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  • So say your local mail delivery truck stops in front of your house, which is good because

  • two days ago you ordered two different books with two-day shipping, sent out at the same

  • time from similar locations, and you're pretty excited for them both.

  • The delivery driver picks up your two packages and starts reading the labels.

  • One is from a small independent book store they've never heard of, the other is from

  • a large chain they've already delivered like 20 packages from today.

  • Instead of just dropping them both off, the driver makes a phone call to the big book

  • seller and says: "Hey, I sure deliver a lot of your packages."

  • The company replies: "Yes, our customers really like our stuff."

  • The driver says: "I'm pretty sure your packages take up, like, 30% of the space in my truck.

  • We're gonna need to hire more trucks if you keep this up."

  • the company says: "Wow, you must be so happy that our customers are paying you to deliver

  • so many packages from us that you can expand your business!"

  • And the driver's like: "right, look, I'm thinking I don't want to carry more than one package

  • all the way to this customer's door, and there's this other package from another address for

  • them so I might just deliver that one.

  • And the big company is like: "what?

  • That customer paid for two day shipping from you, you can't just decide not to deliver

  • it, what, because we give you too much business?"

  • The driver says "relax, I'll deliver it eventually, just might take a while.

  • Unless of course you'd like to help us out, just a little extra shipping fee and we'll

  • deliver your book on time"

  • As the customer waiting for your books, what do you think you and the book company should

  • do?

  • Report the driver?

  • No way what they're doing is legal.

  • So you report them, but it turns out their lobbyists have convinced the government that

  • what they're doing is ok.

  • No, it's not just ok, it's innovation!

  • Fine, maybe you can do capitalism to it.

  • The big book chain starts using another delivery company, one that appreciates the amount of

  • business they're getting from those deliveries, and of course you'd rather pay for shipping

  • from a company that actually follows through on their promises, and new businesses grow,

  • hooray!

  • That's how it should work, which is why a lot of people think that's how it does work.

  • So say you have a one-hundred dollar a month contract with Comcast to deliver to you whatever

  • data you order at a certain speed, and you order data from Netflix, and Netflix sends

  • the data your way.

  • But just before it gets to your house it has to go through cables Comcast owns, and Comcast

  • says, "Wow, Netflix, you give us so much business, pay us money or we'll slow down your site

  • until it's frustratingly unusable."

  • Netflix should be able to say "Yeah, no thanks, first of all you're going to lose customers

  • if you don't give them the service they're paying for, and second, why wouldn't you want

  • to lay down more cable and expand your business?

  • Wouldn't that make you more money?"

  • It would make so much sense if Comcast's reply was, "Gee, Netflix, you're right!

  • We don't want to lose customers, we want to lay more, bigger, cable, expand our business,

  • and make more money!"

  • But, as anyone who pays for their own internet and has tried comparison shopping knows, that's

  • not how it works.

  • Comcast can reply, "First of all, we're not gonna lose customers.

  • What can they do, move somewhere else, that has cables laid down by one of our very good

  • friends?

  • Second of all, we don't need the business from delivering your content, we can already

  • charge as much as we want.

  • Look, this sucker is paying almost a hundred bucks a month for 10 megabytes a second on

  • a good day.

  • third, Netflix competes with our own video content; if Netflix is unwatchably slow and

  • people leave to watch Cable TV, which we've conveniently packaged in with their internet

  • service, that's a win-win, and both wins are for us.

  • Fourth, when your site doesn't load it may be our fault, but the customer doesn't see

  • us artificially restricting the data they ordered, they see you being slow.

  • So pay up."

  • And Netflix did.

  • This already happened.

  • Truth is, there's a lot of homes and businesses where the local internet service provider

  • has a monopoly.

  • Capitalism does not work when monopolies block the way between producers and consumers.

  • That's not rhetoric, it's math.

  • Capitalism doesn't work when it's impossible for a new business to emerge in a market.

  • Look how much trouble Google is having with Google Fiber, and they're Google.

  • In many parts of the US there's a good chance that Comcast is your only option.

  • You'll pay for internet because you need internet, but you'll be paying 3 times as much as people

  • are paying for internet in Seoul or Tokyo, for service that's 10 times slower.

  • We're being artificially held back, on purpose.

  • When you order a book, the delivery truck drives on their own driveways, public roads,

  • toll roads, the private lane that goes to the book store's warehouse, all the way to

  • the street outside your house and then:

  • In this allegory, you pay Comcast to hire a company to make and maintain a driveway,

  • so that the Comcast trucks can get from the road to your house, and because they built

  • the driveway, only their trucks are allowed to use it.

  • If you lived in Tokyo, you'd have a nice wide perfectly-paved road, but comcast made you

  • a little dirt road full of pot holes.

  • You'd like comcast to fix it, or to hire someone else to, but there's no one else to hire,

  • so instead of fixing it Comcast charges you even more and still doesn't fix it.

  • Here's the officially proposed rule the FCC is considering: internet service providers

  • must offer some amount of access to all legal internet things, but they can offer a "fast

  • lane" to certain content providers.

  • This sounds like maybe Comcast and Netflix collaborate to put in a special cable all

  • the way from Netflix right to your home to get superfast Netflix service, but that's

  • not what this fast lane is.

  • It's not even a nice new paved driveway.

