字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 AI The concept of AI, it's something that I think we're all familiar with Thanks to numerous amount of TV shows, movies and novels For me, personally I find this to be sort of a tired concept at this point. You've just seen it so many times in sci-fi. And especially the idea that AI is going to take over. We've seen in it "Terminator" But I've also seen this in some of my favorite work of fiction like "A Space Odyssey" "Open the pod bay doors, HAL." "I'm sorry Dave. I'm afraid I can't do that." Some of my favorite novels like, "I Have No Mouth And I Must Scream". Don't get me wrong. I find it a very interesting concept, even though it's overused, but when Stephen Hawking, in 2014 came out and said, "But I think the development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race," My mind sort of went "Pfft, Stephen Hawkins, what do you know about anything? Okay?" "Do you watch Rick and Morty? Because, I do, and I think I have a little better grasp of the universe concept ideas, like AI. Thank you very much, Stephen. But, uh, stick to your science stuff, all right?" The concept of AI taking over... It feels so far off, because it seems so... obscure. The way, it's portrayed in Hollywood movies or in the work of fiction. But in reality, it's actually... I think, or from what I've learned, an actual threat. The idea that Johnny Depp could come back and kill us all, is not as far away as we think. *scenes from the movie "Transcendence"* But how did we come to this conclusion? I'm going to try to explain, okay? But I truly don't know shit what I'm talking about, so please... If we take it back a couple steps, a lot of couple steps, uh... There's this game of tic-tac-toe, that I found. That, no matter what input you make, the computer will never let you win. It's kind of fucking annoying. It's programmed with algorithms, So that, no matter what move I make, it knows exactly what move to counter it to make sure that I can't win, no matter what. Not a big deal, not a big deal. Okay? In 1958, A.H. Simon and Allen Newell, AI experts... But, what if you take a more complex game than tic-tac-toe? Say... chess for example? There's a lot more possible outcomes in that game. Foresaw, that within ten years, a digital computer will beat the world's best chess champion. Now, it didn't take ten years. Not until 1997. You may have heard of this. It was quite the big deal at the time. Deep Blue became the first computer that was able to beat the reigning chess champion at the time, Kasparov. "But it's clear that the computer will reliably do what he himself would do, and he recognizes, that he has already lost. On Deep Blue's 19th move, the champion resigns." Now, it still doesn't seem like that big of a deal, and basically the way Deep Blue worked was, that it would scan every single possible outcome it could make, about 200,000 per second. And it would make the best decision based on what he could find through this method of scanning. At this point, I'm still like Stephen Hawking ... I've seen the videos of the machines falling over, okay? I think we have nothing to worry about. But here's where I think it gets interesting. In March 15, 2016, The champion of the Chinese board game "go", was beaten by an AI. "Against AlphaGo, the artificial intelligence, designed by Google's DeepMind. It was a resounding loss. They had won only one game. 'AlphaGo wins! We landed it on the moon. So proud of the team! Respect to the amazing Lee Sedol too.' " Now, the reason why this is such a big deal is that in chess, you only have so many options. But in go, there are so many different moves that you can make, there are more possible moves that you can make than there are atoms in the universe and there's just no way that you're going to be able to compute that amount of options, to figure out what's the best move to make. So how did they make this? It may not seem like that big of a deal, either? But it's really cool. Okay? It's really cool. It basically uses deep reinforcement learning. Which is similar to how we learn as humans. Through trial and error, reward and punishment, and raw inputs. Say, if we see something ourselves, the computer figure learns itself, how to become good at the game. Not too long ago, there was a viral video of- From SethBling, that uses method to teach a computer to play Mario. And it became really fucking good at it. REALLY good at it. Look at that. Basically, it uses neural networks to learn how to play the game. Which is similar to how we think as human beings And with enough computing power, you could simulate a human brain, in this way. But we're not there yet. But it wasn't good from the beginning, it had to learn how to get good. GIT GUD. In the beginning, it doesn't even know where it has to go or what the option is or what Mario is. But eventually, it figures out it needs to move right, but through different generations and learning and from trial and error and adapting from these mistakes, It eventually, becomes better and better. And the similar method was used for the AlphaGo. Program where it would train against itself. Slowly becoming better and better and better and eventually a master at the game. There's a super cool video, about a robot that