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  • Hi, welcome back to EngVid.com, I'm Adam.

    嗨,歡迎回到 EngVid.com,我是 Adam。

  • Today's lesson, we're going to look at writing skills.

    在今天的課程中,我們要來看看寫作技巧。

  • More specifically, we're going to look at transitions.

    更具體地說,我們要來看看轉折語。

  • Now again, before I begin, let me tell you IELTS and TOEFL students out there: Transitions are very, very important for you, for the essay section of the test.

    再說一次,在我開始之前,讓我告訴你們這些正在準備雅思和托福的同學:轉折語對你非常、非常重要,尤其在考試中作文的部分。

  • Big points if you use them correctly, few points if you don't use them, or use them incorrectly.

    如果你能正確使用它們,就會拉高分數,反之,不用或者誤用它們,分數就差。

  • Anyway, let's get into what transitions are, and look at a few specific ones.

    無論如何,我們來詳述一下什麼是轉折語,並且看一下具體的例子。

  • What is a transition?

    什麼是轉折語呢?

  • A transition means a change from one idea to another idea.

    轉折語代表從一個概念轉移到另一個概念。

  • Now, there are many transitions in English.

    英文中有許多的轉折語。

  • We use transitions to add information, we use transitions to show a contrast—"although," "however," etc.

    我們使用轉折語來增加資訊、我們使用轉折語來展現對比,像是 although (雖然)、however (然而) 等。

  • We use transitions to show conditions—"if," "unless."

    我們使用轉折語來表達條件,像 if (如果) 和 unless (除非)。

  • We use transitions to get to a conclusion, "therefore", "thus," okay.

    我們使用轉折語來引出結論,像是 therefore (如此一來)、 thus (因此)。

  • Lots of transitions, very important, because they can join ideas within a sentence, but even more so, they can join two paragraphs.

    非常多的轉折語 ── 都非常重要,因為他們可以在一個句子中結合不同概念;更進一步地,他們可以連結兩個段落。

  • So what they do really, is they create flow.

    而它們的真實作用是,建立連貫性。

  • Flow is very important for writing, okay.

    連貫性對寫作非常重要。

  • Flow makes it easier for the reader to follow what you're saying, and it makes it a little bit more interesting, as well, okay.

    連貫性讓讀者能輕易地照著你說的來走,同樣也讓文章變得更有趣。

  • So, to "transition" basically means to bridge.

    轉折語基本上意味著搭起橋樑。

  • You have two ideas you're connecting, you're creating a bridge from one idea to the next, okay.

    可以連接你的兩個概念,在兩個概念之間搭一座橋。

  • Today, we're going to look specifically at "in addition", "in addition to", "furthermore", "moreover", and "another... something," okay.

    今天,我們要特別來看 in addition (此外)、in addition to (除此之外)、furthermore (另外)、moreover (不僅如此) 以及 another ______ (另一個...)。

  • These are very, very important transitions, because they help you add ideas, one idea to another.

    他們是非常非常重要的轉折語,幫你增添概念 ── 一個接到下一個。

  • Again, very, very important for TOEFL and IELTS, because you're always going to be adding ideas to one topic.

    再強調一次,它對多益和雅思考生非常重要,因為考試時都須將許多概念融入一個主題中。

  • I'll get to that in a minute.

    我等一下再解釋。

  • The most important thing to remember here, and where people I find make the most common mistakes.

    這裡要記得的最重要東西也是人們最常犯錯的地方。

  • And believe me—I have marked hundreds of essays for TOEFL and IELTS.

    相信我,我曾批改過數百篇的多益和雅思作文。

  • Very, very common mistake.

    它是非常非常普遍的錯誤。

  • And what people forget, this basically means "plus"—you're adding, you're adding two things.

    人們常忘掉,這些基本上代表「+」號;你在相加,將兩件事相加。

  • And you're always adding... you're always adding at least one idea to another idea, so you will always have two ideas if you're using these transitions, okay.

    起碼是將一件事加到另一件,使用這些轉換詞即意味你有兩個概念。

  • So one of the most common mistakes I have seen on these essays is that people use these words, but they only have one idea.

    我曾在作文看到其中一個很普遍的錯誤是,很多人使用這些字,但卻只有一個概念。

  • So I'm the reader, and I'm reading, reading, reading, and I see, "Furthermore...".

    我是讀者,我正在讀著,然後我就看到 Furthermore... (另外...)。

  • I'm going, "furthermore what?

    另外什麼?

  • What are you adding to, what are you adding, at all?

    你要加述什麼?你到底要補充什麼?

  • Then I look around, and I only see one idea.

    然後我看了看前後文,還是只看見一個概念。

  • If I am the IELTS grader, and I'm reading your essay, you just lost at least one band because of that.

