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  • Hello, everybody.

  • Welcome to this English course.

  • In today's video, I'm going to tell you about nouns.

  • Because in English, nouns are very important.

  • They are the basic element of a sentence.

  • So if you want to speak English, you need to know about the different kinds

  • of nouns.

  • And I'm going to try and teach you as well as I can.

  • Let's get started!

  • Ok, so let's start with concrete nouns.

  • Now in English, concrete nouns are people places or things,

  • including animals.

  • That you can see, that you can smell, or taste, or hear, or touch.

  • So you can basically use your five senses.

  • Let me give you a few examples.

  • If we talk about people, you could say, a man

  • or a teacher, or me, Fanny.

  • Or Mr. Smith.

  • If we talk about places, you could say,

  • a house, a school.

  • You could name a city like London.

  • Very nice city.

  • Or a beach.

  • And if you talk about things, you could say a shoe,

  • you could say a marker, you could talk about a dog

  • or food like a pizza.

  • These are concrete nouns....ok.

  • Now let's move on to abstract nouns.

  • So abstract nouns, unlike concrete nouns, are ideas, concepts, emotions.

  • And you can't see an idea.

  • You can't smell a concept.

  • You can't taste an emotion.

  • Or hear it.

  • Or touch it.

  • So they are nouns.

  • They are things that exist, but you cannot see them, or taste them.

  • You can't use your five sense.

  • To give you a few examples, we could talk about love,

  • or time, or religion,

  • rules.

  • These are all words that represent ideas, concepts... okay

  • They're abstract nouns in English.

  • Now, let's get into more detail about nouns.

  • Let's now see the difference between common nouns

  • and proper nouns which are very important in English.

  • So common nouns and proper nouns refer to people, places, things, ideas.

  • Let's see a few examples.

  • We could talk about people for example.

  • A woman.

  • That's a common noun.

  • But if we talk about a specific woman, for example, me, Fanny.

  • That becomes a proper noun with a capital 'F'.

  • because, and you should know this, proper nouns are always capitalized.

  • You could talk about places.

  • A city.

  • That's a common noun.

  • But then you can name a specific city.

  • Let's take a great city, London, of course.

  • With a capital 'L'.

  • Remember proper nouns - always capitalized.

  • We can talk about things for example.

  • An animal.

  • Let's take a dog.

  • A dog.

  • That's a common noun.

  • But if we take a specific dog, like Snoopy - capital 'S',

  • that's the proper noun.

  • If we talk about things again, but for example, a car,

  • that's a common noun.

  • But if we name the brand, the specific brand of the car like Volvo,

  • that's a proper noun.

  • And it takes a capital 'V'.

  • And finally, and we can say, a team - common noun.

  • But if we name a specific team, for example, the best football team, Manchester United,

  • then that's a proper noun and it's capitalized.

  • Now mind you, 'team', is a special word because it's called

  • a collective noun in English because it refers to a group of people.

  • So collective nouns can be used as singular nouns or plural nouns.

  • But we will talk about this again later.

  • So now that we know a lot about nouns in English, Let's practice finding nouns in a sentence.

  • Okay, first, In my class at Oxford University, I have many

  • friends.

  • My best friend is Jan.

  • I have a lot of love for her.

  • Jan has a cute dog.

  • Its name is Juju.

  • What are the nouns in these sentences?

  • If we take the first sentence, In my class at Oxford University, I have many

  • friends.

  • We have, class, and friends.

  • These are common nouns.

  • We also have a proper noun, Oxford University.

  • We know it's a proper noun because it's capitalized.

  • The second sentence is, My best friend is Jen.

  • Now in this sentence, the noun is, friend - common noun.

  • And there's also the word, Jen, is also a noun but a proper noun.

  • As you can see it's capitalized.

  • Then, I have a lot of love for her.

  • What noun can you see?

  • Of course, 'love'.

  • Remember the abstract noun we talked about a few minutes ago.

  • And finally, Jan has a cute dog.

  • Its name is Juju.

  • What nouns can we find?

  • We can see, 'Jen', again - proper noun.

  • 'Dog' - common noun.

  • But also, 'name', and 'Juju'.

  • 'Name's' a common noun.

  • 'Juju' is the proper noun.

  • It's capitalized.

  • As you probably know, I haven't mentioned, 'I', or 'her', or 'its'.

  • They are also nouns, but they are pronouns and

  • they're considered a different category in English.

  • We will talk about them in another video . Great job guys!

  • Thank you for watching my video.

  • I hope you now have a better understanding of nouns in English.

  • Please keep practicing.

  • Practice makes perfect.

  • I'm sure you will very soon be able to recognize nouns in a sentence.

  • Please make sure to watch my next video as I keep on talking about nouns.

  • See you.

  • Thank you for watching my video guys.

  • If you've liked this video, please click like, subscribe to our channel, show us

  • your support, put your comments below and share

  • this video.

  • Thank you.

  • Hello guys!

  • And welcome to this English course on nouns.

  • In today's video, we're going to talk about singular and plural nouns.

