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  • Great things happen at intersections.

    偉大的事往往都發生在交會點。

  • In fact, I would argue that some of the most interesting things

    事實上,我會說人類所經歷的 幾件最有趣的事情

  • of the human experience occur at the intersections,

    都發生在交會點,

  • in the liminal space,

    在中介地帶,

  • where by liminal I mean the space in-between.

    所謂中介,我是指 介於兩者之間的空間。

  • There's freedom in that in-between,

    在這些地方你擁有自由,

  • freedom to create from the indefiniteness of not-quite-here, not-quite-there,

    能從難以清楚界定的模糊地帶中

  • a new self-definition.

    創造一種新的自我界定。

  • Some of the great intersections of the world come to mind,

    我想到一些世界上重要的交會點,

  • like the Arc de Triomphe in Paris,

    像是巴黎的凱旋門,

  • or Times Square in New York City,

    或是紐約的時代廣場,

  • both bustling with the excitement of a seemingly endless stream of people.

    兩者都熱鬧繁華、 有著川流不息的人們。

  • Other intersections,

    還有其他交會點,

  • like the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama,

    例如阿拉巴馬州的艾德蒙‧佩特斯橋 (黑人民權運動-血腥星期天發生地)

  • or Canfield Drive and Copper Creek Court in Ferguson, Missouri, also come to mind

    或是密蘇里州的麥可·布朗命案 (18歲非裔美國青年遭白人警員射殺)

  • because of the tremendous energy at the intersection of human beings,

    也都在我心中浮現,

  • ideologies and the ongoing struggle for justice.

    因為我們將如此可觀的心力,

  • Beyond the physical landscape of our planet,

    都花費在人權、意識形態 和永不停止的正義之戰的交會處。

  • some of the most famous celestial images are of intersections.

    在地球的自然景觀之外,

  • Stars are born at the messy intersection of gas and dust,

    許多知名的天體影像本身就是交會點。

  • instigated by gravity's irrevocable pull.

    星星是在凌亂的 氣體及塵埃交會處誕生的,

  • Stars die by this same intersection, this time flung outward

    受到必然發生的萬有引力牽引而成。

  • in a violent collision of smaller atoms,

    星星也在一樣的交會處滅亡,

  • intersecting and efficiently fusing into altogether new and heavier things.

    這次是被一些較小原子 的劇烈碰撞而向外拋出,

  • We can all think of intersections that have special meaning to us.

    彼此交會並有效率地 融合成更重的新星體。

  • To be intersectional, then,

    我們可以想想 那些對我們有著特別意義的交界處,

  • is to occupy a position at an intersection.

    要產生交集,代表你得 在這個交會點佔有一席之地。

  • I've lived the entirety of my life in the in-between,

    我一生都處在中介地帶。

  • in the liminal space between dreams and reality,

    夢想和現實之間、

  • race and gender,

    種族與性別之間、

  • poverty and plenty,

    貧窮和財富之間、

  • science and society.

    科學和社會之間。

  • I am both black and a woman.

    我是黑人,又是女性。

  • Like the birth of stars in the heavenlies,

    就像誕生於天界的星辰,

  • this robust combination of knowing results in a shining example

    這種宿命的強烈結合

  • of the explosive fusion of identities.

    造就了所有爆炸性身分融合中 的一個傑作。

  • I am also an astrophysicist.

    我也是一位天體物理學家,

  • I study blazars, supermassive, hyperactive black holes

    我研究耀類星體、 超大質量的活躍黑洞,

  • that sit at the centers of massive galaxies

    它們位於大型星系中心,

  • and shoot out jets nearby those black holes

    從這些黑洞附近發出噴射流,

  • at speeds approaching the speed of light

    速度接近光速。

  • in a process we are still trying to completely understand.

    我們還在試著理解這個過程。

  • I have dreamed of becoming an astrophysicist

    我成為天體物理學家的夢想,

  • since I was 12 years old.

