Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hi there.

  • I'm in the habit of saying I would like it if butterflies could talk,

  • but I've been recently reconsidering that,

  • because we already have a pretty loud world.

  • Can you imagine if butterflies were yakking out there all over the place?

  • But I would like to ask butterflies one question, which is,

  • what is the meaning of some of the stories that we humans tell about them?

  • Because remarkably, all over the world, cultures have really similar stories,

  • similar mythologies about butterflies having to do with the human soul.

  • Some cultures tell us butterflies are carrying the souls of children

  • who have died wrongly or too soon,

  • and other cultures tell us that butterflies

  • are carrying the souls of our ancestors among us.

  • This butterfly is called a Kallima inachus.

  • On one side, it looks like a beautiful butterfly,

  • and on the other side, it looks like a leaf,

  • and it folds up like a leaf to elude predators.

  • So now you see it, now you don't,

  • something hidden, something revealed.

  • Maybe we got our ideas about the human soul from this butterfly.

  • So it's possible that butterflies have some sort of outsized role

  • in our afterlife.

  • But in this life, in this world, butterflies are in really serious trouble.

  • This is a moth.

  • Moths and butterflies are related. Moths generally fly at night.

  • This is called "praedicta," because Darwin predicted that it must exist.

  • So today, more than 60 species of butterflies are endangered

  • around the world,

  • but even more than that,

  • insects are declining, declining, declining.

  • In the last 50 years,

  • we've lost nearly 50 percent of the total number of bodies of insects.

  • Now this is a disaster.

  • It could impact us in a more serious way more quickly than climate change,

  • because butterflies don't do that much in the ecosystem that we depend on,

  • but they do things for other creatures that we do depend on,

  • and that's the same story with all insect life.

  • Insect life is at the very foundation of our life-support systems.

  • We can't lose these insects.

  • Biodiversity all over the globe is in a vast decline.

  • Habitat loss, pesticides, herbicides and impacts of climate change.

  • Habitat loss is very serious,

  • and that's where we really have to get developing better,

  • more mindfully.

  • It's the worst of times,

  • we are kind of overloaded with our problems.

  • It's also the best of times -- there's incredibly good news.

  • We have exactly what we need.

  • We have exactly the platform to save nature.

  • It's called citizen science.

  • So citizen science is generally a term used to mean people without a PhD

  • contributing to scientific research.

  • Sometimes, it's called community science,

  • which gets at the communal purpose of citizen science,

  • which is to do something for our commons together.

  • It's amateur science.

  • It's being turbocharged today by vast computing power,

  • statistical analysis and the smartphone,

  • but it's an ancient practice that people have always practiced.

  • It's amateur science.

  • Professional science has its roots in amateur science.

  • Charles Darwin was a citizen scientist.

  • He had no advanced degree, and he worked only for himself.

  • So someone showed Darwin this Madagascar star orchid,

  • which as a spur that's 12 inches long,

  • and the spur is the part of a flower that the nectar is in.

  • So this person showed this to Darwin and said,

  • "This proves that evolution does not come about in a natural way.

  • This flower proves that only God can make these incredibly bizarre

  • and tricky-looking creatures on the earth,

  • because no insect could possibly pollinate this.

  • God must reproduce it."

  • And Darwin said, "No, I'm sure that there is an insect somewhere

  • with a proboscis long enough to pollinate that star orchid."

  • And he was right.

  • This is a map of the monarch butterfly.

  • So, the monarch butterfly has a different story

  • than that particular moth,

  • but reflects the same kind of fundamental idea that Darwin had

  • called coevolution,

  • and coevolution is at the heart of how nature works,

  • and it's also at the heart of what's going wrong with nature today.

  • So over time, as the moth developed a longer proboscis,

  • so the plant developed a longer spur.

  • Over millions of years,

  • the plant and the moth developed a relationship

  • whereby they both make each other's chances of existence better.

  • The monarch butterfly has a different kind of coevolutionary relationship,

  • and today, it is at the heart of what's going wrong

  • for the monarch butterfly.

  • So this is a map of the monarch butterfly migration.

  • The monarch does this amazing thing,

  • and over the course of a year,

  • it goes over the entirety of North America.

  • It does this in four or five generations.

  • The first generations only live a couple of weeks.

  • They mate, they lay eggs and they die.

  • The next generation emerges as butterflies and takes the next leg of the journey.

  • Nobody knows how they do it.

  • By the time the fifth generation comes back around -- and that one lives longer,

  • they overwinter in Mexico and California --

  • by the time it gets there,

  • those butterflies are going back to where their ancestors came from,

  • but they've never been there before,

  • and nobody that they're immediately related to has been there before either.

  • We don't know how they do it.

  • The reason we know they do this kind of migration --

  • and we still have a lot of unanswered questions

  • about the monarch migration --

  • is because of citizen science.

  • So for decades, people have made observations

  • about monarch butterflies, where and when they see them,

  • and they've contributed these observations to platforms like Journey North.