  • The "fast lane" means that comcast puts a gate at the front of your driveway.

  • The netflix trucks are allowed in right away because they paid off the gatekeeper.

  • You invite your friend over, and your friend has to wait outside the gate for a while,

  • even when no one else is using your driveway.

  • If you want to watch netflix right now, yes, you should be able to prioritize netflix's

  • data and slow everything else down.

  • But if after that you want to torrent the latest vihart video, there's no technical

  • reason you shouldn't be able to put that in the "fast lane".

  • You're not paying your ISP for content, you're paying them to deliver the content you choose.

  • Except they decided maybe they do want to control what content you can choose, and the

  • FCC's proposed rule would make that officially ok.

  • Which is a huge reversal in the FCC's position that happened when Tom Wheeler, a former cable

  • lobbyist, became chairman.

  • In 2004, the FCC basically said, "Hey, ISPs, we made some network neutrality rules for

  • you, yay for open internet!"

  • And then Comcast started throttling bittorrent, which was against those rules.

  • There was a court case that Comcast won, with the argument that the FCC couldn't legally

  • enforce those rules because they weren't official enough.

  • So the FCC created the Open Internet Order of 2010 and voted on it and passed it and

  • finally, net neutrality had real offical rules!

  • And Verizon took the FCC to court and was like, "Are you sure these rules are for us?

  • Because, they look a lot like the rules for common carriers, and we're not common carriers,

  • so we're thinking the rules don't apply to us."

  • And Verizon won.

  • So if the FCC can't enforce their own rules because ISPs aren't classified as common carriers,

  • a lot of people think the FCC's next move should be to classify ISPs as common carriers.

  • Basically, a common carrier can't discriminate among the things they carry.

  • Airlines and Telephone Companies are common carriers, so Apple can't pay Virgin America

  • to not let any Microsoft employees on their flights; T-Mobile can't purposely drop your

  • call while you're trying to order a pizza if Domino's won't pay them a cut of the order.

  • Up 'til recently, ISPs have been acting like common carriers.

  • They built their businesses on customers' expectations that they were common carriers,

  • like other telecommunication services, and with the benefit of the legal protection given

  • to telecommunication services, such as not being liable for the content that moves through

  • their cables.

  • In 1998 the Digital Millenium Copyright Act thing happened, which gave ISPs more protection

  • from liability for their user's actions, still back when ISPs acted as if they were common

  • carriers.

  • Right now ISPs control content without being liable for that content.

  • The Telecommunications Act of 1996 helped ISPs become big and powerful, they merged

  • and formed monopolies, and then they decided it was in their best interest not to be considered

  • a "telecommunications service," but an "information service," which would be less regulated, and

  • also have fewer protections, but since they were now protected by the DMCA that wasn't

  • a problem.

  • There were a bunch of hearings.

  • They won, they lost, and then in 2005 they managed to convince 6 out of 9 judges that

  • even though the internet is a telecommunications service, they also do other things, and the

  • Telecommunications Act that would have classified them as a common carrier telecommunications

  • service does not clearly state that they have to be classified that way even if they also

  • do other things.

  • Many net neutrality activists are asking you to call your representative and sign petitions

  • and make an official comment to the FCC that the current "fast-lane" plan is not net-neutrality,

  • and that the FCC should instead hold strong to its original plan of treating ISPs like

  • common carriers by actually designating broadband internet as a title II common carrier telecommunication

  • service.

  • If you're going to make that call or official comment I want you to make it with full confidence

  • that it is right and fair, because it's not legal to classify corporate entities as being

  • whatever you want just because "yay internet."

  • And the internet has other problems besides net neutrality.

  • There's only a handful of ISPs, they're huge and powerful with huge powerful lobbyists,

  • many of which are now FCC employees, they have local monopolies, they work for each

  • others' benefit instead of as competitors, and there's no way for a new competitor to

  • enter their market.

  • Making them common carriers will limit the damage they can do but it won't make them

  • any less of a cartel.

  • Comcast is trying to get approval to buy Time Warner Cable and it's completely nuts that

  • the FCC is even considering it.

  • We have antitrust laws because it's one of those beautiful mathematical inevitabilities

  • that without intervention, monopolies will form.

  • If you think stopping the biggest ISP from merging with the second-biggest ISP is what

  • antitrust laws were made for, please speak out against this merger and mergers like them.

  • Links included for doing stuff and learning more.

  • You can call, tweet, or email Tom Wheeler and the other FCC commissioners and tell them

  • what you think about net neutrality, the merger, concern over having so many previous cable

  • lobbyists now working for the FCC, whatever it is you care about.

  • You can ask your local representative in government to do what they can, you can sign petitions,

  • and you can make an official comment on any FCC proceeding on the FCC website, which very

  • few people bother to do because 1.

  • most of the momentum around "saving the internet" is built up around signing up for 3rd party

  • websites and mailing lists or retweeting and upvoting infographics and articles, and 2.

  • For it to be a real official comment, you have to publicly give your real name and address,

  • which might put you off if you're not absolutely sure you're doing the right thing.

  • I hope this video makes things clearer for you.

So say your local mail delivery truck stops in front of your house, which is good because

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美國的網絡中立性。現在怎麼辦? (Net Neutrality in the US: Now What?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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