    從12歲就開始了。

  • I had no idea that at that time,

    當時我根本不知道,

  • according to Dr. Jamie Alexander's archive of African-American women in physics,

    根據傑米·亞歷山大博士針對 物理學界的非裔美籍女性所做的研究,

  • only 18 black women in the United States had ever earned a PhD

    美國僅有18個黑人女性

  • in a physics-related discipline,

    曾在物理相關領域拿到博士學位,

  • and that the first black woman to graduate with a PhD in an astronomy-related field

    而且天文學相關領域 第一位黑人女性博士畢業生

  • did so just one year before my birth.

    直到我出生前一年才產生。

  • As I journeyed along my path,

    在我人生的旅途上,

  • I encountered the best and worst of life at an intersection:

    最好和最壞的幾件事情, 都是在交會點遇到的:

  • the tremendous opportunity to self-define,

    包含自我定位的絕佳機會、

  • the collision of expectation and experience,

    理想和現實的碰撞、

  • the exhilaration of victorious breakthroughs

    成功獲得突破的快樂,

  • and, sometimes,

    還有,不時會遇到的,

  • the explosive pain of regeneration.

    必須重新來過的劇痛。

  • I began my college experience just after my family had fallen apart.

    我的大學生活從家庭分崩離析開始。

  • Our financial situation disintegrated

    父親離開我們的生活, 經濟狀況馬上急轉直下。

  • just after my father's departure from our lives.

    逼著母親、姊姊和我

  • This thrust my mother, my sister and I

    離開相對舒服的中產階級,

  • out of the relative comfort of middle-class life

    開始幾乎只能勉強維生的生活。

  • and into the almost constant struggle to make ends meet.

    因此,就像大約60%的 有色人種女性一樣,

  • Thus, I was one of roughly 60 percent of women of color

    我發現財務狀況是 完成教育的最大阻礙。

  • who find finances to be a major barrier to their educational goals.

    還好諾福克州立大學提供我全額獎學金,

  • Thankfully, Norfolk State University provided me with full funding,

    讓我順利取得物理學士學位。

  • and I was able to achieve my bachelor's in physics.

    畢業後,儘管懷著 成為天體物理學博士的夢想,

  • After graduation, and despite knowing that I wanted a PhD in astrophysics,

    但這夢想終究破滅。

  • I fell through the cracks.

    救了我的夢想的是一張海報,

  • It was a poster that saved my dream,

    還有一些很棒的人和課程。

  • and some really incredible people and programs.

    美國物理學會 設計了一張很漂亮的海報,

  • The American Physical Society had this beautiful poster

    鼓勵有色人種的學生成為物理學家。

  • encouraging students of color to become physicists.

    它深深打動了我, 因為上面是一個年輕黑人女孩,

  • It was striking to me because it featured a young black girl,

    大概只有12歲左右,

  • probably around 12 years old,

    孜孜不倦地看著一些物理方程式。

  • looking studiously at some physics equations.

    這讓我想起

  • I remember thinking

    那個還是小女孩的自己,

  • I was looking directly back at the little girl

    那個敢於擁有夢想的小女孩。

  • who first dared to dream this dream.

    我馬上寫信給美國物理學會,

  • I immediately wrote to the Society

    請他們把那個海報寄一張給我,

  • and requested my personal copy of the poster,

    這張海報至今仍掛在我的辦公室裡。

  • which to this day still hangs in my office.

    我在郵件裡向他們描述我的求學之路,

  • I described to them in the email my educational path,

    還有希望能透過博士學位的追尋 重新找回自我的渴望。

  • and my desire to find myself again in pursuit of the PhD.

    他們指引我參加 費斯克-范德比爾大學橋樑課程,

  • They directed me to the Fisk-Vanderbilt University Bridge Program,

    這個方案本身就是個交會點, 涵蓋兩所大學的碩士和博士學位。

  • itself an intersection of the master's and PhD degrees

    在我離開學校兩年後, 我順利進入這個課程,

  • at two institutions.

    並發現自己再度踏上 追求博士學位之路。

  • After two years out of school, they accepted me into the program,

    從費斯克大學取得碩士學位後,

  • and I found myself again on the path to the PhD.

    我到耶魯大學完成了博士學位。

  • After receiving my master's at Fisk,

    而當我覺得情況對我似乎很有利,

  • I went on to Yale to complete my PhD.

