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  • With life getting more demanding and hectic all the time, it seems there's only one way to cope - multitasking!

    隨著生活日漸艱鉅和忙碌,似乎只有一個方式可以解決——一心多用!

  • Gurus and life hackers make a living telling us how to get better at it.

    印度教宗師和生活駭客以告訴我們該如何更好地面對生活維生。

  • But can we actually multitask?

    但我們真的能一心多用嗎?

  • The term was first used in the '60s, to describe computer performance.

    multitask 這個詞首次在 1960 年代出現,用來形容電腦的性能。

  • The human brain, though, is not a computer and human attention is a very limited resource.

    但是人腦並非電腦,人類的注意力是有限的。

  • Some psychologists model visual attention as being like a spotlight.

    許多心理學家用模型展示,發現視覺注意力就像是一個聚光燈。

  • It can only be shone in one direction at any one time.

    一次只能把光投往一個方向。

  • Our primary focus - what we're paying most attention to - is like the brightly lit area in the centre of the beam.

    我們主要的焦點——最關心的事物,就像是光束中心照亮的區域。

  • It can also be understood as being like a zoom lens - we can choose to narrow our focus to concentrate in detail, or widen it, to be aware of more things simultaneously.

    也可以理解成變焦鏡頭,我們可以選擇縮小焦點,專注在細節上,或是放寬焦點,同時注意更多事情。

  • But we can't be zoomed in and out at the same time.

    但是我們無法同時放大和縮小。

  • Even though we're constantly receiving a huge amount of information from our senses, it's only possible for a small amount to make it through to conscious awareness.

    儘管我們不斷的從感官中接收龐大的訊息,只有一小部份的訊息可以變成自覺意識。

  • Watch the next section very carefully, and pay particular attention to how many balls bounce in the circle.

    仔細地看以下的畫面,特別注意圓圈中有幾顆球在跳。

  • How many can you count?

    你數了幾顆球?

  • Seven, right?

    7 顆,對嗎?

  • But did you also notice that little dinosaur?

    但你有注意到畫面中有一隻小恐龍嗎?

  • What about the changing shape of the circle?

    有注意到圓圈的形狀改變嗎?

  • Or the smiley face on one of the balls?

    或是其中一顆球上的笑臉?

  • This shows just how powerful focused attention is.

    這顯示了專注力有多強大。

  • Being able to filter out irrelevant detail is an amazingly useful tool, but it means we can miss things that are right under our noses - an effect known as inattention blindness.

    可以過濾掉不相關的細節很驚人且有用,但也代表我們可能錯過眼前的事物,這個現象稱作「不注意視盲」。

  • You can see this very clearly in the famous Invisible Gorilla experiment.

    你可以在著名的「看不見得猩猩實驗」中,清楚地看見這個例子。

  • When asked to concentrate exclusively on how often basketball players in white pass the ball, most people completely miss the gorilla walking across the screen and beating his chest.

    當被要求只專注在穿著白衣的籃球選手,注意他們傳球頻率時,大多數人徹底忽略穿越螢幕並搥胸的猩猩。

  • We just don't have the capacity to process everything at once.

    我們沒有能力一次處理所有事。

  • This is a particular problem when we try to multitask.

    這也是在我們試著一心多用時的問題。

  • We can switch attention from one task to another and back again.

    我們可以在任務之間切換注意力。

  • But when attention is overloaded, we miss things, and the result is nearly always that we perform tasks less well than we would doing them one at a time.

    但當注意力超載時我們會錯過事物,與一次做一件事時相比,我們一心多用的結果通常是表現得不太好。

  • It's only truly possible to do two things at once if they require different sets of cognitive resources.

    只有當認知的來源不同時,才可能同時做兩件事。

  • For example, it's totally possible to read a book and listen to music at the same time.

    舉例來說,邊讀書邊聽音樂是絕對可行的。

  • Which would suggest that driving while talking on the phone is not a problem, as long as it's a hands-free phone.

    這暗示著只要使用免持手機,邊開車邊講電話也不成問題。

  • It's not that simple though.

    但這件事沒那麼容易。

  • Research has shown that while talking on the phone, we have a tendency to create mental images, and this uses the same visual resources needed for driving.

    研究顯示,在講電話時我們易於製造心理影像,而這與開車時所使用的視覺資源相同。

  • And if visual resources become too stretched, it's perfectly possible for a driver to look directly at a hazard but, just like with that little dinosaur, fail to see it.

    但如果視覺資源延伸得太長,駕駛極有可能直接注視著危險卻不知道,跟看不到小恐龍是一樣的道理。

  • Not everything will make it through to conscious awareness.

    不是所有事物都會成為自覺意識。

  • So multitasking makes us at best, inefficient, and at worst, downright dangerous.

    所以一心多用說好聽點是讓我們沒有效率,往難聽點是十分危險的。

  • If you're feeling like you should be doing 17 things at once, remember, that's just not the way your brain is wired.

    如果你覺得你一次應該做 17 件事情,記住,我們的大腦不是以這樣的方式連結。

  • Thanks for watching.

    感謝收看。

  • Don't forget to subscribe and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.

    記得訂閱頻道並按下小鈴鐺接收最新的影片消息。

  • See you again soon!

    再見!

With life getting more demanding and hectic all the time, it seems there's only one way to cope - multitasking!

隨著生活日漸艱鉅和忙碌,似乎只有一個方式可以解決——一心多用!

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總愛一心多用?一心多用到底可不可行? (What Multitasking Does To Your Brain | BBC Ideas)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 10 日
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