    如果我是雅思的正在讀你文章的閱卷老師,你會至少因此低了一級分。

  • Why? Because you made me stop; you made me search for that second idea that is not there, okay.

    為什麼?因為你讓我停了下來了,讓我開始尋找根本不存在的第二個概念。

  • Be very careful about that.

    這點真的要非常小心。

  • If you're going to use these words there must be two ideas.

    要使用這些字就必須有兩個概念。

  • They must be linked, they must have something similar between them, and they must be pretty close to each other, okay

    這兩個概念必須相互連結,一定要有共通點,彼此也必須非常接近。

  • "In addition to", "furthermore", and "moreover"—these are all pretty much the same.

    in addition to (除此之外)、furthermore (另外)、moreover (不僅如此) ,這些字詞的意思幾乎一樣。

  • This one is probably the most formal, this one is next most, and this is the most common.

    這個也許是最正式的,這個居次,而這個最普通。

  • Now, if you're going to write a short essay, usually two of these will be enough.

    如果要寫一篇短篇作文,通常用其中兩個詞就夠了。

  • Why do you need to know how to use two?

    為什麼需要知道如何使用兩個詞?

  • Because you don't want to repeat.

    因為你不會想要一直重複。

  • You don't want to say "in addition", and give your idea, "in addition", give another idea, "in addition", give another idea.

    不應該用 in addition (另外) 帶出你的概念,再用 in addition (另外) 帶出另一個,然後又用 in addition (另外) 帶出另外一個概念。

  • You don't want to do that.

    你不該這麼做。

  • You want vocabulary variety, so use at least two.

    想讓字彙有變化,至少要使用兩個轉折語。

  • For a longer essay, you can use all three, or four as the case may be, okay.

    要寫長一點的作文,你可以三種都使用,視情況甚至可以用四種。

  • What's interesting about these, you can use all of these mid-sentence or to join paragraphs, okay.

    這些字詞有趣的點在於,都可以在句中使用,也可以拿來連接段落。

  • Very important that you use them correctly, though.

    不過正確使用非常重要。

  • So let's look at some examples on how to use these.

    我們來看看範例。

  • Okay, so first we're going to look at a sentence with the transition working inside it, okay.

    首先,我們來看一個運用轉折語的句子。

  • "His laziness caused the company to perform badly last quarter. Moreover, his attitude toward the board has put his job in jeopardy."

    他的懶惰使得公司上一季的績效很糟糕。不只如此,他對董事會的態度也讓他的工作岌岌可危。

  • Okay, so first, let's look at what's going on herewhat are we talking about?

    首先呢,我們來看看這個情境。我們在談論什麼?

  • We're talking about the person's laziness.

    我們在談論那個人很懶惰。

  • What are we adding to this?

    我們又增加了什麼?

  • Remember, here I put "moreover."

    記得喔,我在這裡擺了 moreover (不只如此)。

  • I could put "furthermore". I can also put "in addition," but all three would be okay.

    我可以擺 furthermore (另外),我也可以擺上 in addition (此外),三個都OK

  • We're talking about his lazinesswhat are we adding to it?

    我們在說的是他懶惰,我們加了什麼進來呢?

  • Look at the second sentence.

    看一下第二句。

  • What are the two things we are adding together to get the two whole ideas?

    我們加了哪兩件事來表明兩個完整的概念呢?

  • Okay, if you said attitude, you're correct.

    如果你說態度,就答對了。

  • Laziness and attitudethese are both qualities of this person.

    懶惰和態度 ── 這個人的兩個特質。

  • His laziness and his attitude caused the company to do badly, and put his job in jeopardy.

    他的懶惰和態度導致公司表現糟糕,又讓工作岌岌可危。

  • I could rearrange these two sentences into one, but I don't want to.

    我其實可以重新將兩句安排成一個句子,但我不要。

  • I wanted to have this idea, because this is adding to this.

    我要保留這個概念,因為這個概念是在補充上一個。

  • So, I have one idea, I have another idea, but they're very much connected, okay.

    我原本有一個概念,又有另外一個概念,但他們基本上是相連結的。

  • We used a word like this "moreover", "furthermore", "in addition," okay?

    我們使用像 moreover (不僅如此)、furthermore (另外) 和 in addition (此外) 這種詞,OK?

  • All of these... all of these are about the same topic.

    全部都和同一個主題有關。

  • Now, when we talk about an essay, when we're joining paragraph to paragraph, you have to be very careful.

    現在呢,以作文為例,要兩個段落時,你得非常小心。

  • The last idea has to join to the first idea of the next paragraph using one of these transition words, okay.

    前一段的最後一個概念必須和下一段的第一個概念相關,可以運用這些轉折語。

  • Let's look at that now.

    我們來看看。

  • Okay, so now let's look at an essay, and you're joining two paragraphs, for example.