    讓我終究有機會實現兒時願望時,

  • Once I was physically occupying the space that would ultimately give way

    我以為自己會一路順遂 直到博士學位到手。

  • to my childhood aspirations,

    (笑聲)

  • I anticipated a smooth glide to the PhD.

    但很顯然地,

  • (Laughter)

    並不是每個人都能接受在他們的場子 出現這種格格不入的角色。

  • It became immediately apparent

    我被許多同學排擠,

  • that not everyone was thrilled to have that degree of liminality

    有人甚至要我 「做我來這真正該做的事」,

  • in their space.

    把所有髒盤子推到我面前要我洗乾淨。

  • I was ostracized by many of my classmates,

    我希望這只是個偶發事件,

  • one of whom went so far as to invite me to "do what I really came here to do"

    但對在科學、科技、工程和數學, 或稱STEM領域的有色人種女性來說,

  • as he pushed all the dirty dishes from our meal in front of me to clean up.

    這是她們必須一直忍受的事。

  • I wish that were an isolated occurrence,

    高達100%的有色人種女性

  • but for many women of color

    在瓊·C‧威廉斯於加州大學 哈斯汀法學院最近做的60個研究訪談中

  • in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM,

    表示自己正在遭受種族性別歧視,

  • this is something they have long endured.

    包含被誤認為清潔工。

  • One hundred percent of the 60 women of color

    這種誤認的情形,

  • interviewed in a recent study by Joan C. Williams at UC Hastings

    並沒有發生在 同樣接受訪談的白人女性身上,

  • reported facing racialized gender bias,

    總人數高達557人。

  • including being mistaken for the janitorial staff.

    儘管清潔工作本身並沒有什麼問題,

  • This mistaken identity was not reported

    而且事實上我的前幾代家人中, 許多能上大學,

  • by any of the white women interviewed for this study,

    正是因為他們的父母從事此類工作,

  • which comprised 557 women in total.

    但這種行為很明顯地就是想讓我 「記得自己的身分」。

  • While there is nothing inherently wrong with a janitorial position,

    儘管這種遭遇極度痛苦,

  • and in fact my forefathers and foremothers were able to attend college

    但真正的問題是我的外表

  • because many of their parents worked these jobs,

    可以讓任何人看到我的能力。

  • it was a clear attempt to put me in my place.

    除此之外,這也凸顯了一件事情,

  • While there was certainly the acute pain of the encounter,

    STEM領域的有色人種女性

  • the real issue is that my appearance

    所遭遇到的對待完全不同於 純粹女性或純粹有色人種。

  • can tell anyone anything about my ability.

    這是為什麼今天我想特別指出 STEM領域裡的有色人種女性,

  • Beyond that, though, it underscores

    都活在這種無法分離的身分總和裡, ,無可避免、也不會有人感到抱歉。

  • that the women of color in STEM do not experience the same set of barriers

    STEM本身就是個跨界的術語,

  • that just women or just people of color face.

    若不仔細思考這幾個學科之間的交集, 它的價值就無法凸顯。

  • That's why today I want to highlight women of color in STEM,

    科學,追求的是對實體世界的了解,

  • who are inexorably, unapologetically

    透過化學、物理、生物等各種方式,

  • living as the inseparable sum of identities.

    這些無法被建立在沒有數學的基礎上。

  • STEM itself is an intersectional term,

    工程則需要將科學與數學的基礎

  • such that its true richness cannot be appreciated

    應用到實際生活體驗。

  • without considering the liminal space between disciplines.

    科技,更是需要穩固的數學、 工程與科學基礎。

  • Science, the pursuit of understanding the physical world

    數學本身就像是 羅塞塔石碑的關鍵角色,

  • by way of chemistry, physics, biology,

    負責解碼和編碼這個世界的物理原理。

  • cannot be accomplished in the absence of mathematics.

    STEM彼此之間相輔相成、缺一不可,

  • Engineering requires the application of basic science and math

    而當STEM與其他學科結合時, 會產生令人難以想像的力量。

  • to the lived experience.

    這場談話的目的分為兩部分:

  • Technology sits firmly on the foundation of math,

    第一是告訴所有黑人、拉丁裔、 原住民、第一世界

  • engineering and science.

