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  • There are those who say that kids these days don't

    有些人會說現在的小孩

  • read books.

    都不閱讀了。

  • But that's just not true.

    但這不是真的。

  • Millennials and whatever we're calling the generation

    千禧世代或其他稱呼千禧年後的名詞

  • after millennials are actually more well-read on average

    其實每年平均來說

  • than earlier generations and also read more books per year.

    閱讀量比早期的世代還要多。

  • And believe it or not, we have the likes

    信不信由你,這要歸功於

  • of the "Hunger Games" and "Harry Potter" and even "Twilight"

    《飢餓遊戲》、《哈利波特》甚至於《暮光之城》

  • to thank for that.

    的貢獻。

  • So thanks, YA.

    所以謝啦,青少年文學。

  • Young adult is a term whose meaning has varied wildly

    青少年文學是個近年來變化廣大的

  • over the years.

    用詞。

  • It can apply to coming of age tragedies

    它適用於成年後的悲劇作品、

  • or serialized adventures of babysitters

    保母冒險記的連載作品或

  • or insert really dated twilight joke here.

    刊登非常老套的暮光之城玩笑。

  • But where did this young adult genre come from?

    但這種青少年文學體裁是從哪裡來的?

  • And why did it get so big?

    還有它怎麼變得如此風行的?

  • While narratives for children have

    雖然為兒童做敘述

  • existed since people started telling stories,

    早在人們說故事時就存在了,

  • a designated literary market for that mysterious, magical period

    但那被稱為青少年時期,神秘又奇幻的年紀

  • of time known as teenagerdom is somewhat new.

    所指定的文學市場卻是個新興市場。

  • And to be fair, teenagers weren't

    平心而論,青少年在二次世界大戰前

  • a designated demographic in most respects

    並不在大多數方面的

  • until around World War II, due in part to advances

    劃分人口統計資料中,部分是因為心理學的

  • in psychology, sociological changes,

    進步和社會學的改變,

  • like the abolishment of child labor,

    就像童工的廢止一樣,

  • and even technological advances like the car

    甚至還有科技的進步,例如車子讓

  • making it easy to sneak out of your parents' house.

    我們更容易從父母的房子中溜出來。

  • But suddenly, teens are here.

    但突然間,青少年出現了。

  • And with them come a plethora of shiny,

    伴隨而來的是大量閃閃發光、

  • new things marketed to them, clothes, music, films,

    全新事物的市場瞄準他們,衣服、音樂、電影、

  • radio programs, and of course, the novel.

    廣播頻道,當然還有小說。

  • In 1942, Maureen Daly, herself only 17 years old,

    1942 年,莫琳戴利只有十七歲,

  • publishes the "Seventeenth Summer,"

    她出版了《第十七個夏季》,

  • which some have called the first young adult novel.

    有些人稱之為第一本青少年小說。

  • "Seventeenth Summer" featured plot points and themes

    《第十七個夏季》的情節和主題特色

  • particularly to teens, under age drinking, driving, dating,

    主要在於青少年未成年飲酒、開車、約會,

  • and the, of course, eternally popular angst.

    當然還包括永不退流行的焦慮。

  • But it wasn't the great literary critics

    但並非當時代偉大的文學評論家

  • of the time who defined this new category of fiction.

    定義出這個全新的小說類別。

  • It was librarians, in particular, librarians

    而是圖書館員,更精確點說,是來自

  • from the New York Public Library.

    紐約公立圖書館的圖書館員。

  • Starting in 1906, Anne Carroll Moore built a, sort of,

    1906 年開始,安妮凱洛摩爾創建了某種

  • League of Extraordinary Librarians, women

    非凡圖書館員聯盟,是由一群

  • who were interested not only in keeping

    不只對維持住這些圖書館

  • this nascent adolescent audience in libraries

    新生的青少年讀者有興趣的女人組成,

  • but also finding out what made them tick.

    她們也發現是什麼激發了他們的興趣。

  • Another young librarian brought on by more, Mabel Williams

    另一名圖書館員發現更多,梅玻威廉斯

  • began working with her peers to find books

    與她的同僚開始發現

  • in both the children's and adult sections that

    介於兒童成人間的書籍可能

  • might be of interest to teens.

    引起青少年的興趣。

  • And in 1929, the first annual NYPL books

    1929 年,第一份

  • for young people list was sent to schools and libraries

    給青少年的年度紐約公共圖書館年度書單送往

  • across the country.

