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  • Chocolatefood of the gods!

    巧克力,又稱為「神的食物」!

  • That's the Greek meaning of "theobroma cacao," the name of the tree that provides it.

    那是可可樹的希臘語的意思,也是那棵樹的名字。

  • For a plant which is notoriously difficult to cultivate, its takeover of global tastes is decidedly impressive.

    這種植物出了名地難種植,卻收服了全球人類的味蕾。

  • Although not sold in Britain until the 1650s, its history goes back about 2,500 years before that, when it was almost certainly first domesticated in Central and South America.

    雖然至 1650 年代英國才引入出售,但巧克力其實已經有 2500 年歷史,中南美洲絕對是原產地。

  • Chocolate was an important part of early Central and South American culture.

    巧克力對早期的中南美洲文化來說可是很重要的。

  • The classic Mayans and their successors, including the Aztecs, consumed chocolate, usually as a drink, with water and perhaps chilli, or thickened with maize.

    傳統的馬雅人以及他們的後人,包括阿茲特克人,都會以巧克力作為飲料,加入水或辣椒,甚至是加玉蜀黍使變稠。

  • They also used the beans as currency, as well as using them in ceremonies from baptism to burial.

    他們除了會用可可豆作貨幣,亦會用於受洗和葬禮等儀式上。

  • It was a rich person's beverage, imbued with health and spiritual properties, and inevitably when the Spanish invaded and colonised the areas where it was found, they adopted it for their own use.

    這是有錢人才喝的飲料,充滿健康和心靈上的豐盛,後來被西班牙入侵於殖民時期被他們發現,他們把種植可可樹的地收歸所有。

  • At first, it was slow to spread.

    一開始散佈的速度很慢。

  • When one Spanish ship transporting the beans was captured by the British in the 16th Century, they apparently threw the cargo overboard, thinking it was some form of dung.

    在十六世紀,有一次西班牙運送豆的船遭英國截獲,他們以為是動物的糞便就把貨物都丟進水裡。

  • However, as the Spanish, and then the French, and then the Italians, adapted the drink for their own tastes, they replaced the water with milk, and added sugar, and also started drinking it hot.

    其後西班牙人、法國人以至義大利人,都根據自己的口味調配,他們用牛奶取代開水再加上糖,並開始做成熱飲。

  • By the time the British cottoned on, it was a rich, thick concoction, both delicious and pleasingly exotic.

    後來英國人終於知曉這杯濃郁的調製飲料,既美味又富含異國風味。

  • It was also healthy—17th Century medicine wasn't always certain what the new foods from the Americas would do to a Western disposition, but chocolate mainly got a resolute thumbs up.

    而且這是健康的食物,由於十七世紀的醫學技術無法確定來自美洲的食品會否對西方人造成影響,不過唯獨巧克力是大家都可以接受。

  • Taken correctly, it was said to: "restore natural heat, generate pure blood, enliven the heart, and conserve the natural faculties."

    更準確地說,巧克力可以「修復身體熱量、產生純淨的血液、使心臟跳得更有活力以及保護身體機能」。

  • It was also claimed to be an aphrodisiac, and one author wrote: "Twill make old women young and fresh, create new motions of the flesh, and cause them to long for you know what, if they but taste of chocolate."

    更有稱巧克力可作催情劑,曾有一名作家寫道「使老女人回春,回復青春的肉體,勾起他的們渴望已久的慾望,那是一嚐巧克力的滋味。」

  • The Marquis de Sade was said to be addicted to it, using it to fuel ferocious orgies.

    薩德侯爵 (Marquis de Sade) 曾對此上癮,用作狂歡派對的助燃劑。

  • No wonder it was popular!

    難怪會變得如此受歡迎!

  • At this time, chocolate was a drink.

    至目前為止,巧克力還只是飲料。

  • But in the early 19th Century, manufacturers worked out how to remove much of the fat, called cocoa butter, which could then be added back carefully, to improve the texture, making it edible, though still very bitter.

    不過在十九世紀初期,有生產商研究把可可脂從巧克力中移除,而其後又可以重新逐點添加回去以改變口感、變成可食用的,即使味道仍然苦澀。

  • The defatted chocolate became cocoa powder, which allowed the poor access to their own version of the food of the gods.

    脫脂的巧克力會做成可可粉,這樣也可以讓貧困家庭能享用「神的食物」。

  • It was also used for cooking, though we had to wait a few more decades for chocolate cake.

    可可粉亦可加入料理中,雖然說也等了幾十年才有巧克力蛋糕的出現。

  • It wasn't until the second half of the 19th Century that developments in milk processing, a sharp reduction in the price of sugar, and fierce competition between confectionery companies resulted in the first really popular eating chocolatemilk chocolate.

    1850 年後,牛奶加工技術提升、糖價下低以及糖果工廠間激烈的競爭,最後成功造出受歡迎的可食用的巧克力—牛奶巧克力。

  • Sales exploded, and chocolate quickly came to mean the stuff you ate, not the stuff you drank.

    一推出市場即大賣,巧克力瞬間變成食物,而不再是飲料。

  • Less than 50 years later, chocoholics could choose from an ever-increasing range of bars, boxes and novelty shapes.

    之後的 50 年間,巧克力愛好者多了許多像塊狀、盒裝以及新奇搞怪的形狀可以選擇。

  • Today chocolate is polarized, from cheap, milky, sugary stuff, to high-end black bars of joy.

    時至今日,巧克力的價值更是極端,從便宜的、奶味重的、甜滋滋的到貴價黑巧克力。

  • The former, we're told, high in sugar and fat, is leading to an obese nation, but the latter, it's hinted, may actually be beneficial.

    前者是我們所知的高糖分及高脂,會導致體重過胖;而後者則據說對健康有益。

  • Early studies suggest small doses of very dark chocolate, rich in antioxidants, theobromine and caffeine may make us happier, healthier and less stressed.

    早期的研究曾指出一小塊的黑巧克力裡含有豐富的抗氧化物、可可鹼和咖啡因可使人心情愉悅、放鬆心情以及更健康。

  • Perhaps those 17th Century chocolate lovers were right after all.

    也許那些十七世紀的巧克力愛好者說得沒錯!

  • Thanks for watching.

    謝謝大家收看!

  • Don't forget to subscribe and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.

    別忘記訂閱頻道以及打開鈴鐺才會收到新影片的通知。

  • See you again soon!

    下次再見!

Chocolatefood of the gods!

巧克力,又稱為「神的食物」!

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 巧克力 飲料 牛奶 健康 食物 種植

你是巧克力愛好者嗎?來看看巧克力發展史! (Chocolate: A short but sweet history | Episode 3 | BBC Ideas)

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    大文 發佈於 2020 年 06 月 30 日
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