    或任何其他婦女或女孩,

  • Math itself serves the critical role of Rosetta Stone,

    如果你們被擱置在種族和性別的交叉路口

  • decoding and encoding the physical principles of the world.

    你必須相信自己能成為你想成為的人。

  • STEM is utterly incomplete without each individual piece.

    我個人希望你成為一位天體物理學家,

  • This is to say nothing of the enrichment that is realized

    但除此之外,你想成為什麼都行。

  • when STEM is combined with other disciplines.

    千萬千萬不要

  • The purpose for this talk is twofold:

    因為你既定的身分

  • first, to say directly to every black, Latina, indigenous, First Nation

    放棄成為理想中的自己。

  • or any other woman or girl

    緊緊握住那些夢想,

  • who finds herself resting at the blessed intersection

    讓它們帶你走向一個 連自己都無法想像的世界。

  • of race and gender,

    第二,當今大部分迫切的問題中,

  • that you can be anything you want to be.

    幾乎都能找到與STEM的交集。

  • My personal hope is that you'll become an astrophysicist,

    透過全球社會的合作,

  • but beyond that, anything you want.

    我們解決了大部分單面向的問題。

  • Do not think for one minute

    剩下的這些問題,需要仔細研究一下

  • that because you are who you are,

    學科之間的中介地帶,

  • you cannot be who you imagine yourself to be.

    才能在未來找到全面性的解決方案。

  • Hold fast to those dreams

    要解決這種跨界問題,

  • and let them carry you into a world you can't even imagine.

    有誰比畢生活在交會點的我們更合適呢?

  • Secondly, among the most pressing issues of our time,

    我們作為思想領袖和決策者,

  • most now find their intersection with STEM.

    必須從人群中踏出多元化的第一步,

  • We have as a global society solved

    建立一個更豐富、更健全的

  • most of the single-faceted issues of our time.

    兼容並蓄、機會均等的領域。

  • Those that remain require a thorough investigation

    我最欣賞的一位跨界菁英,

  • of the liminal space between disciplines

    是已故的克勞蒂亞‧亞歷山大博士,

  • to create the multifaceted solutions of tomorrow.

    一位黑人女性等離子物理學家,

  • Who better to solve these liminal problems

    她在和乳癌奮戰了10年後, 於去年七月去世。

  • than those who have faced their whole lives at the intersections.

    她是NASA專案科學家,

  • We as thought leaders and decision makers

    在NASA這方帶領羅賽塔號的任務,

  • must push past the first steps of diversity

    這項任務在今年登陸彗星後大為有名。

  • and into the richer and more robust territory

    此外還有耗資1.5億美元的 伽利略木星登陸計劃,

  • of full inclusion and equal opportunity.

    兩項非常了不起的科學成就,

  • One of my favorite examples of liminal excellence

    無論是對NASA、對美國, 還是對整個世界來說。

  • comes from the late Dr. Claudia Alexander,

    亞歷山大博士是這麼說的:

  • a black woman plasma physicist,

    「我很習慣遊走在兩個文化之間,

  • who passed away this past July after a 10-year bout with breast cancer.

    對我來說,生命的意義之一

  • She was a NASA project scientist who spearheaded the NASA side

    就是讓我們從忽略走向理解,

  • of the Rosetta mission,

    並用非比尋常的大膽探索 來完成這一切。」

  • which became famous this year for landing a rover on a comet,

    這完全展現了跨界人的力量,

  • and the 1.5 billion dollar Galileo mission to Jupiter,

    她有卓越的技術能力

  • two high-profile scientific victories

    帶領當今最雄心勃勃的太空任務,

  • for NASA, the United States and the world.

    她也非常明白自己的地位,

  • Dr. Alexander said it this way:

    無論在哪都能忠實地做自己。

  • "I'm used to walking between two cultures.

    潔西卡‧馬修斯, 體育產品SOCCKET的發明人,

  • For me, it's among the purposes of my life

    看起來像一般足球, 但它會在你踢它時產生能源。

  • to take us from states of ignorance to states of understanding

    她是這麼說的:

  • with bold exploration that you can't do every day."