    全國的學校和圖書館。

  • In 1944, another NYPL librarian, Margaret Scoggin,

    1944 年,另一名紐約公共圖書館員,瑪格麗特斯科金

  • changed the name of her library journal column

    將她的圖書館期刊欄目名稱從

  • from "Books for Older Boys and Girls"

    「年長少年少女書籍」改為

  • to "Books for Young Adults."

    「青少年書籍」。

  • And the genre was christened with a name

    而這個類型所被定下的名稱

  • that has lasted to this day.

    一直留存至今。

  • While the YA genre had already been laying down its roots

    雖然此時的青少年體裁早在多年前

  • for decades at this point, most YA fiction

    就根深蒂固了,大多數青少年小說

  • tended to feature the same generic plot points.

    傾向於相同類型的情節,

  • Girl dates boy.

    女孩和男孩約會。

  • Maybe they have a fight or something.

    也許他們還會吵吵架之類的。

  • But then they resolve it.

    但最後他們都會和好。

  • The end.

    劇終。

  • But in the 60s, young people started

    但在六零年代,青少年開始

  • to see more thoughtful contemplations of what

    對作為一名青少年有了

  • it is just to be a teenager.

    更細膩的深思熟慮。

  • Hugely noteworthy from this era is

    這時期最引人注目的是

  • S.E. Hinton's, "The Outsiders," published in 1967.

    於 1967 年出版蘇珊辛頓的《局外人》。

  • At first, a novel that failed on the adult paperback market,

    最初,這本小說在成人平裝市場中失敗了,

  • the publisher noticed it was mostly being purchased by teens

    出版商注意到該書的主要買家為青少年,

  • and then re-marketed it to them.

    因此重新將市場鎖定在他們身上。

  • And YA allowed itself to explore deeper subjects,

    而青少年小說本身也發展出更深入的主題,

  • ushering in novels like "Are You There, God?

    引領出像《神啊!你在嗎?》和

  • It's Me, Margaret" and "The Chocolate War."

    《巧克力戰爭》這類小說

  • During the 80s and 90s however, YA

    然而在八零到九零年代間,

  • started skewing towards serialized fiction,

    青少年小說開始傾向於連載小說

  • or from the likes of R.L. Stine, school centric fiction

    或像 R.L.斯坦的小說,和《甜蜜谷高》跟

  • like "Sweet Valley High" and "The Baby-Sitters Club"

    《保姆俱樂部》這類的校園中心小說,

  • and genre fiction like K.A. Applegate's "Animorphs Series."

    以及 K.A.艾普格特的《動物變形人》這類的大眾文學。

  • So while young adult fiction was plenty lucrative,

    雖然青少年文學有不少營收,

  • it wasn't really respected by people outside

    卻沒有受到目標讀者群以外的人的

  • of its targeted readership.

    尊重。

  • It was low art for kids.

    這是給小孩的低等藝術。

  • KID: Yippee!

    小孩:「耶嘿!」

  • But then everything changed with a boy wizard.

    但一切隨著一名巫師男孩而改變了。

  • In 1997, publisher Bloomsbury takes a leap of faith

    1997 年,布魯姆斯伯里出版社邁出有信心的一步並

  • and publishes "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone."

    出版了《哈利波特—神秘的魔法石》。

  • In spite of being genre fiction, "Harry Potter"

    雖然是一本大眾文學,《哈利波特》

  • manages to resound not only with the YA audience,

    不只在青少年讀者中造成迴響,

  • but it also leaks into a large adult market.

    同時也滲入龐大的成年讀者市場中。

  • Harry Potter as a character also grows up

    哈利波特作為一名伴隨讀者

  • with his readers, starting out 11 years old and ending at 17.

    成長的角色,開場於 11 歲,終場於 17 歲。

  • And the tone of the series matures as well.

    系列書籍的敘述口吻也跟著變成熟。

  • So this new post "Harry Potter" YA

    因此最新出版的《哈利波特》青少年小說

  • is nearly as long and sometimes longer, sometimes way longer,

    幾乎跟成人小說一樣長,有時更長,有時長度超出許多,

  • as adult fiction and on the same reading level

    且跟商業化的成人小說

  • as commercial adult fiction.

    有相同的閱讀水平。

  • "Harry Potter" also opens the door

    《哈利波特》也為各種

  • for a wide variety of darker, genre-based YA novels that

    暗黑系列的青少年小說開啟了大門,

  • can appeal to an audience beyond teens

    這就吸引了青少年以上的讀者,

  • and possibly get optioned for a multi-million dollar movie

    且還有機會得到百萬票房電影的

  • franchises.