  • This is a map of some observations of butterflies given to Journey North.

  • And if you can see the dots are coded

  • by what time of year those observations were made.

  • So these massive amounts of data come into a place like Journey North,

  • and they can create a map of this time of over a course of a year

  • of where monarchs go.

  • Also because of citizen science,

  • we understand that monarch butterfly numbers are going down, down, down.

  • So in the 1980s, the overwintering butterflies here in California,

  • there were four million counted.

  • Last year, 30,000.

  • (Audience gasps)

  • Four million to 30,000 since the 1980s.

  • The monarchs on the east coast are doing a little better,

  • but they're also going down.

  • OK, so what are we going to do about it?

  • Well, very organically, nobody really asking anybody to do it,

  • people all over the continent are supporting monarch butterflies.

  • The heart of the problem for monarchs is milkweed.

  • It's another coevolutionary relationship, and here's the story.

  • Milkweed is toxic.

  • It has a poison in it that it evolved to deter other insects from eating it,

  • but the monarch developed a different kind of relationship,

  • a different strategy with the milkweed.

  • Not only does it tolerate the toxin,

  • the monarch actually sequesters the toxin in its body,

  • thus becoming poisonous to its predators.

  • Monarch butterflies will only lay their eggs on milkweed,

  • and monarch caterpillars will only eat milkweed,

  • because they need that toxin to actually create what they are as a species.

  • So people are planting milkweed all over the country

  • where we have lost milkweed due to habitat destruction,

  • pesticide use, herbicide use and climate change impacts.

  • You can create a lot of butterfly habitat and pollinator habitat on a windowsill.

  • You go to a native nursery in your area

  • and find out what's native to where you live,

  • and you will bring beautiful things to yourself.

  • Now, citizen science can do even more than rescue monarch butterflies.

  • It has the capacity to scale

  • to the level necessary that we need to mobilize to save nature.

  • And this is an example.

  • It's called City Nature Challenge,

  • and City Nature Challenge is a project of the California Academy of Sciences

  • and the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History.

  • So for four years, City Nature Challenge has enjoined cities all over the globe

  • to participate in counting up biodiversity in their cities.

  • We're up to, like, a million observations of biodiversity

  • collected by people around the globe this past April.

  • The winner this year was South Africa, much to the chagrin of San Francisco.

  • (Laughter)

  • Look at them, they have more biodiversity than we do.

  • It's kind of an interesting thing, what is revealed when you start seeing

  • what are the natural resources where you live,

  • because as we go forward, you want to live where there's more biodiversity.

  • And by the way, citizen science is a very good tool for social justice

  • and environmental justice goals, for helping reach them.

  • You need to have data and you need to show a picture,

  • you need to point to a cause

  • and then you need to have the surgical strike

  • to help support whatever that problem is.

  • So City Nature Challenge, I think, should get a commendation from the UN.

  • Has there ever been a global effort on behalf of nature

  • undertaken in this coordinated manner?

  • It's amazing, it's fantastic

  • and it's really a pretty grassroots thing,

  • and we get very interesting information about butterflies and other creatures

  • when we do these bioblitzes.

  • City Nature Challenge basically works with a tool called iNaturalist,

  • and iNaturalist is your entry drug to citizen science. (Laughs)

  • I suggest signing up for it on a laptop or on a desktop,

  • and then you put the app on your phone.

  • With iNaturalist, you take a picture of a bird, a bug, a snake, anything,

  • and an artificial intelligence function and an expert vetting system

  • works to verify that observation.

  • The app gives the observation the date, the time, the latitude and the longitude,

  • geolocates that observation.

  • That's the data, that's the science of citizen science.

  • And then that data is shared,

  • and that sharing, that is the soul of citizen science.

  • When we share data,

  • we can see much bigger pictures of what's going on.

  • There's no way to see that whole monarch migration

  • without sharing data that's been collected over decades,

  • seeing the heart and soul of how nature works

  • through citizen science.

  • This is a Xerces blue butterfly,

  • which went extinct when it lost its habitat in Golden Gate Park.

  • It had a coevolutionary relationship with an ant, and that's another story.

  • (Laughter)

  • I'll end by asking you,

  • please participate in citizen science in some way, shape or form.

  • It is an amazingly positive thing.

  • It takes an army of people to make it really work.

  • And I'll just add that I think butterflies

  • probably really do have enough on their plate

  • without carrying around human souls.

  • (Laughter)

  • But there's a lot we don't know, right?

  • And what about all those stories? What are those stories telling us?

  • Maybe we coevolved our souls with butterflies?

  • Certainly, we are connected to butterflies in deeper ways than we currently know,

  • and the mystery of the butterfly will never be revealed

  • if we don't save them.

  • So, please join me in helping to save nature now.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Hi there.

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級

拯救帝王蝶和地球的方法|瑪麗-埃倫-漢尼拔 (How you can help save the monarch butterfly -- and the planet | Mary Ellen Hannibal)

  • 2 0
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字