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  • Whether it's being chained to a burning wheel, turned into a spider,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • or having an eagle eat one's liver,

    不論是被鎖鏈綁在燃燒的 車輪上,或是被變成蜘蛛,

  • Greek mythology is filled with stories of the gods

    或是被老鷹吃掉肝臟,

  • inflicting gruesome horrors on mortals who angered them.

    希臘神話有非常多故事都是在講神

  • Yet one of their most famous punishments is not remembered

    對於激怒祂們的凡人 施加令人毛骨悚然的恐怖。

  • for its outrageous cruelty, but for its disturbing familiarity.

    但,祂們這些最著名的 懲罰中,有一個懲罰

  • Sisyphus was the first king of Ephyra, now known as Corinth.

    並不是因為它極度殘酷才被記得,

  • Although a clever ruler who made his city prosperous, he was also a devious tyrant

    而是因為它讓人感到 不舒服的熟悉感。

  • who seduced his niece and killed visitors to show off his power.

    西西弗斯是艾菲拉(現在的 科林斯)的第一任國王,

  • This violation of the sacred hospitality tradition greatly angered the gods.

    雖然他是個聰明的統治者, 讓這個城市很繁榮,

  • But Sisyphus may still have avoided punishment

    他也是個狡詐的暴君,

  • if it hadn't been for his reckless confidence.

    他誘惑他的姪女,殺害他的訪客,

  • The trouble began when Zeus kidnapped the nymph Aegina,

    只為了炫耀他的權力。

  • carrying her away in the form of a massive eagle.

    他違反了神聖的好客傳統,

  • Aegina's father, the river god Asopus, pursued their trail to Ephyra,

    讓眾神相當憤怒。

  • where he encountered Sisyphus.

    但西西弗斯本來可以躲避懲罰的,

  • In exchange for the god making a spring inside the city,

    偏偏他太過自信的魯莽讓他失策。

  • the king told Asopus which way Zeus had taken the girl.

    麻煩始於宙斯綁架女神埃癸娜,

  • When Zeus found out, he was so furious that he ordered Thanatos, or Death,

    化為大型老鷹的身形將她帶走。

  • to chain Sisyphus in the underworld so he couldn't cause any more problems.

    埃癸娜的父親,河神阿索波斯,

  • But Sisyphus lived up to his crafty reputation.

    追蹤他們到了艾菲拉,

  • As he was about to be imprisoned,

    在那裡,他遇見了西西弗斯。

  • the king asked Thanatos to show him how the chains worked

    這位國王告訴阿索波斯 宙斯把他的女兒帶到哪裡,

  • and quickly bound him instead, before escaping back among the living.

    交換條件是阿索波斯 要在城市內建造一座泉。

  • With Thanatos trapped, no one could die, and the world was thrown into chaos.

    當宙斯得知此事後十分震怒,

  • Things only returned to normal when the god of war Ares,

    他命令死神塔纳托斯

  • upset that battles were no longer fun, freed Thanatos from his chains.

    將西西弗斯用鎖鏈綁在陰間, 不讓他再製造任何麻煩。

  • Sisyphus knew his reckoning was at hand.

    但西西弗斯的狡猾不是浪得虛名。

  • But he had another trick up his sleeve.

    當他就要被監禁時,

  • Before dying, he asked his wife Merope to throw his body in the public square,

    這位國王要求塔纳托斯 示範鎖鏈怎麼使用——

  • from where it eventually washed up on the shores of the river Styx.

    然後反而很快地將他鎖住, 再逃回到活人的世界。

  • Now back among the dead, Sisyphus approached Persephone,

    當塔纳托斯被困住時, 沒有人能夠死亡,

  • queen of the Underworld, and complained

    世界陷入混亂。

  • that his wife had disrespected him by not giving him a proper burial.

    一切最後能恢復正常, 是因為戰神阿瑞斯

  • Persephone granted him permission to go back to the land of living

    覺得戰爭已經不好玩了,

  • and punish Merope, on the condition that he would return when he was done.

    因而協助塔纳托斯脫離鎖鏈。

  • Of course, Sisyphus refused to keep his promise,

    西西弗斯知道這筆帳 馬上就會被清算。

  • now having twice escaped death by tricking the gods.

    但他還有一招密技。

  • There wouldn't be a third time,

    死前,他要求他的妻子墨洛珀 將他的屍體丟到公共廣場上,

  • as the messenger Hermes dragged Sisyphus back to Hades.

    最終,屍體從廣場 被沖到冥河的岸邊。

  • The king had thought he was more clever than the gods,

    西西弗斯回到了死者世界之後, 便去找陰間的皇后

  • but Zeus would have the last laugh.

    珀耳塞福涅,向她抱怨 他的妻子不尊敬他,

  • Sisyphus's punishment was a straightforward task

    沒有給他妥善的埋葬。

  • rolling a massive boulder up a hill.

    珀耳塞福涅允許他 回到活人的世界,

  • But just as he approached the top, the rock would roll all the way back down,

    並懲罰墨洛珀,條件是西西弗斯 把事情辦完之後就要回來。

  • forcing him to start over

    當然,西西弗斯沒有信守承諾,

  • and over, and over, for all eternity.

    靠著欺騙神,他二度逃離了死亡。

  • Historians have suggested that the tale of Sisyphus may stem from ancient myths

    不會有第三次,

  • about the rising and setting sun, or other natural cycles.

    因為使者赫爾墨斯 將西西弗斯拖回去見黑帝斯。

  • But the vivid image of someone condemned to endlessly repeat a futile task

    這位國王認為他比神還要聰明,

  • has resonated as an allegory about the human condition.

    但最後笑的人是宙斯。

  • In his classic essay The Myth of Sisyphus,

    西西弗斯的懲罰, 是一項直截了當的工作——

  • existentialist philosopher Albert Camus compared the punishment

    將一個大圓石滾上山丘。

  • to humanity's futile search for meaning and truth

    但當他快要到山頂時,

  • in a meaningless and indifferent universe.

    巨石會再一路滾下來,

  • Instead of despairing, Camus imagined Sisyphus defiantly meeting his fate

    迫使他重新來過一遍……

  • as he walks down the hill to begin rolling the rock again.

    再一遍,又一遍,

  • And even if the daily struggles of our lives

    直到永遠。

  • sometimes seem equally repetitive and absurd,

    歷史學家認為,西西弗斯的故事

  • we still give them significance and value by embracing them as our own.

    起源可能是關於 日出日落的古老神話,

Whether it's being chained to a burning wheel, turned into a spider,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 鎖鏈 宙斯 國王 神話 陰間

西西弗斯的神話--亞歷克斯-根德勒。 (The myth of Sisyphus - Alex Gendler)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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