doesn't know that it has limbs But it teaches itself how to walk, despite of this. So it's just doing random movements. It sort of figures out it has four limbs. But it doesn't know where those limbs on its body is attached. And by trial and error, it eventually figures out where its limbs are positioned. And eventually, it can very graciously move across. That's cool. Self learning AI is really fucking cool. And there's a lot of advantages that you can do from this. Using it in design, for example. "This is a 3D printed cabin partition that's been designed by a computer. It's stronger than the original yet half the weight. And it'll be flying in the Airbus A320, later this year. So, computers can now generate, they can come up with their own solutions to our well-defined problems." So then, with Elon Musk as well as Stephen Hawking saying AI could become a problem in the future, that idea starts to sort of make more sense to me knowing this is how it works. "I think we should be very careful about artificial intelligence. If I would guess at what our biggest existential threat is, it's probably that." Elon Musk as well as Bill Gates chiming in as well, with the same idea. But the basic point that Elon has made... we have a general purpose learning the algorithm that evolution has endowed us with. And it's running in an extremely slow computer. Very limited memory size, ability to send data to other computers we have to use this funny mouth thing here... ...whenever we build a new one it starts over, it doesn't know how to walk. So believe me, as soon as this algorithm- taking experience and turning it into knowledge- Which is so amazing and which we have not done in software. As soon as you do that, it's not clear you'll even know when you're just at the human level. You'll be at the superhuman level almost as soon as that algorithm is implanted, in silicon. Bill basically here, compares how our brains as a computer, our method of evolving is very inefficient with- comparing it to how AI would be evolving and exponentially growing. And knowing, keeping that in mind, humans are inferior. Without a doubt. That being said, not everyone is on board with this idea that AI is going to take over or that it's a problem for the future. "What are your thoughts on AI and how it could affect the world? You know, I have pretty strong opinions on this. I'm really optimistic. Well, I'm an optimistic person in general. I think you can build things and the world gets better, but with AI especially, I'm really optimistic. And I think that people who are naysayers and kind of try to drum up these doomsday scenarios are... I just I don't understand it. I think it's really negative and in some ways, I actually think it's pretty irresponsible." Elon Musk responding on Twitter: "I've talked to Mark about this. His understanding of the subject is limited." I love Mark Zuckerberg, obviously. I love the 'zucc' more than anyone. It's kind of hard to take him seriously on the subject. Especially, since he clearly is trying to make an AI himself. "Good morning Mark. It's Saturday. So you only have five meetings. Room temperature is set to a cool, 68 degrees." I guess what Mark is saying is, AI can do a lot for us as humans, it can benefit us greatly. And I think what Elon points out is that, there are dangers involved with the development on this and we need to be careful. How can we protect ourselves from ourselves? "We are an intelligent adversary. We can anticipate threats and plan around them. But, so could an super intelligent agent. How confident could it be that the AI couldn't find a bug. Like, given that merely human hackers find bugs all the time. I'd say, probably not very confident. Like, disconnect the Internet cable to create an air gap. But again, like merely human hackers routinely transgress air gaps, using social engineering. Like right now, as I speak, I'm sure there is some employee out there somewhere, who is being talked into handing out her account details by somebody claiming to be from the IT Department. We should not be confident in our ability to keep a super intelligent genie locked up in its bottle forever. I'm actually fairly optimistic that this problem can be solved. Like, we wouldn't have to try to write down the long list of everything we care about. Or worse yet, spell it out in some computer language, like C++ or Python like that. That would be a task beyond hopeless. Instead, we would create an AI, that uses these intelligence to learn what we value. And his motivation system is constructed in such a way, that it is motivated to pursue our values or, to perform actions that it predicts that we would have approved of." Computers smarter than human beings is inevitable, if you keep in mind how short we have even had technology and our presence in the universe. Now, whether AI will be something good or destroy us all in the future, that's just for us to find out. Meanwhile, you're going to have to excuse me because I have some Rick and Morty episodes to catch up on. I hope this video was educational. And I hope, I didn't say any wrong things. Because I sure am no expert! Thank you for leaving a like on this video, if you enjoyed. I really appreciate it. Make sure to 'zuccscribe'. And as always, squad fam out.