    經銷加盟特許權。

  • With "Twilight," for instance, came a boom

    以《暮光之城》為例,在青少年小說中的

  • in the YA subgenre of paranormal romance.

    超自然羅曼史類別中大放異彩。

  • And boy, that sure was a thing that came and went.

    各位,這些風潮總是潮起潮落。

  • "The Hunger Games" popularized the subgenre of YA dystopia.

    《飢餓遊戲》推動了反烏托邦的青少年小說。

  • And that, also, was a thing that came and went really quickly.

    而這也是一股疾速潮起潮落的風潮。

  • And now, well, genre fiction is still popular in YA.

    如今,大眾文學在青少年小說中依舊很受歡迎。

  • But the trend has cycled back to discussing

    但趨向以循環接續到討論相關的

  • relevant social issues and the world as it is.

    社會議題和世界的樣貌。

  • John Green's, "The Fault In Our Stars"

    約翰葛林的《生命中的美好缺憾》

  • was a massive hit that dealt with kids who fall

    對於青少年在戀愛時患上癌症該如何應對

  • in love while dying of cancer.

    是個巨大的衝擊。

  • And one of the most popular YA books of the last year

    而去年最受歡迎的青少年小說是

  • was Angie Thomas's, "The Hate You Give,"

    安琪湯馬斯的《致所有逝去的聲音》,

  • which was partially inspired by the Black Lives Matter

    這有部分是取材自「黑人命也是命」的

  • movement.

    維權運動。

  • And also it was really great.

    這本書非常精采。

  • By the way, you should read it.

    順帶一提,你應該去讀讀看。

  • So it's a bit reductive to be dismissive of Young Adult.

    因此要是輕視青少年小說就顯得有些狹隘了。

  • First of all, it's not just a niche genre.

    首先,這不僅是一種獨特的類型。

  • YA is remarkable for its wide appeal.

    青少年小說的廣大吸引力也是嘆為觀止的。

  • 55% of YA books purchased in 2012

    於 2012 年 55%的青少年小說是由

  • were bought by adults between 18 and 44 years old.

    18 到 44 歲的成人所購買的。

  • It's also remarkable to see the emergence of a genre

    能看到這類型小說的嶄露頭角是由莫琳戴利、

  • pioneered by women, authors like Maureen Daly, J.K.

    J.K. 羅琳和安琪湯馬斯這些作家,

  • Rowling, and Angie Thomas, and librarians

    以及圖書館員梅玻威廉斯、瑪格麗特斯科金

  • like Mabel Williams and Margaret Scoggin.

    這些女性作為先鋒也是非常了不起的。

  • Not only does YA shape younger audiences as readers,

    青少年文學不僅塑造出年輕的讀者群眾,

  • it is a genre that helps give its audience

    同時也提供了讀者一種辭典,

  • a lexicon for understanding that there

    讓他們了解還有個

  • is a complex world between childhood and adulthood.

    夾在兒童與成人間更為複雜的世界。

  • So what does your favorite YA book?

    所以你最愛的青少年小說是哪一本?

  • Are there any books you love that maybe you didn't realize

    是否有本你很熱愛的書,而也許你不知道

  • were categorized as YA?

    它其實是青少年小說?

  • Leave a comment below.

    請在下方留言。

  • "The Great American Read" is a new series

    「美國最受歡迎的小說」是個全新 PBS 電視台的

  • on PBS about why we love to read,

    紀錄片,講述關於我們熱愛閱讀的原因、

  • leading up to a nationwide vote on America's favorite novel.

    引領我們做美國最受歡迎小說的全國性投票

  • Who decides America's favorite novel, you ask?

    你覺得是由誰決定美國最受歡迎的小說呢?

  • Well, that would be you.

    當然是你。

  • So head to pbs.org/greatamericanread

    所以前往 pbs.org/greatamericanread

  • to vote on your favorite book.

    選出你最愛的小說。

  • Check the link in the description for more details.

    請點選評論區以獲得更多資訊。

There are those who say that kids these days don't

有些人會說現在的小孩

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 小說 文學 讀者 哈利波特 成人 圖書館

YA的演變:青年成人小說,解釋 (Feat. Lindsay Ellis) | It's Lit! (The Evolution of YA: Young Adult Fiction, Explained (Feat. Lindsay Ellis) | It's Lit!)

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    Vera 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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