字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Today we're off to Iceland, one of my favorite countries which has been at the very leading edge of the Coronavirus testing. There is a company there called deCODE genetics, which has been looking at the Icelandic population's genomes for about 25 years. When the virus hit, they very quickly started testing just about everyone they could, not just people who were sick, but a random sampling of Icelanders. They've come up with some of the biggest insights we have on the virus. Let's hit Iceland and talk to the CEO of deCODE genetics. Do you mind just introducing yourself? My name is Kári Stefánsson, and I'm the founder and CEO of deCODE genetics. You had one of the most ambitious testing programs. You've tested I think it's about 10% of the population? 10.5% of the population. 10.5. So it sounded like at first, anybody who wanted a test could sign up and apply for one, and then you went to this more random process where you, I think you literally went through the phone book and kind of picked people. We started to test on January 31st, and the healthcare system tested for 28 days before finding the first patient. We started to screen in a population in general on March the 13th. And we have already screened about 10% of the population. We have determined that on average, during this time that we've screening, about .8% of the population has been infected by the virus, but that number has been coming down. We have sequenced the virus from every single person infected. And that first generated a very interesting picture. So if you look worldwide, there is a tremendous collections of mutations in this virus. So in this patterns of mutations, you have about a barcode, and having the sequence of the virus from everyone infected gives us an opportunity to determine the country of origin of the infection in all of the infected in Iceland. Another thing that you can do with this sequence is that you can use it to trace the infection in Iceland. You can figure out who was infected from whom. So if you were diagnosed with an infection, we can in an instant, find all of the smartphones that within one or two meters from your smartphone over the past five days, which is somewhat scary. Yeah. It sounds like considerable invasion of privacy. But when you are looking a beast like this in the eyes, you have to use whatever you have. You know because Iceland is relatively contained, because you were so aggressive with your testing and tracing, I mean you didn't go on to the same lockdown as some of the other countries. Explain to me what lockdown looked like a month ago and what it looks like now as a result of all the testing that you've been able to do and all the tracing. We really don't have a lockdown. We don't have a curfew. We have the ban on gathering more than 20 people. We are insisting that we should keep social distance of two meters. We have our elementary school are open, the childcare centers are open, the stores are open. We are taking a very mild approach to this in general but we have been very aggressive when it comes to the specific approach to those infected and been very aggressive in looking for them by screening widely. I think that the societal price for doing this approach is much less, there's a higher price than screening but that's trivial. That's absolutely trivial. I mean so this remains kinda shocking to me, I mean like, how is it possible that we still do not have widespread anti-body testing in places outside of somewhere like Iceland? I honestly, what surprises me the most is that we don't have it in the United States, because what we're doing here in Iceland is what we've learnt in America, all right? You have this unbelievably resourceful nation. You have, you know, you have the 25, 50 best universities in the world. There does seem to be will here, particularly among the universities. Is some of this just down to the fact that it's almost like a supply thing? The reagents, the. So much stuff has been tied up in China and the supply chain, or do you really think this is more of like a will-- ? I am buying my reagents from the United States. Okay. It is not a reagent thing. It is a complete lack of coordination. There seems to be a complete inability to take advantage of the fact that in an epidemic like this, everyone wants to contribute. You are so young, you may not remember, but when Dukakis was running against Ronald Regan, when Ronald Regan was running for re-election, Dukakis said in one interview that the fish rots from the head down. I think that a lot of your problems begin with your commander-in-chief. Your company's so well known for, obviously having these broad genetic models for working on disease, I mean what else has stood out to you about this particular virus? You see, I've been involved with research into a large number of diseases over the 42/3 years, and usually when we begin to study a disease, the first thing you have to figure out is what questions have yet to be answered. But when it comes to this disease, it falls into my lap and all of the questions are unanswered. If you look at people in general, women are less likely to get infected than men, and if women get infected they do not become as sick as men. About two weeks ago, there were 10 people on respirators at the National Hospital of Iceland. Nine of them were men, just one woman. Children are less likely to get infected than adults, and if they get infected, they are less likely to become sick. There is an enormous diversity in the vulnerability and it's really interesting to speculate on what is it that what causes this clinical diversity. There is something in the nature of the potential host that is very important, and I mean there are others all over the world who are trying to figure out what it is.