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  • Your hands, up close, are anything but smooth.

    譯者: Melanie Xiaowen Zhang 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • With peaks and valleys, folds and rifts,

    近看之下,你的手一點也不光滑

  • there are plenty of hiding places for a virus to stick.

    充滿溝壑起伏

  • If you then touch your face, the virus can infect you.

    非常便於病毒隱藏

  • But there are two extraordinarily simple ways you can keep that from happening:

    然後病毒再透過你觸摸臉時感染

  • soap and water, and hand sanitizer.

    但有兩種非常簡單的預防方法

  • So which is better?

    肥皂和水,以及乾洗手

  • The coronavirus that causes COVID-19

    那麼哪種比較好呢?

  • is one of many viruses whose protective outer surface is made of a lipid bilayer.

    冠狀病毒

  • These lipids are pin shaped molecules whose heads are attracted to water,

    是一種由磷脂雙分子層包覆的病毒

  • and tails are repulsed by it.

    這是一種針狀的脂質分子

  • So in water-rich environments, lipids naturally form a shell like this,

    頭部親水,尾部厭水

  • with the heads outside and the tails inside.

    所以在富含水分的環境中 脂質自然形成這樣的外殼

  • Their shared reaction to water makes the lipids stick loosely together

    頭部向外,尾部向內

  • this is called the hydrophobic effect.

    它們對水的共同反應 使它們鬆散地黏合在一起

  • This outer structure helps the molecular machinery of the virus

    這叫疏水反應

  • break through cellular membranes and hijack our cells.

    這種外部結構有助於病毒分子機制

  • But it has thousands upon thousands of weak points

    打破細胞膜

  • where the right molecules could pry it apart.

    入侵我們的細胞

  • And this is where soap comes in.

    但這種包覆有許多突破口

  • A single drop of any brand of soap contains quadrillions of molecules

    特定分子能撬開

  • called amphiphiles, which resemble biological lipids.

    這也就是肥皂能進入之處

  • Their tails, which are similarly repulsed by water,

    無論任何品牌,一滴肥皂液

  • compete for space with the lipids that make up the virus's shell.

    就包含了數不盡的「兩親分子」

  • But they're just different enough to break up the regularity of the virus's membrane,

    形似生物脂質

  • making the whole thing come crashing down.

    尾部也具有疏水性

  • Those amphiphiles then form bubbles of their own around particles

    和組成病毒外膜的脂質爭奪空間

  • including the virus's RNA and proteins.

    但其結構上的差異

  • Apply water, and you'll wash that whole bubble away.

    足以打破病毒外膜分子的排列秩序

  • Hand sanitizers work less like a crowbar, and more like an earthquake.

    致使整個病毒解體

  • When you surround a coronavirus with water,

    然後這些兩親分子形成自己的泡泡

  • the hydrophobic effect gives the bonds within the membrane their strength.

    圍繞病毒的核糖核酸和蛋白質

  • That same effect also holds the big proteins

    沖水就能洗掉這些泡泡

  • that form coronavirus's spikes in place

    如果說肥皂像撬棍

  • and in the shape that enables them to infect your cells.

    乾洗手就更像地震

  • If you dry the virus out in air, it keeps its stability.

    在水溶液裡

  • But now surround it with a high concentration of an alcohol,

    冠狀病毒外膜的堅韌 得益於分子結構中的疏水共性

  • like the ethanol or isopropanol found in most hand-sanitizers.

    同樣的疏水共性

  • This makes the hydrophobic effect disappear,

    也讓形成冠狀病毒尖端的蛋白質固定

  • and gives the molecules room to move around.

    並讓它維持能夠感染你細胞的形狀

  • The overall effect is like removing all of the nails and mortar from a house

    風乾環境不會打破這種穩定性

  • and then hitting it with an earthquake.

    但在高濃度酒精環境中

  • The cell's membrane collapses and those spike proteins crumble.

    比如乾洗手裡的乙醇或者異丙醇

  • In either method, the actual process of destroying the virus

    疏水共性被打散

  • happens in just a second or two.

    使得分子有空間可以鬆動

  • But doctors recommend at least 20 seconds of hand-washing

    總體就像拆掉房子的釘子和砂漿

  • because of the intricate landscape that is your hand.

    然後由地震把房子震散

  • Soap and sanitizer need to get everywhere, including your palms, fingertips,

    細胞膜瓦解

  • the outsides of your hands, and between your fingers,

    棘蛋白散落

  • to protect you properly.

    這兩種殺毒方式

  • And when it comes to a coronavirus outbreak,

    都只需一兩秒就能起到殺毒作用

  • doctors recommend washing your hands with soap and water whenever possible.

    但醫生建議洗手至少 20 秒

  • Even though both approaches are similarly effective at killing the virus,

    因為手部表面型態複雜

  • soap and water has two benefits:

    肥皂和乾洗手必須全面覆蓋

  • first it washes away any dirt which could otherwise hide virus particles.

    包含手掌、指尖、手背,以及手指縫

  • But more importantly,

    才能充分起作用

  • it's simply easier to fully cover your hands with soap and water

    冠狀病毒疫情之下

  • for 20 seconds.

    醫生建議儘量用肥皂和水洗手

  • Of course, hand sanitizer is more convenient to use on the go.

    儘管兩種方式殺毒效果不相上下

  • In the absence of a sink, use the sanitizer as thoroughly as possible

    肥皂和水有兩個優點:

  • and rub your hands together until they're dry.

    首先,可以沖洗掉 可能潛藏病毒的塵土

  • Unfortunately, there are billions of people

    更重要的是

  • who don't have access to clean drinking water,

    肥皂和水便於讓你

  • which is a huge problem at any time but especially during an outbreak.

    充分搓洗 20 秒

  • Researchers and aid groups are working to provide solutions for these communities.

    當然,乾洗手更方便

  • One example is a device that uses salt, water, and a car battery

    當無處可洗手時

  • to make chlorinated water that kills harmful pathogens

    充分搓洗直至乾洗手蒸發乾

  • and is safe for hand-washing.

    不幸的是

  • So wherever possible, soap and water are recommended for a coronavirus,

    數十億人沒有乾淨的飲用水

  • but does that mean it's best for every viral outbreak?

    這在任何時候都是大問題 疫情時期尤甚

  • Not necessarily.

    研究員和支援團隊正致力於 給這些社區提供解決方案

  • Many common colds are caused by rhinoviruses

    其中一個裝置是用鹽、水和車載電池

  • that have a geometric protein structure called a capsid

    達到氯化消毒作用

  • instead of a lipid membrane.

    製出能用於洗手的水

  • The capsid doesn't have nearly as many weak points

    所以對於冠狀病毒 肥皂和水是條件允許下的首選

  • where soap amphiphiles can pry it apart,

    但這適用於任何病毒疫情嗎?

  • so it takes longer for soap to be effective.

    不一定

  • However some of its surface proteins are still vulnerable

    很多引起普通感冒的鼻病毒

  • to the destabilizing effect of hand sanitizer.

    外層包覆是一種名為 衣殼的幾合蛋白結構

  • In this and similar cases, hand sanitizer may be more effective,

    而不是脂質膜

  • especially if you then wash your hands to remove residual particles.

    衣殼沒有那麼多

  • The best way to know which to use for any given outbreak

    肥皂兩親分子能撬開的突破口

  • is to do what's best for all things illness-related:

    所以肥皂要搓洗很久才能起作用

  • follow the advice of accredited medical professionals.

    但乾洗手的破壞作用

Your hands, up close, are anything but smooth.

譯者: Melanie Xiaowen Zhang 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 肥皂 病毒 分子 脂質 作用

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