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  • Deep beneath the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone Caldera

    譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • lies a magma chamber produced by a hot spot in the earth's mantle.

    黃石火山口的間歇泉和溫泉深處

  • As the magma moves towards the Earth's surface,

    有一個由地幔中的熱點 所產生的岩漿室。

  • it crystallizes to form young, hot igneous rocks.

    隨著岩漿移向地球表面,

  • The heat from these rocks drives groundwater towards the surface.

    結晶成為新生的熱火成岩。

  • As the water cools, ions precipitate out as mineral crystals,

    這些岩石的熱量將地下水推向地表。

  • including quartz crystals from silicon and oxygen,

    隨著水的冷卻,離子 以礦物晶體的形式沉澱出來,

  • feldspar from potassium, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen,

    包括矽和氧形成的石英晶體,

  • galena from lead and sulfur.

    鉀、鋁、矽和氧形成的長石,

  • Many of these crystals have signature shapes

    鉛和硫形成的方鉛礦。

  • take this cascade of pointed quartz, or this pile of galena cubes.

    許多水晶具有標誌性的形狀——

  • But what causes them to grow into these shapes again and again?

    像是這種並列的尖頭石英 或成堆的方鉛礦立方體。

  • Part of the answer lies in their atoms.

    為什麼它們一次又一次地 長成這些形狀呢?

  • Every crystal's atoms are arranged in a highly organized, repeating pattern.

    部分的答案在於它們的原子。

  • This pattern is the defining feature of a crystal,

    每個晶體的原子都以 高度有序的重複模式排列。

  • and isn't restricted to minerals

    這種圖案是水晶的定義特徵,

  • sand, ice, sugar, chocolate, ceramics, metals, DNA,

    而且並不局限於礦物質——

  • and even some liquids have crystalline structures.

    沙子、冰、糖、巧克力、 陶瓷、金屬、DNA,

  • Each crystalline material's atomic arrangement

    甚至連一些液體都具有晶體結構。

  • falls into one of six different families:

    每種晶體材料的原子排列

  • cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic, and hexagonal.

    分屬六個不同的系列:

  • Given the appropriate conditions,

    立方晶系、四方晶系、正交晶系、

  • crystals will grow into geometric shapes

    單斜晶系、三斜晶系和六角晶系。

  • that reflect the arrangement of their atoms.

    在適當的條件下,

  • Take galena, which has a cubic structure composed of lead and sulfur atoms.

    晶體的生成

  • The relatively large lead atoms

    反映其原子排列的幾何形狀。

  • are arranged in a three-dimensional grid 90 degrees from one another,

    以方鉛礦為例,它具有 由鉛和硫原子組成的立方結構。

  • while the relatively small sulfur atoms fit neatly between them.

    相對較大的鉛原子

  • As the crystal grows, locations like these attract sulfur atoms,

    排列為彼此成 90 度的立體格子,

  • while lead will tend to bond to these places.

    而相對較小的硫原子 整齊地排列在鉛原子間。

  • Eventually, they will complete the grid of bonded atoms.

    隨著晶體的增長, 這些位置會吸引硫原子,

  • This means the 90 degree grid pattern of galena's crystalline structure

    鉛則傾向於在這些地方結合。

  • is reflected in the visible shape of the crystal.

    它們最終完成鍵合原子的格子。

  • Quartz, meanwhile, has a hexagonal crystalline structure.

    這意味著方鉛礦晶體結構的 90 度立體格子圖案

  • This means that on one plane its atoms are arranged in hexagons.

    反映在可見的晶體形狀中。

  • In three dimensions, these hexagons are composed of many interlocking pyramids

    與此同時,石英具有六方晶體結構。

  • made up of one silicon atom and four oxygen atoms.

    這意味著它的原子 在平面上排列成六邊形。

  • So the signature shape of a quartz crystal

    這些立體空間裡的六邊形是由許多

  • is a six-sided column with pointed tips.

    「一個矽原子和四個氧原子」 形成的互鎖金字塔所組成。

  • Depending on environmental conditions,

    所以石英晶體的標誌形狀

  • most crystals have the potential to form multiple geometric shapes.

    是帶有尖角的六面柱。

  • For example, diamonds, which form deep in the Earth's mantle,

    根據環境的條件,

  • have a cubic crystalline structure and can grow into either cubes or octahedrons.

    多數晶體能形成不止一種幾何形狀。

  • Which shape a particular diamond grows into

    例如,在地幔深處形成的鑽石

  • depends on the conditions where it grows,

    具有立方晶體結構,

  • including pressure, temperature, and chemical environment.

    可以長成立方體或八面體。

  • While we can't directly observe growth conditions in the mantle,

    鑽石的形狀取決於其生長的條件,

  • laboratory experiments have shown some evidence

    包括壓力、溫度和化學環境。

  • that diamonds tend to grow into cubes at lower temperatures

    雖然我們無法直接觀察 地幔中的生長條件,

  • and octahedrons at higher temperatures.

    實驗室的實驗已經證明

  • Trace amounts of water, silicon, germanium, or magnesium

    鑽石傾向於在較低溫度下 生長為立方體,

  • might also influence a diamond's shape.

    而在較高溫度下則生成八面體。

  • And diamonds never naturally grow into the shapes found in jewelry

    微量的水、矽、鍺或鎂

  • those diamonds have been cut to showcase sparkle and clarity.

    也可能影響鑽石的形狀。

  • Environmental conditions can also influence whether crystals form at all.

    鑽石永遠不會自然地長成 珠寶中的形狀——

  • Glass is made of melted quartz sand,

    那些鑽石經過切割 以展現閃耀和清晰度。

  • but it isn't crystalline.

    環境條件也影響是否會形成晶體。

  • That's because glass cools relatively quickly,

    玻璃由熔化的石英砂製成,

  • and the atoms do not have time to arrange themselves

    但玻璃不是結晶。

  • into the ordered structure of a quartz crystal.

    這是因為玻璃相對較快地冷卻,

  • Instead, the random arrangement of the atoms in the melted glass

    而原子沒有時間

  • is locked in upon cooling.

    將自己排列成石英晶體的有序結構,

  • Many crystals don't form geometric shapes

    相反地,熔化玻璃中隨機排列的原子

  • because they grow in extremely close quarters with other crystals.

    是在冷卻時被鎖定。

  • Rocks like granite are full of crystals,

    許多晶體不會形成幾何形狀,

  • but none have recognizable shapes.

    因為它們與其他晶體 生長在非常接近的區域。

  • As magma cools and solidifies,

    像花崗岩一樣的岩石充滿了水晶,

  • many minerals within it crystallize at the same time and quickly run out of space.

    但不具有可識別的形狀。

  • And certain crystals, like turquoise,

    隨著岩漿的冷卻和凝固,

  • don't grow into any discernible geometric shape in most environmental conditions,

    其中的許多礦物質 同時結晶和迅速耗盡空間。

  • even given adequate space.

    某些水晶,如綠松石,

  • Every crystal's atomic structure has unique properties,

    在大多數環境條件下 不會長成任何可辨別的幾何形狀,

  • and while these properties may not have any bearing on human emotional needs,

    即使空間足夠。

  • they do have powerful applications in materials science and medicine.

    每個水晶的原子結構 都具有獨特的屬性,

Deep beneath the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone Caldera

譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Marssi Draw

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 晶體 形狀 原子 形成 鑽石

晶體是如何工作的?- Graham Baird (How do crystals work? - Graham Baird)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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