    我們來看看一篇作文,而舉例來說,你想要連接兩個段落。

  • My topic here... general topic is the Internet.

    我的主題大體上是關於網際網路。

  • What I want to say is that the Internet is a good thingvery, very generally.

    非常籠統地來說,我想表示網際網路是個好東西。

  • I'm going to use two reasons.

    我想舉出兩個理由。

  • I'm going to talk about two reasons, and I'm going to use basically one example.

    我要論及兩個理由,但我只要用一個例子。

  • The reason it's good is because it helps connect families and friends.

    網際網路是個好東西的原因在於它有助於聯繫家人和朋友。

  • This was my paragraph before, and this is the last sentence of my paragraph, my body paragraph.

    這是我的前一段,我的主要段落,而這是這段的最後一個句子。

  • "So"—conclusion—"the Internet not only helps connect your friends and family anywhere in the world, it also makes it cheap to do so, alright.

    所以,下個結論,網路不但能幫你和世界各地的親朋好友聯繫,而且十分便宜就能辦到。

  • So that's one good thing about the internet: communication, networking, social media, etc. the Facebook... all that.

    這是網際網路的一個好處:溝通,社交和社群媒體等,像臉書之類的,這些東西。

  • Now, I want to go to my next paragraph, and I want to add to this idea, the idea of connection, okay, the idea of communication, as why the Internet is a good thing, so...

    然後現在我要進入下一段,我想要補充這個「聯繫」概念,來說明為什麼網路是個好東西。

  • "In addition to friends and family...", or "moreover/furthermore..."

    「除了朋友和家人之外」,或者「不僅如此/ 另外」...

  • "...the Internet provides companies with a larger network, or a larger pool of prospective employees."

    ...網路能提供企業更大的網路,或者更大量的未來人力資源。

  • So, I'm still talking about the same thingconnections, networksbut I went from "personal idea" to "business idea," but still within the topic of the internet, still for the reason of communication and networking.

    我在講的是同一件事── 聯繫、網路──但是我從個人的概念拉到企業的概念,仍在網際網路的主題內,還是在支持溝通和社交這個理由。

  • I went with one idea, and the other idea working together for the overall idea, okay.

    我用一個概念,再加上另外一個概念,一起闡述整體的主題觀念。

  • I hope this makes sense to you, because it's a little bit complicated.

    希望你懂這個意思,它有點複雜。

  • Any topic you take, any essay you write, where you're using one example, or two reasons with one example, to work together, to support an opinion about a general topic...

    論述任何主題、寫任何作文時,若是要用一個例子或是一個例子的兩個原因,來一起支持同個大體主題...

  • ...you can use these: "in addition to," "moreover," "furthermore."

    ... 你可以使用:in addition to (除此之外)、moreover (不僅如此)、furthermore (另外)。

  • Let's say you're taking the IELTS, the TOEFL tests, you're writing your essay.

    假設你在考雅思或托福,正在寫作文。

  • You're running out of time, you're not thinking properly, you're a little bit frazzled.

    快沒時間了、無法清楚思考、你有點疲勞。

  • You need a transition wordalways use "another."

    但你需要一個轉折語,這時候就該用 another (另一個) 吧!

  • For example: "Another reason the Internet is good, is because it provides companies... " this is your go-to transition, okay.

    舉例來說:「網路的另一個好處是因為它能提供企業...」,而這就是你的隨時可以用的轉折語。

  • When you're stuck, you have nothing else, you want to switch to the next idea, always use "another reason".

    一旦思緒卡住,又別無所選,此時又想轉換到下個概念,就直接使用 another reason (另一個原因)。

  • But remember, this is not your first choice, this is your last choice.

    但要記得,它不應是你的首選,是逼不得已時的最終選擇。

  • These are your first choice when you want to add an idea, okay.

    其它這些才是想要加述新的概念時的首選轉折語。

  • But, always good to have this in your back pocket, in case you get stuck, you pull it out.

    但是好好記在腦裡以備不時之需,如果你的思緒卡住了,就拿出來用。

  • Ace of spades, etcyou're a winner, right?

    就像掏出王牌一樣,而你就是贏家,對吧?

  • Lots of examples on www.engvid.com , on the quizgo check it out.

    在www.engvid.com 中還有很例句和小考,來看看吧!

  • Also, don't forget to subscribe to my channel on YouTube.

    也別忘了訂閱我的 YouTube 頻道。

  • And I will see you again soon for more lessons, thanks!

    我們在更多課程中下次見了!謝謝。

Hi, welcome back to EngVid.com, I'm Adam.

嗨,歡迎回到 EngVid.com,我是 Adam。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 多益 概念 雅思 使用 段落 網際網路

大考要來囉!利用轉折語增進英文寫作技巧 (Writing - Transitions - in addition, moreover, furthermore, another)

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