in 1860 equalled 200 million dollars.

    視奴隸為財產的觀念—— 是我心中揮之不去的陰影。

  • That would equal five billion dollars today.

    1860 年僅棉花貿易一項 就已產生了大約兩億美元的價值。

  • A lot of that wealth can be seen today through generational wealth.

    相等於現在的五十億美元。

  • Oh, I forgot the other crops as well.

    很多今天的財富都是 代代相傳下來。

  • You have indigo, rice and tobacco.

    我忘了其他的經濟作物。

  • In 2015, I made one robe a week for the entire year.

    還有槐藍(用作染料)、 大米以及煙草。

  • After making 75 robes, I had an epiphany.

    在 2015 年內, 我每週製作一件長袍。

  • I have a realization that white supremacy is there,

    到製造了 75 件長袍時, 我已經頓悟。

  • but the biggest force of white supremacy is not the KKK,

    白人至上的主義就在這裡,

  • it's the normalization of systemic racism.

    但最大的力量並不是三 K 黨,

  • There was something else I realized.

    而是系統性的種族主義正常化。

  • The robes had no more power over me at all.

    還有一件事,

  • But if we as a people collectively

    長袍對我完全沒有威懾作用了。

  • look at these objects --

    但如果我們作為一個集體,

  • branding irons, shackles, robes --

    看著這些東西——

  • and realize that they are part of our history,

    烙鐵、手銬和長袍,

  • we can find a way to where they have no more power over us.

    能夠意識到這是我們歷史的一部分,

  • If we look at systemic racism and acknowledge

    我們就可以找到一種方法, 使它們不再能威懾我們了。

  • that it's sown into the very fabric of who we are as a country,

    如果我們能夠面對及確認 系統性的種族主義,

  • then we can actually do something about the intentional segregation

    並且承認它已經植入 我們國家的根基。

  • in our schools, neighborhoods and workplaces.

    那麼我們就能採取實際的行動 來應付有種族隔離意圖的事情,

  • But then and only then can we actually address

    在種族隔離的學校、 社區和工作場所。

  • and confront this legacy of slavery

    只有在我們能夠說出

  • and dismantle this ugly legacy of slavery.

    和面對這奴隸制的遺毒時,

  • Thank you very much.

    才能消除醜陋奴隸制度的遺痕。

  • (Applause)

    謝謝。

[This talk contains graphic images Viewer discretion is advised]

譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: 品妤 劉

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B2 中高級 中文 TED 奴隸 種族 主義 隔離 制度

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