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  • What's your first memory?

    你的第一個記憶是什麼?

  • Whatever it is, you're bound to cherish it.

    不管是什麼,你必然很珍惜它。

  • The Greek philosopher Aristotle once called memory, "the scribe of the soul," meaning that our memories are integral to our sense of self.

    希臘哲學家亞里斯多德曾稱記憶為「靈魂的謄寫」,意思為記憶是自我不可或缺的一部分。

  • But can we actually trust them?

    但我們真的可以相信記憶嗎?

  • Nothing about memory is simple.

    關於記憶的一切,都是很複雜的。

  • For starters, where are memories stored?

    首先,記憶儲存在哪呢?

  • In which part of the brain?

    腦中的哪一部分?

  • Hundreds of studies have come to the same conclusionthere isn't one.

    上百個研究歸納出同一個結論——記憶並非僅儲存在一處。

  • They're stored, processed, and moved around the brain, creating complex connections across neural networks that we still don't fully understand.

    記憶被儲存和處理並遊走在大腦內,在神經網絡中創造我們尚未完全釐清的複雜連結。

  • The potential storage capacity of the human brain is vast.

    人類大腦潛在的儲存容量是很龐大的。

  • It's not possible to quantify exactly, but estimates put it in the multimillions of gigabytes.

    雖然無法確切知道腦容量的大小,但是估計有上百萬 GB。

  • But memory is malleable.

    但是記憶是可被控制的。

  • What we remember is not necessarily what happened.

    我們記得的不一定是真實發生的。

  • A memory is not a recording.

    記憶並非影像的紀錄。

  • It's more like a dramatic reconstruction and one that we can keep changing without realizing it.

    記憶更像是戲劇性地重現,而且可以被我們在不知不覺中改變。

  • For any experience to be remembered, it has to be encoded.

    想要記得任何的經驗,都必須經過編碼。

  • This encoding though is not any kind of direct translation.

    編碼並非直接的轉換。

  • It's a rich and complex process that creates associations and meanings.

    編碼是大量且複雜的過程,創造各種聯想和含義。

  • As sensory information is encoded, and also whenever it's retrieved, it's interpreted in a way that can change it, and introduce errors.

    當感官訊息被編碼或被檢索時,是以可改變且可能導入錯誤的方式解讀。

  • Memory is a creative process, because unlike computers, we need to be able to make sense of the information we store.

    與電腦不同的是,記憶是創造性的過程,因為我們需要理解所儲存的資訊。

  • That means we're never remembering things exactly the way they occurred.

    這也就是說,我們永遠不會準確地記得事情發生的一切。

  • We might be remembering something very similar, but subtly modified and colored by our own sets of associations.

    我們記得的可能是極為相似的事情,但被巧妙的修改並增添我們自己的聯想。

  • Two people who see the same thing won't necessarily remember the same thing.

    看見同一事情的兩個人記得的不一定會相同。

  • And in certain situations that's very problematic.

    在某些情況中,這會充滿問題。

  • Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus produced groundbreaking research on eyewitness testimony.

    心理學家 Elizabeth Loftus 對目擊者的證詞做了一項開創性的研究。

  • Her work showed that memories can easily be influenced, even after they've been created.

    她的研究顯示即使記憶已經被創造,仍可以輕易地被影響。

  • For example, if investigators ask witnesses a leading question about a crimesuch as, "what color coat was he wearing?"—their memories may adapt to incorporate the suggestions.

    舉例來說,如果調查員詢問目擊者與犯罪相關的誘導性問題,如:「犯人穿的外套是什麼顏色的?」,目擊者的記憶會隨著暗示而有所調整。

  • Similarly, if two eyewitnesses confer with each other, their memories of events often change, incorporating what they've heard from the other one but they won't realize this has happened.

    同樣地,如果兩位目擊者彼此對談,他們對事件的記憶通常會因為納入對方的陳述而因此改變,但他們卻渾然不知。

  • And witnesses who are shown an image of a someone after a crime, even if it's one of an innocent person, can sometimes paste it on to their memory of the actual event, a process known as unconscious transference.

    在犯罪行為發生後給目擊者看某人的照片,即使照片上的人是清白的,目擊者也常常會將影像複製成真實事件的記憶——這個過程稱為「潛意識移情」。

  • The Innocence Project estimates that around 70 percent of wrongful convictions later overturned by DNA evidence, are due to mistaken eyewitness testimony.

    清白專案組織估計大約 70% 在日後被 DNA 證據所推翻的不當判決,都是由錯誤的目擊證詞所引起。

  • In some cases, memories can even be deliberately created and implanted.

    在一些案例中,記憶甚至被故意地創造和灌輸。

  • The Lost in the Mall experiment took a test group of subjects and talked to them in depth about key childhood memories, while also adding an invented one: the experience of having been lost in a shopping mall.

    購物中心迷路實驗採納一組受試者並與他們深入談話,了解他們主要的童年記憶,同時添加了一個虛構的記憶——在購物中心走失的經驗。

  • It was found that between a quarter and a third of subjects not only accepted this new memory as genuine, but enriched it with specific details.

    結果顯示,在 1/4 至 1/3 的受試者中,不僅將這個新的記憶認作是真實發生的,還加油添醋許多具體的細節。

  • They'd created a new memory indistinguishable from memories of events that had actually happened.

    受試者創造一個新記憶,而這個記憶難以與真實發生的事件產生區隔。

  • We've all possibly done the same thing.

    而我們所有人可能都做過一樣的事。

  • Most of us have certain key memories of being a very young child.

    大部分的人對於幼童時期有很肯定的記憶。

  • But research suggests that they're highly unlikely to be actual memories due to the way memory is stored in the infant brain.

    但研究指出,由於記憶在嬰幼兒腦中儲存的方式,那些記憶很可能並非真實。

  • In many cases, we probably imagined certain scenes at a later age, when shown photos or told stories about certain events.

    許多案例中,當有人給我們看照片或說某個事件的故事時,我們可能會因此想像特定的場景。

  • The subjective experience of these memories is no different to remembering childhood events that actually happened.

    這些主觀經驗的記憶與真實發生的童年事件並無差異。

  • Your precious first memory may well not be a real memory, and we're all perhaps living in our imaginations more than we realise.

    你珍貴的第一記憶可能不是真實的記憶,我們所有人或許都活在超出意識的自我想像中。

  • Thanks for watching.

    感謝你的觀看。

  • Don't forget to subscribe and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.

    記得訂閱頻道並開啟小鈴鐺接收最新影片的消息。

  • See you again soon!

    下次見!

What's your first memory?

你的第一個記憶是什麼?

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你最早的記憶是什麼?記憶是如何運作的? (Why Your First Memory is Probably Wrong | BBC Ideas)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2020 年 07 月 11 日
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