    「發明的意義不只在創造新事物,

  • This shows exactly the power of a liminal person.

    還在於理解人、

  • She had the technical ability to spearhead

    理解組成這個世界的系統。」

  • some of the most ambitious space missions of our time,

    我之所以要說自己的故事、

  • and she perfectly understood her place

    還有亞歷山大博士 以及潔西卡‧馬修斯的故事,

  • of being exactly who she was in any place she was.

    因為在基礎上,這些都是跨界的故事,

  • Jessica Matthews, inventor of the SOCCKET line of sports products,

    是一些活在種族、性別和創新 交會點的生命的故事。

  • like soccer balls, that generate renewable energy as you play with them,

    儘管我不知道自己是否可以算是菁英,

  • said it this way:

    但我很榮幸地告訴各位,

  • "A major part of invention isn't just creating things,

    在我畢業時,我是第一個拿到 天體物理博士學位的黑人女性,

  • it's understanding people

    耶魯大學312年歷史上的第一個。

  • and understanding the systems that make this world."

    (掌聲)

  • The reason I tell my story

    我加入了一個小型但持續成長中的組織, 由STEM領域的有色人種女性所組成,

  • and the story of Dr. Alexander and Jessica Matthews

    我們不斷將新的觀點和想法帶入生活,

  • is because they are fundamentally intersectional stories,

    來解決一些當今最迫切的問題,

  • the stories of lives lived at the nexus of race, gender and innovation.

    例如教育的不平等、

  • Despite implicit and explicit questions of my right to be in an elite space,

    警察濫用職權、愛滋病、 氣候變遷、基因改造、

  • I'm proud to report that when I graduated,

    人工智慧和火星探索。

  • I was the first black woman to earn a PhD in astrophysics

    可以說,想像得到的我們都討論過了。

  • in Yale's then 312-year history.

    STEM領域的有色人種女性,

  • (Applause)

    在當今最艱鉅、也最令人振奮的 社會技術議題上,佔有一席之地。

  • I am now part of a small but growing cadre of women of color in STEM

    因此,我們處於獨特的地位,

  • who are poised to bring new perspectives and new ideas to life

    能在推動這種討論中有所貢獻,

  • on the most pressing issues of our time:

    利用我們更廣泛、更多元的生活經驗。

  • things like educational inequities,

    這樣的前景可以 擴展到更多跨界人身上,

  • police brutality, HIV/AIDS, climate change, genetic editing,

    用他們的經驗,無論好的或不好的,

  • artificial intelligence and Mars exploration.

    來讓這些討論更加豐富,

  • This is to say nothing of the things we haven't even thought of yet.

    甚至勝過那些握有最多資源、 但是同質的團體。

  • Women of color in STEM occupy some of the toughest

    這不是因為渴望融入某個群體 而產生的要求,

  • and most exciting sociotechnological issues of our time.

    而是一種提醒:

  • Thus, we are uniquely positioned

    如果我們想為全人類帶來最好的結果,

  • to contribute to and drive these conversations

    就一定要通力合作, 結合那些活在中介地帶、

  • in ways that are more inclusive of a wider variety of lived experience.

    用不同方式生活、有著不同體驗、

  • This outlook can be expanded to the many intersectional people

    受到完全不同的衝擊的人。

  • whose experiences, positive and negative,

    簡單來說,如果我們不能 全面考量人性的影響,

  • enrich the conversations in ways that outmatch

    就無法體現人類全體的智慧。

  • even the best-resourced homogenous groups.

    謝謝各位。

  • This is not a request born out of a desire to fit in.

  • It's a reminder that we cannot get to the best possible outcomes

  • for the totality of humanity

  • without precisely this collaboration,

  • this bringing together of the liminal,

  • the differently lived, distinctly experienced

  • and disparately impacted.

  • Simply put, we cannot be the most excellent expression

  • of our collective genius

  • without the full measure of humanity brought to bear.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Great things happen at intersections.

偉大的事往往都發生在交會點。

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 交會點 博士 女性 有色 人種

未被開發的天才,可能會改變科學的發展|傑迪達-艾勒|TED演講 (The Untapped Genius That Could Change Science for the Better | Jedidah Isler | TED Talks)

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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