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  • The attachment theory argues that a strong emotional and physical bond to one primary caregiver in our first years of life is critical to our development.

    依附理論認為那強烈情感和身體聯繫在我們生命的最初幾年,和一個主要照顧者建立,對我們的發展至關重要。

  • If our bonding is strong and we are securely attached, then we feel safe to explore the world.

    如果我們的聯繫牢固,我們能感受安心,那麼我們覺得探索世界是安全的。

  • We know that there is always that safe base, which we can return to anytime.

    我們知道總有那個安全的基礎,我們可以隨時返回。

  • If our bond is weak, we feel insecurely attached.

    如果我們的關係薄弱,我們會感到不安全。

  • We are afraid to leave or explore a rather scary-looking world because we are not sure if we can return.

    我們害怕離開或探索一個相當可怕的世界,因為我們不確定能不能有安全的基地。

  • People who are securely attached are said to have greater trust, can connect to others, and as a result are more successful in life.

    安全依附的人據說有較能信任他人、可以與他人連結,因此在生活中能更成功。

  • Insecurely attached people tend to mistrust others, lack social skills, and have problems forming relationships.

    不安全的人往往不信任他人並缺乏社交技巧,對建立關係有障礙。

  • There is one type of secure attachment, and there are 3 types of insecure attachments...

    有一種類型的安全依附和三種類型的不安全依附:

  • Anxious/ ambivalent, anxious/ avoidant and anxious/ disorganized.

    焦慮/矛盾的、焦慮/迴避和焦慮/混亂。

  • In responses to distress, the first 3 react organized, while the last acts disorganized.

    在遇到麻煩時,前三者能有組織地做出反應,而後者的行為是混亂的。

  • To understand the theory better, let's look at Mister and Misses Smith, who have 4 children, Luka, Ann, Joe, and Amy.

    要更好地理解這個理論,讓我們來看看史密斯夫婦以及他們的四個孩子,盧卡、安、喬和艾米。

  • The Smiths are lovely parents, who cuddle, make frequent eye contact, speak warmly and are always there for their kids.

    史密斯夫婦是充滿愛的父母,常常擁抱,看著彼此, 溫暖地說話,並永遠為孩子著想。

  • But one day Mister Smith falls very sick and dies.

    但是有一天,史密斯先生病倒了,死了。

  • For Misses Smith life now becomes very difficult.

    對史密斯夫人而言,生活變得非常困難。

  • She spends all day working, while at the same time trying to care for her childrenan impossible task.

    她整天都在工作,同時試圖照顧她的孩子-- 是個不可能的任務。

  • At 6 years of age, Luka's brain is for the most part developed, his character strong, and his world-view shaped.

    在6歲時,盧卡的大腦大部分都已發育成熟,他的性格鮮明,世界觀也已形成。

  • The new situation does not affect him much.

    所以家裡的新狀態對他影響不大。

  • He knows there still is always mom⁠, his safe-haven.

    他知道總有媽媽,是他的避風港。

  • He feels securely attached.

    他感到安全。

  • Later, he turns into a trusting and optimistic young man.

    後來他變成了一個信任和樂觀的人年輕人。

  • His self image is positive.

    他的自我形像是正向的。

  • Ann, who is 3, has problems coping with the new lack of attention.

    3歲的安,卻不知如何面對缺乏足夠的關注。

  • To Ann, her mother now acts unpredictably.

    對於安,搞不清楚她的母親會做甚麼、會對她有甚麼反應?

  • She is anxious about their relationship, and as a result becomes clingy.

    她擔心他們的關係,結果變得黏媽媽。

  • To get her mom's attention, she has to raise her emotional state and scream.

    為了得到媽媽的注意,她必須提高她的情緒和尖叫。

  • When her mum finally reacts with a predictable response, she herself acts ambivalent and doesn't show her true feelings.

    當她媽媽最終做出可預測的反應時,她自己也很矛盾並沒有表現出她的真實感受。

  • Later in life, others think Ann is unpredictable or moody.

    在以後的生活中,其他人認為安是不可預測的或喜怒無常。

  • Her self image is less positive.

    她的自我形像不太正向。

  • Her attachment style is anxious/ ambivalent.

    她屬於焦慮矛盾依附。

  • Two-year-old Joe, spends his days with his uncle, who loves him, but thinks that a good education means being strict.

    兩歲的喬,花很多時間和他的叔叔在一起,叔叔愛他,但認為良好的教育就是嚴格。

  • If little Joe shows too much emotion or is too loud, his uncle gets angry and sometimes punitive.

    小時候如果喬表現出太多情緒或太大聲,讓叔叔生氣,喬有時候會受到懲罰。

  • This scares Joe.

    這嚇到了喬。

  • He learns that to avoid fear, he has to avoid showing his feelings⁠— also in other situations.

    他學到為避免恐懼,他必須避免表達感情 -- 在其他情況下也是如此。

  • As an adult he continues this strategy and has problems entering relationships.

    長大成年後,他也繼續如此,並且帶著問題進入關係中。

  • His image of himself is rather negative.

    他的自我形象是相當負面的。

  • His attachment is anxious/avoidant.

    他屬於焦慮迴避依附。

  • Amy, who is just one year old, gets sent to a nursery.

    艾米,只有一歲,被送到托兒所。

  • The staff there is poorly trained, overworked and often very stressed.

    那裡的工作人員訓練不足,過度勞累,往往非常緊張。

  • Some are outright abusive.

    有些會徹頭徹尾的辱罵。

  • Amy therefore becomes anxious of the very people she seeks security from.