  • When you speak English, it's very important to know the difference between a singular

  • noun and a plural noun.

  • Ok?

  • So I will explain to you the different rules.

  • And we will practice together.

  • Let's get started.

  • Ok guys, the first you need to know is that a singular noun means one.

  • So, for example, I can say, 'cat'.

  • 'a cat' 'one cat'

  • 'school' 'a school'

  • 'one school' 'team'

  • Now don't forget, 'team' is a collective noun.

  • It's a group of people, but still, it's a singular noun.

  • We talk about 'a team', or 'one team.

  • 'lady' 'monkey'

  • 'tomato' 'a tomato'

  • 'one tomato' Or 'piano'.

  • Now, if we talk about plural nouns, it means more than one.

  • So for example, two, three, four, or many.

  • If we take our words again, 'a cat' becomes 'cats'.

  • 'two cats' 'three cats'

  • 'many cats' 'school'' becomes 'schools'.

  • 'team' becomes 'teams'.

  • Ok, so you just add an 's'.

  • Now 'lady' becomes 'ladies.

  • 'monkey' becomes 'monkeys'.

  • But, two different rules.

  • As you can see, 'lady' is consonant + 'y'.

  • Now when you have consonant + 'y', in an English word, the plural will be 'ies'.

  • 'lady' 'ladies'

  • But when you have vowel + 'y' like 'monkey', it just becomes 'monkeys'.

  • You simply add an 's'.

  • Ok, 'monkey' becomes 'monkeys'.

  • 'tomato' becomes 'tomatoes'.

  • 'piano' 'pianos' Again, two different rules.

  • Now 'tomato' becomes 'tomatoes'.

  • You add 'es'.

  • And with most words ending in 'o', so consonant + 'o', you will add 'es'.

  • But sometimes, you will only add 's'.

  • Like 'piano', 'pianos'.

  • There is no particular rule for this.

  • You just need to know the words that only end with an 's'.

  • Ok, let's move on to some pronunciation now.

  • So, when it comes to pronunciation, we have three different sounds.

  • The first sound is /s/.

  • The second sound is /z/.

  • And the third sounds is /Iz/.

  • So let's review some words together and be really careful, what sound do you hear?

  • 'cats' 'cats'

  • What can you hear?

  • /s/ Can you repeat after me.

  • 'cats' 'cats'

  • The second word is 'schools'.

  • 'schools' What sound can you hear?

  • Of course, /z/.

  • Repeat after me.

  • 'schools' 'schools'

  • The third words is 'teams'.

  • What sound can you hear?

  • Again, /z/.

  • Repeat after me.

  • 'teams' 'teams'

  • Then we have 'ladies'.

  • 'ladies' /z/

  • Repeat after me.

  • 'ladies' 'ladies'

  • Then 'monkeys'.

  • /z/ again.

  • Repeat after me.

  • 'monkeys'.

  • 'monkeys' Then we have 'tomatoes'.

  • Again, it's the /z/ sound.

  • 'tomatoes' 'tomatoes'

  • And finally, 'pianos'.

  • /z/ 'pianos'

  • 'pianos' Let's move on to other rules now.

  • Ok guys, let's now talk about nouns that end in 's', 'sh', 'x', 'ch',

  • or 'z'.

  • Now to make the plural form of these nouns, you will add 'es'.

  • And the sound will be /Iz/.

  • Let's review some words together.

  • 'bus' becomes 'buses'.

  • 'bush' 'bushes' 'fox' 'foxes'

  • 'beach' 'beaches' 'quiz' 'quizzes'

  • Can you repeat after me?

  • 'buses' 'buses' 'bushes' 'bushes'

  • 'foxes' 'foxes' 'beaches' 'beaches'

  • 'quizzes' 'quizzes' Let's move on.

  • Ok, guys.

  • Moving on to nouns that end in 'f' or 'fe'.

  • For example, 'roof' becomes 'roofs'.

  • 'safe' 'safes' So you simply add an 's'.

  • Then we have 'leaf' that becomes 'leaves'.

  • Wait a minute.

  • What happened?

  • Well, ya, sometimes in English, a word ending in 'f' becomes a word ending in 'ves'

  • in plural.

  • That's not a rule.

  • But some words end in 'ves', you just have to learn them I'm afraid.

  • Another word, 'wife'.

  • And again, 'ves'.

  • 'wives' 'shelf' 'shelves'

  • Again, this 'ves' ending.

  • Now let's focus on pronunciation.

  • 'roofs' So it's an /s/ sound.

  • 'roofs' 'roofs'

  • Good job.

  • 'safes' 'safes'

  • Have you heard the /s/ sound?

  • 'safes' Then we have 'leaves'.

  • And this time it's a /z/ sound.

  • Repeat after me.

  • 'leaves' 'leaves'

  • Great.

  • Moving on.

  • 'wives' 'wives'

  • And finally, 'shelves'

  • 'shelves' Great job guys.

  • Let's move on to practice now.

  • Well students, let's now practice together.

  • I'm going to give you a singular noun, and I want you to try and find the plural form

  • of this singular noun.

  • Ok?