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  • Ever since Aristotle, we've been told that we have five senses, but it's now thought we could have around 20 or more.

    從亞里斯多德開始,我們得知人類有 5 種感官,但現今發現人類似乎擁有 20 種或以上的感官。

  • For example, the sense that tells you you're feeling hot or cold, the sense that tells you you're out of breath, and the sense of balance.

    舉例來說,你可以感知冷熱,或是感到喘不過氣,還有平衡感。

  • We don't consciously experience the raw information all these senses generate, because the brain is constantly engaged in the act of perceptionthe analysis, synthesis and interpretation of all that data.

    我們不自覺地感受所有感官產生的原始資訊,因為大腦持續不斷參與知覺的行為——分析、合成和判讀所有訊息。

  • Perception can utilise what's known as bottom-up processing, whereby the brain relies on analyzing sensory data.

    感知可以利用所謂的「由下而上處理歷程」,而大腦就是靠這個過程分析感官的訊息。

  • But certain perceptions are produced in a different way, by top-down processinginstead of relying just on sensory data, the brain calls on past experiences to make a best guess as to what might be there.

    但是特定的感知是由不同方式所產生——藉由「由上而下處理歷程」,大腦不再只仰賴感官資訊,而是利用過往的經驗猜測所看到的東西。

  • In certain situations though, this type of processing results in mistakes.

    但是在某些情況下,這類的處理歷程會導致錯誤。

  • Like thisyou're probably seeing two different colours here, but in fact there's only one.

    舉這個畫面為例,你看見的可能是兩種不同顏色,但實際上只有一種顏色而已。

  • Based on past experiencethat surfaces in brighter light are darker than they appear, and surfaces in shadow are lighter.

    根據過去的經驗,在明亮處的表面會看起來比實際上暗,而在陰影處的表面會看起來比較亮。

  • The brain expects that there should be two shades, and so that's what it puts into the virtual model it's creating.

    大腦預測圖上應該要有兩個陰影,因而創造出虛擬的模型。

  • This top-down processing accounts for a number of human perception traits.

    由上而下處理歷程負責一些人類感知的特徵。

  • We very often see faces, because we're hardwired to tune into them.

    我們很常看見臉,因為我們本能地將事物調整成臉的形狀。

  • The fact that we're all living in our own virtual recreations of the world is revealed most sharply by cases of people with malfunctioning perception, known as agnosia.

    我們都生活在自己創造的虛擬再現世界,感官失常俗稱「失認症」的人,清楚地揭發這項事實。

  • It's a general term that covers many different conditions.

    「失認症」是涵蓋許多不同疾病的總稱。

  • What they all have in common is that the senses are still working perfectly.

    而感官仍然正常運作是這些疾病的共通點。

  • The brain is receiving the same information it always did, but its ability to process, interpret, and recognize is damaged.

    大腦仍舊接收同樣的資訊,但是處理、判讀和辨識的功能有所缺損。

  • Someone suffering from prosopagnosia, for example, has serious difficulty recognizing people by looking at their faces, but could still recognize them instantly from the sound of their voice.

    舉例來說,患有「臉盲症」的人,無法藉由看臉辨識出其他人,但是仍可以馬上由聲音辨別他人。

  • In extreme cases, sufferers can't recognise their own image in a mirror.

    更嚴重的情況是,患者無法在鏡子中辨識出自己的影像。

  • A person with akinetopsia is able to perceive objects normally when they're still, but can't recognise, or make sense of anything that's moving.

    患有「運動失認症」的人,在靜止不動時通常可以察覺到物體,但是無法辨識或了解是什麼東西在移動。

  • When someone with auditory verbal agnosia hears words, they just hear meaningless noises, so they can't have a conversation.

    當「言語失認症」患者聽話時,他們聽到的僅是無意義的噪音,所以無法展開談話。

  • But it's only the hearing of words that's affectedthey can still talk, read and write.

    但是他們受影響的僅有聽覺,所以還是可以說話、閱讀和寫作。

  • So, our ability to navigate the world is entirely dependent on the complex mechanisms, which interpret all the noise our senses make and give it meaning.

    我們駕馭世界的能力完全依靠複雜的機制,這個機制判讀我們感官產生的所有雜音並給予意義。

  • Or, as the famous neurologist Oliver Sacks put it: "Every act of perception is to some degree an act of creation."

    如同著名的神經科醫生 Oliver Sacks 所說:「知覺的每一個行動,在某種程度上就是一種創造。」

  • Thanks for watching.

    感謝你的收看。

  • Don't forget to subscribe and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.

    記得訂閱並開啟小鈴鐺接收最新影片的消息。

  • See you again soon!

    下次見!

Ever since Aristotle, we've been told that we have five senses, but it's now thought we could have around 20 or more.

從亞里斯多德開始,我們得知人類有 5 種感官,但現今發現人類似乎擁有 20 種或以上的感官。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 感官 歷程 大腦 處理 知覺 辨識

色盲?臉盲?我們的感官究竟是如何運作的? (Why we see faces in clouds | BBC Ideas)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 26 日
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