    艾米因此變得焦慮她尋求安全能保護她的人。

  • A conflict which totally disorganizes her ideas about love and safety.

    於是,她對於愛和安全的想法,整個是完全的混亂衝突。

  • As she is experiencing fear without resolution, she tries to avoid all social situations.

    因為她在沒有解決的情況下經歷恐懼,她試圖避免所有社交場合。

  • As an adult, she thinks of herself as unworthy of love.

    作為一個成年人,她認為自己不值得愛。

  • Her self image is very negative.

    她的自我形象非常負面。

  • Her attachment is anxious/disorganized.

    她屬於焦慮混亂依附。

  • Our attachment is formed in the very first years of our lives, a time when we are too young to communicate our anxiety, and as a result can experience high levels of stress.

    我們的依附型態是在早年生活形成,那時我們還太小,不會表達自己的焦慮卻因此可能承受高度壓力。

  • Then our adrenal gland, an organ sitting on top of our kidneys, produces the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol.

    然後我們的腎上腺,也就是在我們腎臟上方的器官,產生壓力荷爾蒙腎上腺素和皮質醇。

  • The heart rate increases, the blood pressure goes up and we become alert.

    使心跳加快,血壓上升,而我們變得警覺。

  • If that happens frequently, it is called toxic stress.

    如果經常發生這種情況,則稱為"有害壓力"。

  • Toxic, because it impairs the development of a child's brain and weakens the immune system.

    稱之為有害,是因為它會損害 孩子大腦的發展,並削弱免疫系統。

  • In embryos or at a very young age, toxic stress can even switch the expressions of genes, which can affect our health many decades later.

    在胚胎中或在很小的時候,有害壓力甚至可以改變基因的表達,這可能會在幾十年後影響我們的健康。

  • By simulating a Strange Situation, we can assess an attachment style, already by the age of 1.

    透過著名的"陌生人實驗",我們就可以在一歲以前評估他們的依附風格。

  • To do this, we let the child play with their mothers for a few minutes inside a room.

    要做到這一點,我們讓孩子玩,同時他們的 媽媽在一個房間待了幾分鐘。

  • Then the child is left alone.

    然後孩子獨自一人。

  • The key moment is the child's reaction when her mother returns.

    關鍵時刻是她媽媽回來時,孩子的反應 。

  • Securely attached children first usually hug their mother...

    安全依附的孩子通常會擁抱 他們的母親,

  • Then can calm down and eventually get back to playing.

    然後可以安靜下來,最後又回去遊戲。

  • Insecurely attached children can be ambivalent and avoidant.

    不安全依附的孩子中的 焦慮矛盾和焦慮迴避。

  • Some can't stop crying or refuse to continue playing.

    則較不能停止哭泣或拒絕繼續玩耍。

  • The long term effects of our attachment in the early years, are well documented.

    我們在早年的依附關係的長期影響,已有詳細記載。

  • Using the theory, researchers at Minnesota University were able to predict already at age 3, if a child would dropout of high school with 77% accuracy.

    利用該理論,明尼蘇達大學的研究人員已經能夠在3歲時做出預測,是否一個孩子會在高中輟學,準確率為百分之77

  • In another study, undergraduates at Harvard were asked to assess how close they felt to their parents.

    在另一項研究中,哈佛大學的本科生被要求評估他們與父母的接近程度。

  • 35 years later, they were ask about their health.

    35年後,他們被問及他們的健康狀況。

  • 91% of those who said they had a rather broken relationship with their mother, were also diagnosed with health issues, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, and alcoholism.

    百分之 91 的人表示他們與母親的關係相當破碎 ,也被診斷出有健康問題,包括冠狀動脈疾病,高血壓和酗酒。

  • For those that had reported a warm relationship, the figure of poor health diagnosis was just 45%.

    對於那些報告了有溫暖關係的人,健康不良診斷的數字僅為百分之 45 。

  • But there is another reason why the early years deserve special attention.

    但還有另一個原因 為什麼早年值得特別關注。

  • They are the starting place for subsequent behaviors.

    他們是後續的起點行為。

  • A kid that feels securely attached at age 2, can make friends at kindergarten.

    一個在 2 歲時感覺安全的孩子,能夠在幼兒園結交朋友。

  • Their worldview gets reinforced with every interaction and they develop optimism.

    每次互動都會加強他們的世界觀,並發展他們的樂觀。

  • As a result they make good relationships at school, then at college, and later at work.

    結果他們在學校建立了良好的關係,然後也能延續這樣的模式,和同學互動,以及在未來工作中。

  • Highly insecurely attached children can miss out on this opportunity.

    高沒安全感又依附著父母的兒童們就錯過了這個機會。

  • Psychologist John Bowlby, a pioneer in attachment theory, allegedly said...

    據稱,依附理論先驅心理學家 John Bowlby說:

  • "What cannot be communicated to the mother, cannot be communicated to the self.".

    「無法傳達給母親的,也無法傳達給自己。」

  • In other words: those who feel insecurely attached, might not quite understand themselves.

    換句話說:那些感到沒安全感的人,可能不太了解自己。

  • To get to know who they are and what they feel, they might have to go way back in time.

    要了解他們是誰以及他們的感受,可能不得不探索早年的因素。

The attachment theory argues that a strong emotional and physical bond to one primary caregiver in our first years of life is critical to our development.

依附理論認為那強烈情感和身體聯繫在我們生命的最初幾年,和一個主要照顧者建立,對我們的發展至關重要。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 焦慮 安全 孩子 關係 理論 矛盾

依戀理論:童年如何影響人生? (The Attachment Theory: How Childhood Affects Life)

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    jeremy.wang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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